It has an area of 466 square kilometres (180 sq mi) and a total population of 142,035 (2012). It has a coastal length of 47.6 kilometres (29.6 mi). There are 25 communes in the province ().
Around 11% of the population of the province is of ethnically Slovene. Italian legislation ensures the protection of the Slovene linguistic minority in 9 of the 25 municipalities comprising the province. Three rural municipalities (Doberdò del Lago, Savogna d'Isonzo and San Floriano del Collio) have an ethnically Slovene majority, but the majority of native Slovene speakers in the Province live in the urban area of Gorizia.
The top ten countries of origin of the inhabitants of Gorizia with foreign citizenship at 31 December 2010 were: