Krill oil is an extract prepared from a species of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Two of the most important components in krill oil are omega-3 fatty acids similar to those in fish oil, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA), mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin).
Studies have shown toxic residues in Antarctic krill and fish; however, the United States Food and Drug Administration has accepted notices from krill oil manufacturers declaring that krill oil and products derived from it meet the standards for Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status, although the FDA itself has not tested the products. While not an endangered species, Antarctic krill are a mainstay of the diets of many ocean-based species including whales and there is some environmental and scientific concern that their population has decreased dramatically both due to climate change and human harvesting.
Difference between krill oil and fish oil
Krill oil and oceanic fish oil are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While both contain some EPA and DHA as free fatty acids, krill oil contains particularly rich amounts of choline-containing phospholipids and a phosphatidylcholine concentration of 34 grams per 100 grams of oil. Krill oil also contains appreciable content of astaxanthin at 0.1 to 1.5 mg/mL depending on processing methods, and is responsible for its red color.
- "Krill oil. Monograph". Altern Med Rev. 15 (1): 84–6. 2010. PMID 20359272.
- Corsolini S, Covaci A, Ademollo N, Focardi S, Schepens P (March 2006). "Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their enantiomeric signatures, and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Adélie penguin food web, Antarctica". Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987). 140 (2): 371–82. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.04.039. PMID 16183185.
- Covaci A, Voorspoels S, Vetter W, et al. (August 2007). "Anthropogenic and naturally occurring organobrominated compounds in fish oil dietary supplements". Environmental Science & Technology. 41 (15): 5237–44. doi:10.1021/es070239g. PMID 17822085.
- CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety (July 22, 2011). "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000371". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety (January 3, 2008). "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000226". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- "Krill fisheries and sustainability - CCAMLR".
- Orr, Aleisha (28 May 2014). "Malnutrition behind whale strandings" – via Stuff.co.nz.
- Atkinson, Angus; Siegel, Volker; Pakhomov, Evgeny; Rothery, Peter (4 November 2004). "Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean". Nature. 432 (7013): 100–103. doi:10.1038/nature02996.
- Grandois LG, Marchioni E, Zhao M, Giuffrida F, Ennahar S, Bindler F (June 2009). "Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography - electronspray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57 (14): 6014–6020. doi:10.1021/jf900903e. PMID 19545117.
- Winther B, Hoem N, Berge K, Reubsaet L (September 2010). "Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia Superba". Lipids. 46 (1): 25–36. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3472-6. PMC 3024512. PMID 20848234.
- Ali-Nehari, Abdelkader; Kim, Seon-Bong; Lee, Yang-Bong; Lee, Hye-youn; Chun, Byung-Soo (14 November 2011). "Characterization of oil including astaxanthin extracted from krill (Euphausia superba) using supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent as comparative method". Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29 (3): 329–336. doi:10.1007/s11814-011-0186-2.