No. 111 Squadron RAF
|No. 111 Squadron RAF|
|Active||1 August 1917 – 12 May 1947|
2 December 1953 – 22 March 2011
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Battle honours||Palestine 1917–1918*, Megiddo, Home Defence 1940–1942*, France and Low Countries 1940, Dunkirk*, Battle of Britain 1940*, Fortress Europe 1941–1942*, Dieppe, North Africa 1942–1943*, Sicily 1943, Italy 1943–1945*, Salerno, Anzio and Nettuno, Gustav Line, France and Germany 1944*. Honours marked with an asterisk are those emblazoned on the Squadron Standard|
|Squadron Badge||In front of two swords in saltire a cross potent quadrat charged with three seaxes fesswise in pale|
|Squadron Codes||TM (Apr 1939 – Sep 1939)|
JU (Sep 1939 – May 1947)
B (Carried on Phantoms)
H (Carried on Tornados)
No. 111 (Fighter) Squadron was a squadron of the Royal Air Force. It was formed in 1917 in the Middle East as No. 111 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps during the reorganisation of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force after General Edmund Allenby took command during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The squadron remained in the Middle East after the end of the First World War until 1920 when it was renumbered as No. 14 Squadron.
The squadron was reformed in 1923. In World War II in 1940, it fought in the Battle of Britain. In late 1941 it moved to the Mediterranean, where it was involved in the North African Campaign and then the Allied invasion of Sicily and the Allied invasion of Italy. Disbanded in the years after the war, the squadron reformed in 1953 with jets.
Operating the Hawker Hunter, No. 111 Squadron provided an aerobatic display team – the Black Arrows. It also performed aerobatics when it re-equipped with the Lightning interceptor. The Squadron moved to Scotland in 1975 remaining there after it exchanged Phantoms for the air defence variant of the Panavia Tornado. It operated the Panavia Tornado F3 in air defence from RAF Leuchars, Scotland until March 2011, when the squadron was disbanded, at the same time ending the Tornado F3 service in the RAF.
In World War I
No. 111 Squadron was formed at Deir el-Balah, Palestine, on 1 August 1917, with a mixed bag of single seat fighters as the first dedicated fighter squadron in the region. Its mission was to restrict enemy reconnaissance flights and challenge the German fighter presence over Suez. It was reinforced by Bristol F.2 Fighters in September,one of these claiming the first aerial victory for 111 on 8 October. It handed over its Bristol Fighters to No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps in February 1918, becoming completely equipped with single seat fighters. By the time the Armistice with Turkey ended the war in the Middle East, No. 111 Squadron had claimed 44 enemy aircraft destroyed and a further 13 forced down for the loss of two pilots killed in combat, one prisoner and three wounded. The squadron had produced four aces: Austin Lloyd Fleming, future Air Marshal Peter Roy Maxwell Drummond, Charles Davidson, and Arthur Peck. 'Treble One' moved to Egypt after the War ended and then to Ramla in Palestine on 6 February 1919, re-equipping with the Bristol Fighter. On 1 February 1920, the squadron renumbered to No. 14 Squadron.
Between the wars
On 1 October 1923 111 Squadron reformed at RAF Duxford, equipped with a single flight of six Gloster Grebe fighters, the first Grebes to enter service with the RAF. These were supplemented by a second flight of First World War-vintage Sopwith Snipes in April 1924, and by a third flight of Armstrong Whitworth Siskins in June 1924, completely equipping itself with Siskins in January 1925. The squadron, tasked with defending London, replaced its Siskins with Bristol Bulldogs in January–February 1931, with its Siskins being passed on to 19 Squadron. The squadron moved to RAF Northolt in July 1934 and re-equipped with Gloster Gauntlets in May–June 1936. The squadron became the first Hawker Hurricane squadron in January 1938.
In World War II
111 Squadron played a role in the Battle of Britain, pioneering dangerous head-on attacks against the Luftwaffe bomber streams. Claims included 47 aircraft shot down for 18 Hurricanes lost. The squadron replaced its Hurricanes with Supermarine Spitfires in April 1941. In November the Squadron again relocated to RAF Gibraltar for support of Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. In a similar role it moved to Malta in June 1943 to support Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. No 111 moved through Italy with the advancing Allied ground forces and remained there until the end of the war, after which it moved to Austria. The squadron disbanded in May 1947. 269 aircraft were claimed shot down, making the squadron one of the top RAF scorers for the war.
Into the jet age
The squadron was not reactivated until 1953 when it received Gloster Meteor F8s at RAF North Weald. The Meteors were soon replaced with Hawker Hunters and No. 111 moved to RAF Wattisham in Suffolk. "Tremblers" as it was (and is) affectionately referred to by its staff, achieved international acclaim with their ‘Black Arrows’ aerobatic display team using the Hawker Hunter. The squadron received the all-weather English Electric Lightning fighter in 1962 which it operated for ten years during which, in 1965 it became the RAFs Large Aircraft Aerobatic Display Team under Wing Commander George Black (later AVM). It was famous for the rolling of 12 Lightnings together during its display. In 1974 the squadron moved from Wattisham after almost 18 years and re-equipped with the F-4 Phantom II at RAF Coningsby, before moving north to Leuchars on 3 November 1975.
The squadron began to re-equip with the Tornado F3 in 1990.
Throughout its time at Leuchars the No. 111(F) Squadron was tasked with the maintenance of Quick Reaction Alert, which involves keeping aircraft at a high state of readiness to intercept, identify and, should it be necessary, destroy hostile aircraft approaching UK airspace. The squadron was involved in Operation Deny Flight over Bosnia, Operations Bolton and Resinate in the Middle East and regularly participated in major Air Defence exercises, both in the UK and abroad.
|Aug 1917 – Oct 1917||Bristol Scout|
|Aug 1917 – Oct 1917||Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2||B.E.2e|
|Aug 1917 – Jan 1918||Bristol M.1||M.1b|
|Aug 1917 – Dec 1917||de Havilland DH.2|
|Aug 1917 – Jan 1918||Vickers F.B.19|
|Sep 1917 – Feb 1918||Bristol F2B Fighter|
|Oct 1917 – Feb 1919||Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5||SE.5|
|Jan 1918 – Jul 1918||Nieuport 17|
|Jan 1918 – Jul 1918||Nieuport 23|
|Jan 1918 – Jul 1918||Nieuport 24|
|Feb 1919 – Feb 1920||Bristol F2B Fighter|
|Oct 1923 – Jan 1925||Gloster Grebe||Mk.II|
|Apr 1924 – Jan 1925||Sopwith Snipe|
|Jun 1924 – Nov 1926||Armstrong Whitworth Siskin||Mk.III|
|Sep 1926 – Feb 1931||Armstrong Whitworth Siskin||Mk.IIIa|
|Jan 1931 – Jun 1936||Bristol Bulldog||Mk.IIa|
|May 1936 – Feb 1938||Gloster Gauntlet||Mk.II|
|Jan 1938 – Apr 1941||Hawker Hurricane||Mk.I|
|Mar 1941 – May 1941||Hawker Hurricane||Mk.IIa|
|Apr 1941 – May 1941||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.I|
|May 1941 – Sep 1941||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.IIa|
|Aug 1941 – Okt 1942||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.Vb|
|Nov 1942 – Jan 1944||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.Vc|
|Jun 1943 – May 1947||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.IXe|
|Dec 1953 – Jun 1955||Gloster Meteor||F.8|
|Jun 1955 – Nov 1956||Hawker Hunter||F.4|
|Nov 1956 – Apr 1961||Hawker Hunter||F.6|
|Apr 1961 – Dec 1964||English Electric Lightning||F.1A|
|Dec 1964 – Sep 1974||English Electric Lightning||F.3, F.6|
|Oct 1974 – Jul 1979||McDonnell Douglas Phantom||FGR.2|
|Jan 1978 – Jan 1990||McDonnell Douglas Phantom||FG.1|
|Jun 1990 – Mar 2011||Panavia Tornado ADV||F.3|
- Halley 1988, p. 186.
- Rawlings 1978, p. 235.
- "RAF Leuchars saying farewell to Treble One's Tornado F3s". The Courier (Dundee). 18 March 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Halley 1971, p. 68.
- Halley 1971, p.70.
- Halley 1971, p. 71.
- "111 Squadron". The Aerodrome. 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Mason 1992, p. 162.
- Halley 1971, pp. 71, 73, 80.
- Halley 1971, p. 73.
- Halley 1971, p. 80.
- Urquhart, Frank (16 April 2009). "Historic squadron is disbanded – but Fighting Cocks may fly again". The Scotsman. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "111 Squadron". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Rawlings 1978, pp. 240–242, 571.
- Halley 1988, p. 187.
- Jefford 2001, pp. 58–59.
- Halley, James J. Famous Fighter Squadrons of the RAF: Volume 1. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Hylton Lacey Publishers Ltd., 1971. ISBN 0-85064-100-4.
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE, BA, RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1988 (second edition 2001). ISBN 1-85310-053-6.
- Mason, Francis K. The British Fighter since 1912. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55750-082-7
- Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1969 (second edition 1976). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
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