Old Latium (Latin: Latium vetus or Latium antiquum) was, in antiquity, the part of the Italian peninsula bounded to the north by the river Tiber, to the east by the central Apennine mountains, to the west by the sea and to the south by Monte Circeo. It covered an area measuring just 50 Roman miles. Mommsen calculated its area at ca. 1,860 square kilometres. It corresponded to the central part of the modern administrative region of Lazio (Italy) and was the traditional territory of the Italic tribe known as the Latins, to which the inhabitants of the archaic city of Rome themselves belonged. Later it was also settled by Rutulians, Volscians, Aequi, and Hernici. It was referred to as "old" (vetus) to distinguish it from the expanded region, denoted Latium by later Romans, that included the region to the south of Old Latium, between Monte Circeo and the river Garigliano - the so-called Latium adiectum ("attached Latium").
- 1 Settlement
- 2 The quest for Old Latium: archaeological finds
- 2.1 Amitinum
- 2.2 Antemnae
- 2.3 Apiolae
- 2.4 Aefulae
- 2.5 Bolae
- 2.6 Corioli
- 2.7 Pedum
- 2.8 Tolerium
- 2.9 Vitellia
- 2.10 Caenina
- 2.11 Cameria or Camerium
- 2.12 Collatia
- 2.13 Curniculum or Corniculum
- 2.14 Crustumerium or Crustumeria
- 2.15 Ficana
- 2.16 Medullium or Medullia
- 2.17 Politorium
- 2.18 Satricum
- 2.19 Scaptia
- 3 Modern studies on the settlement of prehistoric Latium
- 4 Economy
- 5 References
Dionysius of Halicarnassus is the main literary source that preserves ancient traditions on the settlement of Latium. In the first book of his Roman Antiquities, Dionysius scrupulously lists and discusses all the legends and traditional stories related by historians or scholars, both Greek and Roman. Other important sources are Pliny the Elder, who in book three of his Natural History gives two lists of the settlements of old Latium, that he says by his time had already disappeared. Livy, Strabo, Festus, and Servius Danielis also provide important information.
According to these sources Latium was first settled by Sicels and Ligures at a very early time. Sources do not state which of these two people settled Latium earlier: even though Servius says that the Sicels were expelled from the Septimontium (more or less the site of Rome) by the Ligures, his statement does not look to be firmly grounded in an earlier tradition, as Festus lists these two people without any timeline definition in a parallel passage. These nations were over time forced out of Latium by the constant pressure exerted by the Aborigines, who formerly dwelt the lands of the interior around Reate, and eventually made their way to Sicily where they settled. Their migration took place some time before the Trojan War or after it. Traces of the presence of the Ligures and Sicels remain in the toponymy and onomastics. Generally speaking the movement of peoples appear to have taken place from the hills and mountains of the interior towards the plains, but there are testimonies of the arrival from the sea of Greek colonizers, as in the legend of the Argive Evander, and also from the south of Italy as for the Sicels who were considered to be the offspring of the Oenotrians and the Rutulians of Ardea, who were believed of Daunian origin.
The story of the arrival of Aeneas with his six hundred companions and of the foundation of Lavinium is the breaking point that signals the beginning of civilisation in Latium. The legend of the white sow that gave birth to thirty piglets has a religious meaning for the establishment of the new community of the Latins: the thirty populi Albenses. This story bears the characters of a foundation myth and explains the religious significance of the Latin League bounded by the cult of Iuppiter Latiaris.
The accounting provided by Pliny the Elder does not include all the centres of Latium Vetus that developed into towns, but rather lists those which, according to the scholar, by his time had disappeared without leaving any trace: therefore he does not mention Anxur, Tibur, Cora, Ficulea, Nomentum, Praeneste, Gabii, Ardea, Aricia, Tusculum, Lavinium, Laurentum, Lanuvium, Labicum, Velitrae, which were still standing, with the exception of old Labicum. But some settlements he mentions were in fact visited by Strabo only seventy years earlier (such as Tellenae) and some still certainly stood in his own time, such as Pedum. Another oddity of the passage is that while he claims there were fifty-three centres that had disappeared, his list numbers only fifty. Even though elsewhere he mentions the other two sites, Apiolae and Amyclae, this still does not equal fifty-three. The list is in book III of his Natural History ch. 68 and 69:
"In the first region moreover in Latium were the famous walled towns (clara oppida) Satricum, Scaptia, Politorium, Tellena, Tifata, Caenina, Ficana, Crustumeria, Ameriola, Medullum, Corniculum, Saturnia where now is Rome, Antipolis that is now the Janiculum within Rome, Antemnae, Camerium, Collatia, Amitinum, Norba, Sulmo, and together with them the Alban Peoples who use to receive the (sacrificial) meat on the Alban Mount: Albani, Aesolani, Accienses, Abolani, Bubetani, Bolani, Cusuetani, Coriolani, Fidenates, Foreti, Hortenses, Latinienses, Longani, Manates, Macrales, Munienses, Numinienses, Olliculani, Octulani, Pedani, Poletaurini, Querquetulani, Sicani, Sisolenses, Tolerienses, Tutienses, Vimitellari, Velienses, Venetulani, Vitellienses."
The list is apparently made up by two sections, the first is referred to as clara oppida and the second as populi Albenses. The last two towns mentioned among the clara oppida, Norba and Sulmo, were in fact within Latium Adiectum. They were destroyed in the 1st century BC during the war between Marius and Sulla.
The second section gives the names of the populi Albenses: these were local communities which inhabited the region of Mons Albanus (now Monte Cavo) and its immediate surroundings, the Alban Hills. Only some of them seem to have reached the urban stage and the list reflects the typical archaic Bronze Age organizations of human settlement, sparse, polycentric and gravitating around a religious centre, in this case the sanctuary of Iuppiter Latiaris. The exact location of these settlements is mostly unknown with a few exceptions: Aesulae, Pedum, Fidenae, Politorium, Bovillae, Tolerium. It is possible that the Latinienses were settlers of the Ager Latiniensis, i. e. the area near Laurentum and Lavinium, and the Foreti were actually settlers of the area later occupied by the Roman Forum. The Querquetulani though certainly were not the settlers of the Querquetulan (i.e. Caelian ) Hill in Rome as they are mentioned by Dionysius in the list of Latin peoples who went to war against Rome in 495.
Dionysius gives a list of the towns members of the Latin league, that voted for war against Rome after the capture of Fidenae by the Romans, under the influence of Aricia and of former king Tarquinius the Proud at an assembly held at Ferentinum:
"Ardea, Aricia, Bovillae, Bubentum, Cora, Carventum, Circei, Corioli, Corbio, Cabum, Fortinea, Gabii, Laurentum, Lanuvium, Lavinium, Labici, Nomentum, Norba, Praeneste, Pedum, Querquetula, Satricum, Scaptia, Setia, Tibur, Tusculum, Tolerium, Tellenae, Velitrae."
As Niebuhr remarked once again the total yields the sacred number of thirty, but the sum is made up of different components. It is a mix of some of the members of the populi Albenses and some of the clara oppida. In fact many of the oppida had been destroyed or resettled by the Romans during the regal period: Caenina, Politorium, Ficana, Cameria, Medullium, Corniculum, Collatia. Among the clara oppida of Pliny's list here show up Satricum, Norba, Sulmo, Scaptia, Tellenae and of the populi Bubentum, Corioli, Pedum, Querquetula, Tolerium and possibly Nomentum.
The geographer Strabo in his description of Augustan region I, which included Old Latium, mentions many old towns, among them Collatia, Antemnae, Fidenae and Labicum as reduced to mere villages, private rural estates or displaced to different locations, Apiolae, Suessa and Alba Longa as disappeared, Tellenae on the lows to the Southwest ot the Alban Hills as still standing.
The quest for Old Latium: archaeological finds
Even though erudites and scholars have been trying to ascertain the location of the ancient towns of Latium for a long time (at least the last four centuries: see e.g. Cluvier) and despite the recent progress made by archaeology in the field of the human settlement of ancient Latium, only few towns of archaic Latium cited by ancient sources have been identified with certainty, whereas a remarkable number of settlements that have been unerthed remain not identified. This is due to the lack of epigraphic confirmations, that stems from the rare usage of writing in archaic times. There is still doubt on the exact location of many the sources mention. The problem is made even more difficult by the fact that possibly some of the ancient locations were resettled during the early Middle Ages, as it was probably the case for Labicum and Collatia. A good instance of such a custom is provided by Falerii outside Latium Vetus. Towns which have been identified archaeologically include Satricum, Politorium, Ficana, Tellenae, Crustumerium, Corniculum, Antemnae, Collatia, Fidenae, Pedum, Apiolae, Gabii and perhaps Querquetulum. Alba Longa, Pometia and Corioli remain unidentified.
The most conspicuous case and that which has given rise to a longstanding debate is Alba Longa. The famous city, according to tradition founded by Ascanius and metropolis of the Latins for 418 years, is still a mystery: some scholars have argued that it has not yet been identified because the Ancients themselves did not know exactly where it was located and the reason of their ignorance was that Alba had never been a real city. It would rather have been a loose collection of protohistoric villages organised in the Bronze Age wise around the sanctuary of Mount Albanus, in which human settlement remained sparse, and it was abandoned before it reached the urban stage.
It was a centre located to the east of Rome on the Corniculan Mountains, not far from Curniculum: its identification is due to an inscription that mentions a pagus amentinus.
The town was located three miles to the north of Rome on the left bank of the river Anio and close to its confluence with the Tiber. Its name in fact means "between the rivers" (Antemnae is the Sabine for Latin "interamnes"). Some of its ruins were discovered in 1880 when the place was excavated to build the fortress "Forte Antenne". Later excavations have yielded other material. The place is now within the urban area of Rome.
It was colonised by Rome since the time of Romolus in its first push to control the left bank of the Tiber up to the Anio, thus ensuring a communication route with Etruria along the Via Salaria. The Antemnates and the Caeninenses were granted full Roman citizenship. Nevertheless, it revolted several times, the last in 507 BC.
Destroyed by Tarquinius Priscus, its remains have been identified and excavated. It was located on the Monte Savello between Albano and Pavona. It housed a temple of Apollo and the famous spring of Iuturna with the nigh Lacus Turni, object of a local cult. Today they are known as the spring of Secciano and the Laghetto di Pavona.
The site of the settlement of the Alban people Aesulani has been identified with the hilltop castrum of Aefulae near Tibur and close to the site of one of the temples of Bona Dea. It was deserted by his original dwellers and later resettled by the Romans who turned it into a military fort.
The site of the Alban people Bolani is frequently mentioned by historians Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy. It was occupied by the Aequians probably already in the late 6th century or in the wars headed by Coriolanus. Its site is not known with certainty but must have stood not far from Praeneste and Labicum.
The site of this settlement must have stood on the SW side of the Alban Hills near Genzano and Lanuvium.
The most important of the Latin towns developed from the ancient populi albenses, Pedum stood between Tibur and Praeneste near modern Gallicano nel Lazio. It was taken by the Romans with Coriolanus. It declined after the final demise of the Latin League in 338 BC.
The site of the populus of the Vitellienses, it was located at the border between Latins and Aequians.
The site of Caenina has not yet been identified with certainty. It may have been located near present-day "La Rustica" near the Anio river, on a trade route connecting Latium with Etruria and Campania. Festus states it was close to the old Roman settlement. Originally a settlement of the Sicels as Antemnae, these were later expelled by the Aborigenes. Dionysius records a tradition according to which Romulus would have been at Caenina for a sacrifice during the festival of the Lupercalia that were the occasion of the abduction of Remus by Numitor's shepherds. It was subjected to synoecism and some of its cults and sacerdotes were transferred to Rome by Romulus, who celebrated his first triumph after conquering the Caeninenses and killing their king, Acron. However, according to Dionysius Romulus allowed the Caeninenses to continue to live in their hometown, even though they had to accept a colony of three hundred Romans and the allotment to them of one third of their land.It is still mentioned at the beginning of the Republic: the Vindicius who revealed the plot of the Aquilii to Publius Valerius Publicola was a slave from Caenina captured in war. Its name may be related to Latin caenum, mud, lime, itself a word with no Indoeuropean etymology.
Cameria or Camerium
This town fought many wars against Rome since the time of Romulus and by him was subjected to receiving a Roman colony. It was destroyed in 502 BC. It was located to the northeast of Rome. Its ruins have not yet been identified.
Strabo places Collatia some 30 stades from Rome: it had been reduced to farmland by his time. The site has not yet been identified with certainty, but it was located near modern Lunghezza, to the east of Rome. Likely it stood on the hill now occupied by the Castello di Lunghezza. This identification is supported by the fact that Lunghezza lies at the terminus of the ancient Via Collatina. It was conquered by the Romans and subjected to colonization. Livy preserves the formula of their surrender, often cited as example of the deditio in fide. Collatia was originally founded by the Latin king Silvius of Alba Longa and it was the hometown of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, one of the first two consuls of the Roman Republic.
Curniculum or Corniculum
The town has been located by modern scholars in the present position of Montecelio (formerly Monticelli) in the comune of Guidonia, not far from Tibur. The two adjacent hills which form a couple of horns were at the origin of its name and the nearby mountain range is still known as "Monti Cornicolani". Near Montecelio have been discovered materials dating from the Iron Age and fragmentary pottery of the 7th-6th centuries BC.
Crustumerium or Crustumeria
The site of Crustumerium has been known since the 19th century, located in the hills of the park (Riserva Naturale) of Marcigliana Vecchia, located to the north of Rome near Settebagni, on the Via Salaria. The town was also known as Castrimoenium and Crustumeria and has given its name to the surrounding countryside and hills known as "Ager Crustuminus" and "Montes Crustumini". According to Servius it was originally a settlement of the Sicels, founded by the Sicel Clitemnestrus. The etymology of the name is unclear and may reflect an ancient Pre-Indo European toponymic crustulum, meaning pond.
Crustumerium has been and is still being excavated by archaeologists and its study has been important for the understanding of urban development in Old Latium. It was located on one of the routes that linked Veii and Gabii, close to a ford on the Tiber, which fact, along with the richness of its countryside, was the cause of its importance and wealth.
The town stretched along a road trench and occupied an area of 60 hectares. The walls were a complex made by several (four or five) parallel stretches connected by normal ones and covered with stone slabs. Tombs contained a rich production of fine pottery painted in white and red, weapons and other instruments from the early Iron Age onward. The town is mentioned in the Aeneid. In the history of Rome it is one of those involved in the abduction of the Sabine women and subsequent war. Romulus is said to have installed there a colony of Romans. Later it is frequently mentioned in the wars between Rome and its neighbours. Literary sources put the destruction of Crustumerium at the end of the sixth century, but archaeology has shown it was still occupied in the fifth century and declined only in the fourth century.
Ficana was located on the left bank of the Tiber downstream from Rome, near present-day Acilia on the highland over Monte Cugno which in ancient times was steeper and a dominant position on the river. Its identification is made certain by the find of an inscription. The sources state it was destroyed twice by Ancus Marcius in his push to control the lower course of the Tiber and the salines, together with Politorium and Tellenae. Its importance was owed to the fact it was a port and afforded a commercial route to the hinterland toward the Alban Hills and Aricia.
Archaeology though has shown it was still a prosperous centre during the 4th century and reached its maximum expansion after the Roman conquest. It declined only in the 4th and 3rd centuries after the development of Ostia. Excavations have unearthed the town wall, housing areas and a necropolis. Amphors with a long neck, decorated in relief or scratched, typical of 7th-century Old Latium testify to the early quality of the local material culture. The area of Ficana is now an archaeological park.
Medullium or Medullia
Also known in the sources as Medullia, its exact location is unknown. It was the hometown of Hostus Hostilius's family. It was conquered by Tullus Hostilius even though not destroyed. Its name looks related to the Ligurian tribe of the Medulli (Medylloi in Strabon IV 1, 11) and would appear to be cognate with Celtic deity Meduna. Strabo mentions two other towns named Medullia, one on the western Alps in Gallia and one on the eastern in Iapudia.
Politorium has been identified in the archaic settlement found near Castel di Decima, at the southeast of Rome. The identification though lacks epigraphic confirmation. It is mentioned by Cato, who records its foundation, Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassos, who describe its capture and successive demolition by Ancus Marcius. Its inhabitants would have been deported to the Aventine. These facts are part of the first expansive push by Rome in the direction of the sea, which also brought about the fall of Ficana and Tellenae.
The excavations have uncovered remains of the fortifications and a princely necropolis.
Satricum was recorded by Pliny as the first in his list of clara oppida. It was an important and very ancient settlement of the Latin and other tribes grown nigh the prehistoric sanctuary of Mater Matuta. It has been identified by the archaeologists at Le Ferriere, in the present comune of Latina and recently systematically excavated by the Royal Dutch Institute in Rome in collaboration with the Italian authorities. During excavations in 1977 the inscription known as Lapis Satricanus was unearthed.
It is mentioned by Livy as the eponymous settlement of the Roman tribe of the same name. Its location has not been identified. Some scholars suppose it was located near Tibur or near Passerano.
Modern studies on the settlement of prehistoric Latium
Linguistic and palaethnologic studies
The earliest settlement of Latium is ascribed by tradition to the Sicels and Ligures. Literary sources include Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Pliny the Elder and Festus. Pliny records as settlers of Latium the Aborigenes, Pelasgians, Arcades, Sicels, Aurunci, and Rutulians. Concerning the origin of the Sicels Antiochus of Syracuse considers them an offshoot of the Oenotrians, a nation of Greek origin that migrated from Arcadia. The Sicels were expelled by the Aborigenes with the help of the Pelasgians. Antemnae, Fescennium, Falerii, Saturnia, and Tibur became Pelasgian settlements but their sites would have been first settled by Sicels. Festus relates that the Sicels were expelled from the site of Rome by the Sabine sacrani from Reate. They are also mentioned by Solinus along with the Aurunci and Pelasgians as one of the most ancient peoples of Italy. The Sicanians too are mentioned by Solinus, Pliny (also as one of the populi albenses), Virgil, Aulus Gellius and Macrobius. According to the grammarian Servius, Crustumerium too was originally a Sicel settlement.
Another tradition related by Philistos of Syracuse calls the Sicels Ligures whose king was a Sikelos. This tradition is followed by Stephanos of Byzantium who cites Hellanicus of Lesbos as his authority.
These ancient traditions have led some scholars to look for traces of the presence of these peoples. Wolfgang Helbig was the first to remark that the name of Alba Longa reminded that of many Ligurian settlements, such as Albieis north of Massalia with their centre Alba Augusta, as well as Albium (Albion) Intemelium (now Ventimiglia), Albium (Albion) Ingaunum (now Albenga) and Alba Pompeia in Italy, could hardly mean white, as the Latin adjective albus does, since the rocks in the area of volcanic Mount Albanus are a deep grey in colour. Giuseppe Sergi remarked that the early name of the Tiber was Albula, a name that recurs elsewhere in hydronomy where there are traces of Ligures and Sicels. Further evidence connecting Ligures and Sicels would be provided by a neolithic skeleton unearthed at Sgurgola near Anagni which was painted in red as the ones found in the Ligurian cave of the "Arene Candide". Sergi concluded that Ligures and Sicels were in fact just one ethnos, even though since they lived far apart they had come to be considered as two distinct peoples. Their identity would be confirnmed by ancient toponyms found in Latium as well as other regions of Italy. Strabon also mentions that a former names for the Alps was Albia.
Other correspondences include the ancient name of the Lake of Bracciano, Sabatinus Lacus and the town of Sabate on its shores, the river Sāpis in Umbria, which are based on a Praeindoeuropean root *sāb- meaning water, seen also in the name Vada Sabatia (today Vado Ligure).
The land was mostly fertile. Agriculture was practiced in the lowlands since an early time and yielded cereals and legumes. The hills were planted with grapes and the wines were of good or high qualitiy, such as the Setinus, Albanus, Signinus. Highlands were put to use for animal husbandry. Gabii had famous quarries of red stone (travertine) which was used as building material in the surrounding area, Rome included. Crafts (smithery and pottery) were also developed. Malaric areas were restricted to cooastal lowlands and some other places at the time.
- Pliny NH III 56.
- T. Mommsen History of Rome I 3, 3.
- Strabon Geography III 10.
- Festus s. v. sacrani p. 424 L: "Sacrani are named those who moved from Reate and expelled the Sicels and Ligures from the Septimontium"; Servius Danielis Ad Aeneidem XI 371, VIII ; Dionysius of Halicarnassus RA I 12, 2 citing Sophocles's Triptolemus on Oenotrians and Ligures settling the coasts of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities I 22 citing Antiochus of Syracuse, Philistus and Thycidides.
- See the works by G. Sergi, F. Ribezzo, G. Devoto, G. Alessio and A. Grandazzi cited below.
- Dionysius of Hal. RA I 12, 3.
- Briquel Dominique. "L'oiseau ominal, la louve de Mars, la truie féconde". In: Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Antiquité T. 88, N°1. 1976. pp. 31-50. Later the thirty curiae of Rome.
- Cf. Cicero De Haruspicum Responso: a crack sound was heard in the Ager Latiniensis.
- Dionysius V 61 3. D. calls Ferentinum the caput Ferentinae or aquae Ferentinae of Roman authors. See below A. Grandazzi's citations in the discussion of the issue.
- A. Grandazzi "La localisation d' Alba" in MEFRA 1986. See section below.
- CIL VI 251.
- Dionysius Hal. V 21.
- Aesulae is the Latin pronunciatiation of a Sabine Aefulae i.e. meaning Aedules.
- Dion. Hal. VIII 18.
- Livy II 39; Plutarch Cor. 28.
- Purcell, N., R. Talbert, S. Gillies, T. Elliott, J. Becker. "Places: 438853 (Tolerium)". Pleiades. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- P. Zaccagni in Civiltá del Lazio primitivo. Catalogo della Mostra Roma 1976 p. 155.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities II 35, 7.
- Dionysius Roman Antiquities II 89.
- R. E. A. Palmer The Archaic Community of the Romans Cambridge 1970 p. 106 n. 3; A. Alföldi Early Rome and the Latins Ann Arbor 1965, p. 132; G. Wissowa RE 1279.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus II 35, 3-5.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities V 7, 3.
- G. Alessio "Problemi storico-linguistici messapici" in Studi salentini 1962 14 p. 318 n. 131.
- Livy I 38; 39. Dionysius III 50; IV 1. Ovid Fasti VI 627 ff.
- Servius Danielis "ad Aeneidem" VII 631 = Cassius Hemina fragm. 2 Peter.
- Costanzo Garancini
- Lorenzo Quilici; Stefania Quilici Gigli (1980). Crustumerium. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Centro di studio per l'archeologia etrusco-italica.
- Livy II 19.
- A. Amoroso "Crustumerium: a frontier settlement" in Bollettino di Archeologia 2001.
- G. Alessio "Genti e favelle dell'antica Apulia" Cressati Taranto 1949 p. 17 n. 3 (= Archivio Storico Pugliese II 1949) citing Holder Altceltische Sprache II col. 528: cfr. German Met.
- IV 6.
- C. M. Stibbe (1980). Lapis Satricanus. Ministerie van Cultuur, Recreatie en Maatschappelijk Werk. ISBN 978-90-12-02951-3.
- Livy AUC VIII 17.
- Purcell, N., R. Talbert, S. Gillies, T. Elliott, J. Becker. "Places: 438829 (Scaptia)". Pleiades. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- Pliny the Elder NH III 9.
- Dionysius I 16; 21. IX 9.
- W. Helbig Die Italiker in der Poebene 1879.
- G. Sergi Da Albalonga a Roma. Inizio dell'incivilimento in Italia, ovvero Liguri e Siculi Turin 1934 p. 3ff.
- The Albula, a source near Tibur. The Albula oracle in Virgil's Aeneis. An Albula river in Picenum near Numana, town that Pliny NH III 13 ascribes to the Sicels; another one in the Lepontine Alps; one in the Grisons canton of present day Swytzerland. The Albinia river in Etruria (now Albegna), a river Alba in Sicily and another one in Northeast Spain.
- C. Battisti Sostrati e parastrati Florence 1959 p. 125 ff. ; A. Trombetti Studi Etruschi XIV 1940 p. 187; G. Devoto Gli antichi Italici Rome 1969 p. 126.
- Strabo V 3, 2; V 3, 10.
- Strabo V 3, 10-11.