List of Atlantic hurricane records

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Since the reliable record keeping of tropical cyclone data within the North Atlantic Ocean began in 1851,[1] there have been 1,505 systems of at least tropical storm intensity and 879 of at least hurricane intensity. Though a majority of these tropical cyclones have fallen within climatological averages, prevailing atmospheric conditions occasionally lead to anomalous tropical systems which at times reach extremes in statistical record-keeping including in duration and intensity.[2] The scope of this list is limited to tropical cyclone records solely within the Atlantic Ocean and is subdivided by their reason for notability.

Tropical cyclogenesis[edit]

Earliest/latest formations for each category[edit]

Monochrome radar image of a hurricane. Rain, which the radar detects, is shown as white regions. Concentric circles denote distances from the radar site, located slightly offset from the center of the image.
Hurricane Alice was both the latest and earliest recorded hurricane to exist in any given calendar year.

Climatologically speaking, approximately 97 percent of tropical cyclones that form in the North Atlantic develop between the dates of June 1 and November 30 – dates which delimit the modern-day Atlantic hurricane season. Though the beginning of the annual hurricane season has historically remained the same, the official end of the hurricane season has shifted from its initial date of October 31. Regardless, on average once every few years a tropical cyclone develops outside the limits of the season;[3] as of January 2016 there have been 66 tropical cyclones in the off-season, with the most recent being Hurricane Alex in 2016.[1] The first tropical cyclone of the 1938 Atlantic hurricane season, which formed on January 3, became the earliest forming tropical storm and hurricane after reanalysis concluded on the storm in December 2012.[4] Hurricane Able in 1951 was initially thought to be the earliest forming major hurricane – a tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 115 mph (185 km/h)[nb 1] – however following post-storm analysis it was determined that Able only reached Category 1 strength which made Hurricane Alma of 1966 the new record holder; as it became a major hurricane on June 8.[1] Though it developed within the bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season,[3][1] Hurricane Audrey in 1957 wss the earliest developing Category 4 hurricane on record after it reached the intensity on June 27.[6] However, reanalysis from 1956 to 1960 by NOAA downgrade Audrey to a catagory 3 making Hurricane Dennis of 2005 the earliest category 4 on record on July 8th, 2005.[7] The earliest-forming Category 5 hurricane, Emily, reached the highest intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on July 17, 2005.[8]

Though the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season occurs on November 30, the dates of October 31 and November 15 have also historically marked the official end date for the hurricane season.[3] December, the only month of the year after the hurricane season, has featured the cyclogenesis of fourteen tropical cyclones.[1] Tropical Storm Zeta in 2005 was the latest tropical cyclone to attain tropical storm intensity as it did so on December 30. However, the second Hurricane Alice in 1954 was the latest forming tropical cyclone to attain hurricane intensity. Both Zeta and Alice were the only two storms to exist in two calendar years – the former from 1954 to 1955 and the latter from 2005 to 2006.[9] No storms have been recorded to exceed Category 1 hurricane intensity in December.[1] In 1999, Hurricane Lenny reached Category 4 intensity on November 17 as it took an unprecedented west to east track across the Caribbean; its intensity made it the latest developing Category 4 hurricane, though this was well within the bounds of the hurricane season.[10] Hurricane Hattie (October 27-November 1, 1961) was initially thought to have been the latest forming Category 5 hurricane ever documented,[11] though reanalysis indicated that a devastating hurricane in 1932 reached such an intensity at a later date.[1][4] Consequently, this made the hurricane the latest developing tropical cyclone to reach all four Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale classifications past Category 1 intensity.[1]

Earliest Formation Latest Formation
Category Year Storm Date Reached Notes Year Storm Date Reached Notes
Tropical storm 1938 Storm One January 3 [1][nb 2] 200506 Tropical Storm Zeta December 30 [1]
Category 1 1938 Storm One January 4 [1] 195455 Hurricane Alice December 30 [1]
Category 2 1908 Storm One March 7 [1] 1985 Hurricane Kate November 19 [1]
Category 3 1966 Hurricane Alma June 8 [1] 1985 Hurricane Kate November 20 [1]
Category 4 2005 Hurricane Dennis July 8 1999 Hurricane Lenny November 17 [1]
Category 5 2005 Hurricane Emily July 17 [8][12] 1932 1932 Cuba hurricane November 5 [1]

Earliest formation records by storm number[edit]

Earliest formation of Atlantic Basin tropical storms by storm number
Storm number Earliest Next earliest
Name Date of formation Name Date of formation
1 Unnamed January 3, 1938 Unnamed January 4, 1951
2 Unnamed May 17, 1887 Tie Unnamed May 26, 1908
Beryl May 26, 2012
3 Colin June 5, 2016 Unnamed June 12, 1887
4 Danielle June 20, 2016 Debby June 23, 2012
5 Emily July 11, 2005 Danny July 16, 1997
6 Franklin July 21, 2005 Tie Unnamed August 4, 1936
Florence August 4, 2012
7 Gert July 24, 2005 Unnamed August 7, 1936
8 Harvey August 3, 2005 Unnamed August 15, 1936
9 Irene August 7, 2005 Unnamed August 20, 1936
10 Jose August 22, 2005 Tie Jerry August 23, 1995
Joyce August 23, 2012
11 Katrina August 24, 2005 Tie Unnamed August 28, 1936
Karen August 28, 1995
Kirk August 28, 2012
12 Luis August 29, 1995 Leslie August 30, 2012
13 Tie Maria - September 2, 2005 Michael September 4, 2012
Lee - September 2, 2011
14 Nate September 5, 2005 Maria September 7, 2011
15 Tie Ophelia - September 7, 2005 Unnamed September 19, 1936
Nate - September 7, 2011
16 Philippe September 17, 2005 Ophelia September 21, 2011
17 Rita September 18, 2005 Philippe September 24, 2011
18 Stan October 2, 2005 Sebastien October 21, 1995
19 Unnamed October 4, 2005 Tony October 24, 2012
20 Tammy October 5, 2005 Unnamed November 15, 1933
21 Vince October 9, 2005 N/A
22 Wilma October 17, 2005 N/A
23 Alpha October 22, 2005 N/A
24 Beta October 27, 2005 N/A
25 Gamma November 18, 2005 N/A
26 Delta November 23, 2005 N/A
27 Epsilon November 29, 2005 N/A
28 Zeta December 30, 2005 N/A
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
  • Note: Storms that originally form as tropical depression will not be posted unless they reach tropical storm status (for example, Hurricane Michael in 2012 formed on September 3 as tropical depression, but was not named until it reached tropical storm status, on September 4, thus putting Hurricane Michael on the list with the date September 4).

Location[edit]

Extreme latitudes and longitudes[edit]

Black and white image of a hurricane. Rainbands to the top of the hurricane are extended out to the upper-right, and the center of the hurricane itself is located at center-left. Clouds appear as shades of white and the sea as shades of black. However, sunglint is visible at center-right.
Hurricane Faith traversed a greater distance and retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other Atlantic hurricane.

This list contains tropical cyclones that formed at or moved to an extraordinary latitude or longitude. This list may include storms that reach extreme north latitude, or very equatorial cyclones. It should be noted that before the satellite era, analysis of distant tropical cyclones was extremely difficult.

  • 1958 - Hurricane Cleo was the easternmost forming Category 5 hurricane, at around 49.2°W.
  • 1960 - Hurricane Ethel reached Category 5 intensity at 28.1° N, farther north than any other storm in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea or Atlantic Ocean. Ethel's intensity is debatable and Hurricane Carla in 1961 may hold the record, becoming a Category 5 at 27°N.
  • 1966 - Hurricane Faith retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other storm, being classified as extratropical at about 62°N. It also retained Category 2 intensity through this period.
  • 1967 - Tropical Storm Ginger upgraded into a tropical storm at 18.1° W, making it the easternmost Atlantic tropical storm on record.
  • 1971 - Hurricane #2 became a hurricane at 46°N, the highest latitude a tropical storm has been upgraded in the Atlantic.
  • 1973 - Tropical Storm Christine developed as a tropical depression at 14°W over western Africa, the eastern-most tropical depression formation in the Atlantic basin.
  • 1973 - Hurricane Ellen became a major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale at 42.1°N, further north than any other storm.
  • 1978 - Tropical Storm Amelia developed into a tropical depression at 96.7°W while located 30 miles (48 km) south of Brownsville, Texas, the western-most forming tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin (excluding basin crossovers).
  • 1978 - Hurricane Ella retained Category 4 intensity further north than any other Atlantic hurricane, reaching about 45°N before weakening.
  • 1980 - Hurricane Frances intensified into a Category 3 hurricane further south and east than any other storm on record, doing so at 29.8°W.
  • 1982 - Hurricane Debby reached Category 4 strength at 38.8°N, eclipsing the previous record set by Hurricane Ella in 1978.
  • 1988 - Tropical Storm Alberto was classified a tropical storm off the coast of Massachusetts, which is further north than any other tropical storm on record.
  • 1990 - Hurricane Isidore formed at a lower latitude than any other tropical cyclone on record for the North Atlantic, 7.2°N.
  • 2004 - Hurricane Ivan became a Category 3 at 9.6°N latitude, the lowest latitude ever recorded for a major hurricane. It also set the record for southernmost Category 4 and 5 hurricanes, reaching these intensities at 10.6°N and 13.7°N respectively.
  • 2005 - Hurricane Vince formed at a record northeast point in the Atlantic, however, this record was later broken by Grace in 2009. Vince also became a hurricane further east than any storm in Atlantic history at 18.9°W.
  • July 3, 2008 – Hurricane Bertha reached tropical storm intensity at 24.0°W, becoming the easternmost developing tropical storm in the month of July. Bertha would later reach hurricane and major hurricane intensity at 49.4°W and 51.6°W, respectively, also attaining monthly easternmost records for those categories.[13]
  • October 4, 2009 – Tropical Storm Grace developed into a tropical storm near the Azores at 38.5°N latitude by 29.5°W longitude, making it the furthest northeast that a storm has ever intensified into a tropical storm in the Atlantic. Grace would persist as a tropical storm for roughly two days before transitioning into an extratropical storm just southwest of Ireland at 12.7°W longitude by 48.8°N latitude.[14]
  • September 15, 2010 – Hurricane Julia reached Category 4 intensity at 31.4°W longitude, making it the easternmost tropical cyclone to reach such an intensity. This also makes it the strongest known tropical cyclone in the Atlantic east of the 40th meridian west.[15]
  • June 21, 2012 – Hurricane Chris was upgraded to hurricane intensity at 39.5°N latitude, attaining the record for the farthest-north for an Atlantic June hurricane to reach such an intensity; Chris would maintain hurricane intensity as far north as 41.9°N before weakening back to tropical storm strength.[16]
  • August 30, 2015 – Hurricane Fred was upgraded to hurricane intensity at 22.5°W longitude, southeast of Cape Verde, the farthest east that a hurricane developed in the tropical Atlantic south of 25°N latitude.
  • January 14, 2016 – Hurricane Alex became a hurricane at 31.5°N and 28.6°W in the middle of January before making landfall as a strong tropical storm in the Azores.[17][18]

Distance traveled[edit]

Greatest Travels
Sources: NOAA[19][20]
Distance
(Miles)
Name Date
6,850 Hurricane Faith 1966
6,000 Hurricane Carrie 1957
5,760 Hurricane Alberto 2000
5,210 Hurricane Cleo 1964
Hurricane Chloe 1967
4,990 Hurricane Flora 1963

Unusual landfall locations[edit]

Azores[edit]

Cape Verde Islands[edit]

South America[edit]

Panama[edit]

Spain[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Intensity[edit]

Most intense[edit]

By pressure[edit]

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Pressure
hPa inHg
1 Wilma 2005 882 26.05
2 Gilbert 1988 888 26.23
3 "Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34
4 Rita 2005 895 26.43
5 Allen 1980 899 26.55
6 Camille 1969 900 26.58
7 Katrina 2005 902 26.64
8 Mitch 1998 905 26.73
Dean 2007
10 "Cuba" 1924 910 26.88
Ivan 2004
Source: HURDAT[1]

Generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storm's maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure. In terms of wind speed, hurricanes Allen from 1980 was the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h). Originally, it was though that Hurricane Camille also attained this intensity, however this was dropped in 2014. However, these measurements are suspect since instrumentation used to document wind speeds at the time would likely succumb to winds of such intensity.[55] Nonetheless, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.[1]

Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification. Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar (hPa; 27.05 inHg),[56] a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes.[57] Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones.[1] Presently, Hurricane Wilma is the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, after reaching an intensity of 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) in October 2005;[55] this also made Wilma the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide outside of the West Pacific,[58][59][60][61][62] where seven tropical cyclones have been recorded to intensify to lower pressures.[63] However, this was later superseded by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 in the east Pacific, which had a pressure reading of 872 mbar. Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had also held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years.[64] The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar (hPa; 26.34 inHg), is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane and the strongest documented tropical cyclone prior to 1950.[1] Since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land.[65]

Hurricane Rita is the fourth strongest Atlantic hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and one of three tropical cyclones from 2005 on the list, with the others being Wilma and Katrina at first and seventh, respectively.[1] However, with a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg), Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[66] In between Rita and Katrina is Hurricane Allen. Allen's pressure was measured at 899 mbar. Hurricane Camille is the sixth strongest hurricane on record. Camille is the only storm to have been moved down the list due to post-storm analysis. Originally, Camille was placed as the fifth strongest hurricane on record, however dropped to the seventh strongest due to a re-analysis in 2014, with an estimated pressure at 905 mbars, tying it with Hurricanes Mitch, and Dean. Camille then was again re-analysed with a new pressure of 900 mbars. Currently, Mitch and Dean share intensities for the seventh strongest Atlantic hurricane at 905 mbar (hPa; 26.73 inHg).[65] Sharing tenth place for most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone are Hurricane Ivan and an unnamed hurricane from 1932, which both are listed to have deepened to a pressure as low as 910 mbar (hPa; 26.88 inHg).[1]

Many of the strongest recorded tropical cyclones weakened prior to their eventual landfall or demise. However, three of the storms remained intense enough at landfall to be considered some of the strongest landfalling hurricanes – three of the eleven hurricanes on the list constitute the three most intense Atlantic landfalls in recorded history. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane made landfall at peak intensity, making it the most intense Atlantic landfall. Though it weakened slightly before its eventual landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, Hurricane Gilbert maintained a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg) at landfall, making its landfall the second strongest. Similarly, Hurricane Dean made landfall on the peninsula, though it did so at peak intensity and with a higher barometric pressure; its landfall marked the third strongest in Atlantic hurricane history.[65]

By highest sustained winds[edit]

Highest 1 minute sustained winds (175 mph or greater)
Hurricane Season Winds
mph km/h
Allen 1980 190 305
Gilbert 1988 185 295
Wilma 2005 185 295
Mitch 1998 180 285
Rita 2005 180 285
Janet 1955 175 280
Carla 1961 175 280
Camille 1969 175 280
Anita 1977 175 280
David 1979 175 280
Andrew 1992 175 280
Katrina 2005 175 280
Dean 2007 175 280
Felix 2007 175 280

Most intense by month[edit]

The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30. Intensity is measured solely by central pressure.

Most intense Atlantic tropical cyclones by month
Month Storm Year Minimum pressure Maximum winds Classification Notes
January Alice 1955 ~980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1 [nb 3]
February Unnamed 1952 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 70 mph (110 km/h) Tropical storm [nb 4]
March Unnamed 1908 <991 mbar (hPa; 29.27 inHg) 100 mph (155 km/h) Category 2 [nb 4]
April Ana 2003 994 mbar (hPa; 29.36 inHg) 60 mph (95 km/h) Tropical storm
May Able 1951 973 mbar (hPa; 28.74 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1
June Audrey 1957 946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg) 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3 [nb 5]
Alex 2010 110 mph (175 km/h) Category 2 [nb 5]
July Emily 2005 929 mbar (hPa; 27.44 inHg) 160 mph (260 km/h) Category 5
August Allen 1980 899 mbar (hPa; 26.55 inHg) 190 mph (305 km/h) Category 5
September Gilbert 1988 888 mbar (hPa; 26.23 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
October Wilma 2005 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
November Unnamed 1932 918 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) 175 mph (290 km/h) Category 5
December Nicole 1998 979 mbar (hPa; 28.91 inHg) 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1

Hurricane Severity Index[edit]

Most severe landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States
based on size and intensity for total points on the Hurricane Severity Index[67]
Hurricane Year Intensity Size Total
Carla 1961 17 25 42
Hugo 1989 16 24 40
Betsy 1965 15 25 40
Camille 1969 22 14 36
Katrina 2005 13 23 36
Opal 1995 11 25 36
Miami 1926 15 19 34
Audrey 1957 17 16 33
Fran 1996 11 22 33
Wilma 2005 12 21 33

Fastest intensification[edit]

  • Fastest Intensification from a Tropical Storm to a Category 5 Hurricane: 16 hours - 70 mph to 155 mph - Hurricane Wilma 2005
  • Maximum pressure drop in 12 hours: 87mb - Wilma 2005
  • Maximum pressure drop in 24 hours: 98mb - Wilma 2005 - 1200 UTC October 18 to October 19
  • Fastest Intensification from a Tropical Depression to a Hurricane: 12 hours - Lorenzo 2007
  • Fastest Intensification from a Depression to a Category Five Hurricane: 51 Hours - Felix 2007

Largest in diameter[edit]

Below are the five largest hurricanes (by gale diameter) ever observed in the Atlantic basin.

Known Atlantic hurricanes with gale diameter of 750 miles
Storm Season Diameter
(mi) (km)
Sandy 2012 945 1,520
Igor 2010 920 1,480
Olga 2001 865 1,390
Lili 1996 805 1,295
Karl 2004 780 1,255
Sources:[1], [2], [3], [4]

Seasonal records[edit]

Highest number of named storms[edit]

Number of named storm occurrences by month
Month
Storms Season
January 1 1938, 1951, 1978, and 2016
February 1 1952
March 1 1908
April 1 1992 and 2003
May 2 1887 and 2012
June 3 1886, 1936, and 1968
July 5 2005
August 8 2004 and 2012
September 8 2002 and 2010
October 8 1950
November 3 2005
December 2 1887 and 2003
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
† – Highest number for month by virtue of being only known season to see a storm form

Naming[edit]

Seasonal activity[edit]

A hurricane with a peak intensity of Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major. The table on the right excludes seasons prior to 1965 due to lack of accurate data for the period.

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season[edit]

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851-2016:

Effects[edit]

Costliest Atlantic hurricanes[edit]

Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes
Cost refers to total estimated property damage
Rank Hurricane Season Damage
1 Katrina 2005 $108 billion
2 Sandy 2012 $71.4 billion
3 Ike 2008 $29.5 billion
4 Andrew 1992 $26.5 billion
5 Wilma 2005 $21 billion
6 Ivan 2004 $18.8 billion
7 Irene 2011 $15.6 billion
8 Charley 2004 $15.1 billion
9 Rita 2005 $12 billion
10 Frances 2004 $9.51 billion
Source: National Hurricane Center[68][69][70][nb 6]

Most tornadoes spawned[edit]

Number of tornadoes spawned[71]
Count Name Year
117 Hurricane Ivan 2004
115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
101 Hurricane Frances 2004[72]
86 Hurricane Rita 2005
81 Tropical Storm Fay 2008
62 Hurricane Katrina 2005
39 Hurricane Danny 1985
34 Hurricane David 1979
34 Hurricane Isaac 2012
33 Hurricane Cindy 2005
31 Hurricane Opal 1995
29 Hurricane Allen 1980
29 Hurricane Gilbert 1988
29 Tropical Storm Lee 2011
25 Tropical Storm Debby 2012
23 Hurricane Alicia 1983
21 Hurricane Audrey 1957
20 Hurricane Carla 1961

Miscellaneous records[edit]

Highest forward speed[edit]

Highest forward speed
Rank Speed Name Year Day Time
1 70 mph (110 km/h) 1938 New England hurricane 1938 September 15 0600 UTC
2 66 mph (106 km/h) Tropical Storm Four 1970 August 18 1800 UTC
3 65 mph (105 km/h) Hurricane Luis 1995 September 11 1200 UTC
Hurricane Emily 1987 September 26 1200 UTC
5 63 mph (101 km/h) Hurricane Lisa 1998 October 9 1800 UTC
8 62 mph (100 km/h) Hurricane Fox 1951 September 10 0600 UTC
Tropical Storm Helene 2000 September 25 1200 UTC
Hurricane Irene 1999 October 19 0000 UTC
[1]
Notes
These are the highest estimated forward speeds of any tropical system (including tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes) between 1851 and 2005. It does not include extratropical systems, which routinely reach very high forward speeds.

Longest duration[edit]

Greatest duration
Sources: NOAA HRD,[73] NHC[74]
Duration
(days)
Name Date
27.75 Hurricane San Ciriaco August 1899
27.25 Hurricane Ginger September 1971
24.75 Hurricane Inga September 1969
22.25 Hurricane Nadine September 2012
22 Hurricane Kyle September 2002
21 Storm 4 September 1926
20.75 Hurricane Carrie September 1957
Storm 9 September 1893
20.25 Hurricane Inez September 1966
19.75 Hurricane Alberto August 2000
Notes
Fluctuated between tropical and post-tropical at some point in its existence, so the number of days are non-consecutive.

Worldwide cyclone records set by Atlantic storms[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.[5]
  2. ^ The first storm of 1938 was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone reaching tropical storm intensity during the year. However, the 1952 Groundhog Day tropical storm was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone to have peaked at tropical storm intensity; it did so on February 2.[1]
  3. ^ Alice formed in December 1954 but persisted into January 1955.
  4. ^ a b These are the strongest systems in their respective months by virtue of being the only known systems.
  5. ^ a b Hurricanes Audrey (1957) and Alex (2010) had the same minimum pressure, though Audrey was a Category 3 hurricane at peak strength while Alex peaked as a high-end Category 2.
  6. ^ All damage figures are in USD amounts of their respective year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (July 6, 2016). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 25, 2016. 
  2. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Dorst, Neal (January 21, 2010). "G1) When is hurricane season?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.6. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Landsea, Chris; et al. (June 2013). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT" (TXT). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Goldenburg, Stan (June 1, 2012). "A3) What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane? What is an intense hurricane?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.5. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Hurricanes: Science and Society. "1957 – Hurricane Audrey". Storms in the 1950s. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/news/20160720_pa_1956to1960Reanalysis.pdf
  8. ^ a b Franklin, James L.; Brown, Daniel P. (March 10, 2006). Hurricane Emily (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Hurricane.com. "Atlantic Hurricane and Tropical Storm Records". Hurricane.com. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Chambers, Gillan (December 1999). "Late Hurricanes: a Message for the Regio". Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands. Coast and Beach Stability in the Lesser Antilles. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  11. ^ Paolino, JJ; Myrie, Donovan (2011). "Category Five Notables". Stormfacts.net. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Beven, John L.; Avila, Lixion A.; Blake, Eric S.; Brown, Daniel P.; Franklin, James L.; Knabb, Richard D.; Pasch, Richard J.; Rhome, Jamie R.; Stewart, Stacy R. (March 2008). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Monthly Weather Review Atlantic Hurricane Season Summary. Miami, Florida: American Meteorological Society. 136 (3): 1109–1173. Bibcode:2008MWRv..136.1109B. doi:10.1175/2007MWR2074.1. Retrieved 14 August 2013.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  13. ^ Lindsey, Rebecca. "Hurricane Bertha". United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 28 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Berg, Robbie (November 28, 2009). Tropical Storm Grace (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  15. ^ Beven II, John L.; Landsea, Christopher W. (December 9, 2010). Hurricane Julia (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Stewart, Stacy R. (January 22, 2013). Hurricane Chris (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  17. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2016/al01/al012016.discus.004.shtml
  18. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2016/al01/al012016.public.008.shtml
  19. ^ Neal Dorst; Sandy Delgado (May 20, 2011). "Subject: E7) What is the farthest a tropical cyclone has traveled ?". Hurricane Research Division. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 3, 2012. 
  20. ^ Moore, Paul L. (December 1, 1957). "The Hurricane Season of 1957" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Miami, Florida: American Meteorological Society. 85 (12): 401–408. Bibcode:1957MWRv...85..401M. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1957)085<0401:THSO>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Hurricane One". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  22. ^ "Hurricane Two". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  23. ^ "Hurricane Seven". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  24. ^ "Hurricane Hannah". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  25. ^ "Hurricane One". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  26. ^ "Hurricane Claudette". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  27. ^ "Tropical Storm Erika". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  28. ^ "Tropical Storm Grace". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  29. ^ "Hurricane Gordon". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  30. ^ "Tropical Storm Alex". noaa. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 15 January 2016. 
  31. ^ "Hurricane Six". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  32. ^ "Hurricane One". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  33. ^ "Tropical Storm Six". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  34. ^ "Hurricane Two". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  35. ^ "Tropical Storm 9". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  36. ^ "Tropical Depression 16". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  37. ^ "Tropical Depression 9". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  38. ^ "Hurricane Gloria". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  39. ^ "Tropical Storm Bret". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  40. ^ "Tropical Depression 6". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  41. ^ "Tropical Storm Erin". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "Tropical Depression Four". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  43. ^ "Hurricane Four". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
  44. ^ "Hurricane Seven". Unisys. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 1 September 2015. 
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