List of Hawker Hurricane operators

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This is a list of the Hawker Hurricane operators.

Operators[edit]

 Argentina[edit]

Argentine Air Force

Only one example of Hurricane Mk.IV, serial KW908, arrived in 1947 as a present from the British Government to the Argentines. The aeroplane was packed in 27 boxes and arrived to Buenos Aires on August '47 aboard the ship SS Durango. On 7 July of that year the aircraft was on public display in an exhibition mounted in one of the main squares of Buenos Aires, with other airplanes like a Lancaster and Fiat G55. In autumn of that year was sent to a flight school of the Argentinian Air Force located in Córdoba, where was painted the national insignia and repainted their camouflage colours; it is known that remained there until the early '60s.

 Australia[edit]

Royal Australian Air Force

The following units served with the Desert Air Force in the Mediterranean Theatre:

Only one Hurricane (V7476) saw service in Australia.[2] It had been shipped, unassembled to No. 226 Group RAF in the Dutch East Indies during early 1942. It was among elements of 226 Grp evacuated to Australia before the Allied defeat in Java. After assembly by RAAF ground staff, this Hurricane served with the following units:

The Hurricane was retired in 1946 and is believed to have been scrapped.

 Belgium[edit]

Belgium bought 20 Hurricanes and a licence to build 80 more, of which only two were completed, with most of the aircraft being lost during the German invasion when they were bombed at the military airfield at Schaffen near Diest on 10 May 1940. Three aircraft transferred in 1946.

Belgian Air Force

 Canada[edit]

Several Royal Canadian Air Force squadrons were equipped with Hurricanes, including 1 Squadron RCAF, which flew in the Battle of Britain.

Royal Canadian Air Force

 Czechoslovakia[edit]

Czechoslovak Air Force on exile in Great Britain

 Egypt[edit]

Royal Egyptian Air Force

 Finland[edit]

A Finnish Hurricane from WWII in Helsinki

Finland bought 12 Mk I Hurricanes at the end of the Winter War, but lost two during the transit flight. The aircraft did not have much success (only 5½ kills). When hostilities began again on 25 June 1941, their use was quite limited, partially because they were worn out due to the scarcity of replacement parts available during the Interim Peace (13 March 1940 – 25 June 1941) and subsequent combat flying. One Hurricane Mk IIB was captured from the Soviets during the war and flown by the Finnish Air Force.

Finnish Air Force

 Free France[edit]

Hurricanes also joined the ranks of the Forces Aériennes Françaises Libres (FAFL), the Free French Air Force, fighting in North Africa between June 1940 and May 1943 . The Hurricanes, like all FAFL aircraft, sported the Cross of Lorraine on the fuselage, instead of the roundel in order to distinguish them from those aircraft flying for the Vichy French air force. These squadrons were generally formed within the RAF, so that Groupe de Chasse Alsace was known in British circles as No. 341 Squadron RAF

Free French Air Force
Free French Naval Air Service

 Germany[edit]

A Hawker Hurricane Mk.1 aircraft (RAF serial V7670) captured intact by the Germans in March 1941 and then recaptured at Gambut airfield later.

The Luftwaffe operated some captured Hurricanes for training and education purposes.[3]

Luftwaffe

 Greece[edit]

Royal Hellenic Air Force

 India[edit]

Hawker Hurricane Mk XII Indian Air Force.
Royal Indian Air Force

 Iran[edit]

Two-seat Hawker Hurricane Trainer no 2-31.

First Hurricane (P3270) was delivered from RAF unit. Next 10 aircraft were left by No. 74 Squadron RAF in May 1943 when unit was sent to Egypt. Last 18 Hurricane IIC were delivered in 1946, two of them were rebuilt as two-seat trainers.[4]

Imperial Iranian Air Force

 Ireland[edit]

Some Hurricanes which either landed accidentally or force-landed in neutral Ireland were immediately impounded by the authorities, followed by their entry into service with the Irish Air Corps at Baldonnel.

Irish Air Corps

 Kingdom of Italy[edit]

Regia Aeronautica

Two Hurricanes Mk.I, built by Zmaj under license, were captured by the Italians when they took over Zemus airfield near Belgrade. Both were later test-flown at the Guidonia facility where more captured aircraft were hoarded.[5] One of them was prominently featured in Roberto Rossellini's period film Un Pilota Ritorna alongside a Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV. Two more fell into Italian hands during the war - one in North Africa[6] and one that touched down intact at Comiso airfield. Their serial numbers are not known.

 Japan[edit]

Japanese soldiers captured at least two Hurricanes in Singapore.[7]

Imperial Japanese Army Air Force

 Netherlands[edit]

Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force[9]

 New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand operated Hurricanes in 486 and 488 Squadrons. Following the fall of Singapore, 488 Squadron's Hurricanes were transferred to New Zealand home service, where some ended their days as airfield decoys. 486 Squadron was formed and operated as a nightfighter unit, operating in conjunction with a Turbinlite Flight, before re-equipping with the Typhoon and becoming a day fighter unit in September 1942.

Royal New Zealand Air Force

 Norway[edit]

Royal Norwegian Air Force

Two squadrons of Norwegian pilots in the RAF used Hurricane MkI and Mk.IIb defending the Scapa Flow naval base on the Orkneys in 1941. In summer 1942, both were transferred South to 11 group, trading in their Hurricanes for Spitfires. A single Hurricane flew in Norway after the war, used for evaluation only.

 Poland[edit]

First Hurricanes were bought by Poland in 1939 but were not delivered before 1 September 1939 and were sent to Turkey instead. Polish pilots could fly Hurricanes in Polish squadrons formed in Great Britain in 1940 and No. 302 and No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadrons took part during Battle of Britain.[10]

Polish Air Forces in exile in Great Britain

 Portugal[edit]

Arma de Aeronautica

 Romania[edit]

In 1939 a Romanian military delegation went to United Kingdom to order fifty Hurricane Mk Is, with 12 for urgent delivery [11] They equipped - with Messerschmitt Bf 109s - elite Grupul 7 vânátoare and Grupul 5 vânătoare of Forţele Aeriene Regale ale României.[12] In June 1943, the Hurricane-equipped Escadrila 53 vânătoare was transferred temporarily from Grupul 5 vânătoare (part of the Combat Air Grouping tasked to support the Romanian offensive in the south-western area of Soviet Union) to Comandamentul Aero Dobrogea (Air Command Dobruja) and initially assigned the defence of the Black Sea coast, including the vital Constanța harbour and the strategic Cernavodă railway bridge across the Danube.[13] The first Romanian aerial victories of the war were achieved by Lt Horia Agarici of Esc. 53 who, flying a damaged Hawker Hurricane shot down three Soviet Bombers that had attempted to bomb the Romanian fleet.[14]

Royal Romanian Air Force

 South Africa[edit]

South African Air Force operated several squadrons of Hurricanes as part of the Desert Air Force, including 40 Squadron.[15]

South African Air Force

 Soviet Union[edit]

Hawker Hurricane in Revda, Murmansk Oblast

Soviet Union received 2,952 aircraft of several variants[16] due to Lend-Lease Act agreements. These aircraft served on all fronts.[17] One Hurricane Mk IIB was captured from the Soviets during the war and flown by the Finnish Air Force.

Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Defence Forces
Soviet Naval Aviation

 Turkey[edit]

Turkey bought Hurricanes in 1939.

Turkish Air Force

 United Kingdom[edit]

The last Hurricanes were withdrawn from RAF first-line service in February 1947, although two remain in service with the RAF's Battle of Britain Memorial Flight.

Royal Air Force
Fleet Air Arm

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (Kingdom and Federal People's Republic)[edit]

Hawker Hurricane Mk IVRP with Yugoslav Air Force markings, Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Zmaj factory built 20 Hurricanes under licence[15][18] along with 24 examples delivered from Britain. After the war 16 aircraft used by SFR Yugoslav Air Force.

Yugoslav Royal Air Force
Yugoslav Squadrons in the RAF
SFR Yugoslav Air Force

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Australian War Memorial, 2008, "450 Squadron RAAF" Retrieved on 6 February 2008.
  2. ^ Darren Crick, 2005, "RAAF A60 Hawker Hurricane" (adf-serials.com) Retrieved on 15 August 2008.
  3. ^ Ryś. Hawker Hurricane, p.158
  4. ^ a b Ryś. Hawker Hurricane, p.55
  5. ^ Garello, Giancarlo; Gueli Marco (2007). Ali straniere in Italia - n°6 - War Prizes. Giorgio Apostolo Editore. 
  6. ^ http://www.qattara.it/foto%20storiche_files/44567_Guerra%2040-43%20-%20Africa%20Settentrionale%20-%20Hurricane%20catturato.jpg
  7. ^ Ryś. Hawker Hurricane, p.171
  8. ^ Bridgwater & Scott 2001, p. 29.
  9. ^ Bridgwater & Scott 2001, p. 62,65.
  10. ^ Gretzyngier 2005
  11. ^ Bernád 2003, p. 8.
  12. ^ Bernád 2003, p. 10.
  13. ^ Bernád 2003, p. 12.
  14. ^ Neulen 2000, p. 96.
  15. ^ a b Franks 1999, p. 150.
  16. ^ Bader 2004, p. 135-137.
  17. ^ http://www.allaces.ru/ (Rus)
  18. ^ Ryś 2006, p. 54.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bernád, Dénes. Rumanian Aces of World War 2 (Aircraft of the Aces 54). Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84176-535-X.
  • Birtles, Philip. Hurricane Squadrons in Focus. Walton on Thames, Surrey, UK: Red Kite, 2003. ISBN 0-9538061-5-4.
  • Bridgwater, H.C. and Scott, Peter. Combat Colours Number 4; Pearl Harbor and Beyond, December 1941 to May 1942. Luton, Bedfordshire, UK: Guideline Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-9539040-6-7.
  • Franks, Richard A. The Hawker Hurricane, a Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller (Modellers Datafile 2). Bedford, UK: SAM Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-9533465-1-X.
  • Lopes, Mário Canongia. Spitfires e Hurricanes em Portugal (Bilingual Portuguese/English). Lisboa, Portugal: Dinalivro, 1993. ISBN 978-972-576-065-9.
  • Ryś, Marek. Hawker Hurricane. Sandomierz, Poland/Redbourn, Herts, UK: Mushroom Model Publications, 2006. ISBN 978-83-89450-32-6.
  • Gretzyngier, Robert. Polskie Skrzydła 4 - Hawker Hurricane, część 1. Sandomierz, Poland: Stratus 2005. ISBN 83-89450-37-2. (Polish)
  • Wawrzyński, Mirosław. Hurricane w obcej służbie - Hurricane in Foreign Service. Warsaw, Poland: AJaKS-Książki Militarne, 2001. ISBN 83-914521-0-7. (Polish with English summary)