List of Hispanic American Caudillos

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General Porfirio Díaz, president of Mexico 1876-1911, modernizing caudillo

A Caudillo (Spanish pronunciation: [kawˈdiʎo];Portuguese: caudilho[kɐwˈðiʎu]; Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head". Caudillo means “little head” or “little chief”) is part of the larger Iberian tradition of authoritarian leaders, with roots in the Iberian past.[1] A number of military leaders who were part of the Spanish American struggle for independence took on political roles in during the establishment of new sovereign nation-states. The establishment of military strong men as the head of new national governments did not generally come via elections, but many did have strong popular support. Caudillos often have a personalist connection with their popular followers, combining charisma and machismo ("manliness"), access to political and economic power. They often desire to legitimize their rule.[2] Many caudillos brought order to their areas of control, but also resorted to violence with their armed supporters to achieve it. The early nineteenth century has been considered the "Age of Caudillos," but authoritarian regimes existed in the twentieth century as well, with caudillismo casting a long shadow.[3]

List of Caudillos[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Chile[edit]

Colombia[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Dominican Republic[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Guatemala[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Nicaragua[edit]

Panama[edit]

Paraguay[edit]

Peru[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Definitions, Theories, and Contexts[edit]

  • Alexander, Robert J. "Caudillos, Coroneis, and Political Bosses in Latin America." In Presidential Power in Latin American Politics, ed. Thomas V. DiBacco. New York: Prager 1977.
  • Beezley, William H. "Caudillismo: An Interpretative Note." Journal of Inter-American Studies 11 (July 1969): 345-52.
  • Collier, David, ed. The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1979.
  • Dealy, Glenn Cudill. The Public Man: An Interpretation of Latin America and other Catholic Countries. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press 1977.
  • Diaz, Rodolfo (2010). "Caudillos and Constitutions". Harvard International Review. 32 (2): 24–27. 
  • DiTella, Torcuato S. Latin American Politics: A Theoretical Framework. Austin: University of Texas Press 1989.
  • Hale, Charles A. "The Reconstruction of Nineteenth-Century Politics in Spanish America: A Case for the History of Ideas." Latin American Research Review 8 (Summer 1973), 53-73.
  • Hamill, Hugh, ed. Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1992.
  • Humphreys, R.A. "The Caudillo Tradition." in Tradition and Revolt in Latin America, 216-28. New York: Columbia University Press 1969.
  • Johnson, John J. "Foreign Factors in Dictatorship in Latin America". Pacific Historical Review 20 (1951)
  • Kern, Robert, ed. The Caciques: Oligarchical Politics and the System of Caciquismo in the Luso-Hispanic World. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 1973.
  • Loveman, Brian. The Constitution of Tyranny: Regimes of Exception in Spanish America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press 1993.
  • Lynch, John, Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1992.
  • Pleasants, Edwin Hemingway, The Caudillo: a Study in Latin-American Dictatorships. Monmouth, IL: Commercial Art Press 1959.
  • Smith, Peter H. "Political Legitimacy in Spanish America" in New Approaches to Latin American History, Richard Graham and Peter Smith, eds. 1974.
  • Wolf, Eric R. and Edward C. Hanson, "Caudillo Politics: A Structural Analysis." Comparative Studies in Society and History 9 (1966–67): 168-79.

Regions and Individuals[edit]

  • Balfour, Sebastian. Castro (1990)
  • Brading, D.A., ed. Caudillo and Peasant in the Mexican Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1980.
  • Gilmore, Robert L. Caudillism and Militarism in Venezuela, 1810-1910. 1994.
  • Haigh, Roger M. Martin Güemes: Tyrant or Tool? A Study of the Sources of Power of an Argentine Caudillo. 1968.
  • Hamill, Hugh M., ed. Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. Selections on Hidalgo, Quiroga, Moreno, Díaz, Trujillo, Perón, Castro, Pinochet, and Stroessner. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1992.
  • Lynch, John. "Bolívar and the Caudillos". Hispanic American Historical Review 63 No. 1 (1983), 3-35.
  • Lynch, John. Argentine Dictator: Juan Manuel de Rosas, 1829-1852. 1981.
  • Lynch, John. Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800-1850. Chapters on Rosas, Páez, Santa Anna, and Carrera. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1992.
  • Page, Joseph A. Perón: A Biography. 1983.
  • Park, James William. Rafael Núñez and the Politics of Colombian Regionalism, 1863-1886. (1985)
  • Smith, Peter H. Democracy in Latin America: Political Change in Comparative Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press 2005.
  • Wiarda, Howard. Dictatorship and Development: The Methods of Control in Trujillo's Dominican Republic. 1968.
  • Luhnow, David; José De Cordoba; Nicholas Casey (11 July 2009). "The Cult of the caudillo". Wall Street Journal- Eastern Edition. 254 (9): 1–2. 
  • Shapiro, Samuel (4 December 1961). "Doing Good in Latin America". New Republic. 145 (23): 11–14. 
  • Woodward, Ralph Lee. Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala, 1821-1871. 1993.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hugh M. Hamill, "Caudillismo, Caudillo". Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, p. 38.
  2. ^ Hamill, "Caudillismo, Caudillo", p. 38.
  3. ^ John Lynch, Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800-1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1992, p.437.
  4. ^ Roger M. Haigh, "The Creation and Control of a Caudillo" in Caudillos, Hamill, ed. pp. 145-154.
  5. ^ Joseph A. Page. Perón: A Biography. 1983.
  6. ^ Fernando N.A. Cuevillas, "A Case for Caudillaje and Juan Perón" in Caudillos, Ed. Hugh M. Hamill, pp. 285-291.
  7. '^ Domingo F. Sarmiento, "Facundo Quiroga: The Caudillo as Barbarian" in Caudillos, ed. Hamill, pp. 107-114.
  8. ^ John Lynch. Argentine Dictator: Juan Manuel de Rosas, 1829-1852. 1981.
  9. ^ Farthing, Linda C.; Kohl, Benjamin H. (2014). Evo's Bolivia: Continuity and Change. Austin: University of Texas Press 2014
  10. ^ Genaro Arriagada Herrera, "Pinochet's Route to Power" in Hamill, ed. Caudillos, pp. 325-334.
  11. ^ James William Park. Rafael Núñez and the Politics of Colombian Regionalism, 1863-1886. (1985)
  12. ^ Howard J. Wiarda and Michael J. Kryzanek, "Trujillo and the Caudillo Tradition" in Caudillos, Hamill, ed. pp. 246-256
  13. ^ Ralph Lee Woodward, Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala, 1821-1871. 1993.
  14. ^ Kenneth J. Grieb, Guatemalan Caudillo: The Regime of Jorge Ubico, Guatemala 1931-1944.Athens OH: Ohio University Press 1979
  15. ^ Buchenau, Jurgen. Plutarco Elias Calles and the Mexican Revolution (Denver: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006).
  16. ^ Carleton Beals. Porfirio Díaz, Dictator of Mexico, J.B. Lippincott & Company, Philadelphia, 1932.
  17. ^ Meyer, Michael C. Huerta: A Political Portrait. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 1972.
  18. ^ Zachary Brittsan. Popular Politics and Rebellion in Mexico: Manuel Lozada and La Reforma, 1855-1876. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press 2015.
  19. ^ * Buchenau, Jürgen (2011). The Last Caudillo: Alvaro Obregón and the Mexican Revolution. Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell.
  20. ^ Will Fowler, Santa Anna of Mexico. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 2007.
  21. ^ Tyler, R. Curtis. Santiago Vidaurri and the Southern Confederacy. The Americas Vol. 26, No. 1, (July 1969), pp. 66-76.
  22. ^ Friedrich Katz, The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1998.
  23. ^ *John Womack, Jr. Zapata and the Mexican Revolution. (New York: Vintage 1968)
  24. ^ Alain Rouquié, "Dynasty: Nicaraguan Style" in Caudillos, Hamill, ed. pp. 257-269.
  25. ^ Koster, R.M.; Sánchez, Guillermo (1990). In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama, 1968–1990. W W Norton & Co.
  26. ^ * Priestley, George. Military Government and Popular Participation in Panama: The Torrijos Regime, 1968-1975. (1986)
  27. ^ Vera Blinn Reber. "José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 2, pp. 607-108. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  28. ^ John Hoyt Williams, The Rise and Fall of the Paraguayan Republic, 1800-1870 (1979)
  29. ^ James Schofield Saeger (2007). Francisco Solano López and the Ruination of Paraguay: Honor and Egocentrism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  30. ^ Paul H. Lewis, Paraguay Under Stroessner. (1980)
  31. ^ James D. Cockcroft, "Paraguay's Stroessner: The Ultimate Caudillo" in Caudillos, Ed. Hugh M. Hamill, pp. 335-348.
  32. ^ Roger Atwood, 'Democratic Dictators: Authoritarian Politics in Peru from Leguia to Fujimori,' SAIS Review, vol. 21, no. 2 (2001), p. 167.doi:10.1353/sais.2001.0030
  33. ^ Walker, Charles F. "Felipe Santiago Salaverry" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 5, p. 15. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.
  34. ^ Quiroz, Alfonso W. "Manuel Ignacio Vivanco" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 5, p. 429. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996.

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  1. ^ http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766581/obo-9780199766581-0141.xml
  2. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/caudillo
  3. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/caudillismo
  4. ^ http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/Baker_00/2001_p2/baker_ch_p2/caudillos.htm
  5. ^ http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198211358.001.0001/acprof-9780198211358