List of file signatures

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This is a list of file signatures, data used to identify or verify the content of a file. Such signatures are also known as magic numbers or Magic Bytes.

Many file formats are not intended to be read as text. If such a file is accidentally viewed as a text file, its contents will be unintelligible. However, sometimes the file signature can be recognizable when interpreted as text. The column ISO 8859-1 shows how the file signature appears when interpreted as text in the common ISO 8859-1 encoding, with unprintable characters represented as the control code abbreviation or symbol, or codepage 1252 character where available, or a box otherwise. In some cases the space character is shown as ␠ for clarity.

Hex signature ISO 8859-1 Offset Extension Description
23 21 #! 0 Script or data to be passed to the program following the shebang (#!)
D4 C3 B2 A1 (little-endian) Ôò¡ 0 pcap Libpcap File Format[1]
A1 B2 C3 D4 (big-endian) ¡²ÃÔ
4D 3C B2 A1 (little-endian) M<²¡ 0 pcap Libpcap File Format (nanosecond-resolution)[2]
A1 B2 3C 4D (big-endian) ¡²<M
0A 0D 0D 0A ␊␍␍␊ 0 pcapng PCAP Next Generation Dump File Format[3]
ED AB EE DB í«îÛ 0 rpm RedHat Package Manager (RPM) package [4]
53 51 4C 69 74 65 20 66
6F 72 6D 61 74 20 33 00
SQLite format 3␀ 0 sqlitedb
sqlite
db
SQLite Database [5]
53 50 30 31 SP01 0 bin Amazon Kindle Update Package [6]
00 0 PIC
PIF
SEA
YTR
IBM Storyboard bitmap file
Windows Program Information File
Mac Stuffit Self-Extracting Archive
IRIS OCR data file
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
␀␀␀␀␀␀␀␀
␀␀␀␀␀␀␀␀
␀␀␀␀␀␀␀␀
11 PDB PalmPilot Database/Document File
BE BA FE CA ¾ºþÊ 0 DBA Palm Desktop Calendar Archive
00 01 42 44 ␀␁BD 0 DBA Palm Desktop To Do Archive
00 01 44 54 ␀␁DT 0 TDA Palm Desktop Calendar Archive
54 44 46 24 TDF$ 0 TDF$ Telegram Desktop File
54 44 45 46 TDEF 0 TDEF Telegram Desktop Encrypted File
00 01 00 00 ␀␁␀␀ 0 Palm Desktop Data File (Access format)
00 00 01 00 ␀␀␁␀ 0 ico Computer icon encoded in ICO file format[7]
66 74 79 70 33 67 ftyp3g 4 3gp
3g2
3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP and 3GPP2 multimedia files
1F 9D ␟□ 0 z
tar.z
compressed file (often tar zip) using Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm
1F A0 ␟⍽ 0 z
tar.z
Compressed file (often tar zip) using LZH algorithm
42 41 43 4B 4D 49 4B 45
44 49 53 4B
BACKMIKEDISK 0 bac AmiBack Amiga Backup data file
49 4E 44 58 INDX 0 idx AmiBack Amiga Backup index file
42 5A 68 BZh 0 bz2 Compressed file using Bzip2 algorithm
47 49 46 38 37 61
47 49 46 38 39 61
GIF87a
GIF89a
0 gif Image file encoded in the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)[8]
49 49 2A 00 (little-endian) II*␀ 0 tif
tiff
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)
4D 4D 00 2A (big-endian) MM␀*
49 49 2A 00 10 00 00 00
43 52
II*␀␐␀␀␀CR 0 cr2 Canon RAW Format Version 2[9]
Canon's RAW format is based on TIFF.[10]
80 2A 5F D7 €*_× 0 cin Kodak Cineon image
52 4E 43 01
52 4E 43 02
RNC␁
RNC␂
0 Compressed file using Rob Northen Compression (version 1 and 2) algorithm
4E 55 52 55 49 4D 47
4E 55 52 55 50 41 4C
NURUIMG
NURUPAL
0 nui
nup
nuru ASCII/ANSI image and palette files
53 44 50 58 (big-endian format) SDPX 0 dpx SMPTE DPX image
58 50 44 53 (little-endian format) XPDS
76 2F 31 01 v/1␁ 0 exr OpenEXR image
42 50 47 FB BPGû 0 bpg Better Portable Graphics format[11]
FF D8 FF DB
FF D8 FF E0 00 10 4A 46
49 46 00 01

FF D8 FF EE
FF D8 FF E1 ?? ?? 45 78
69 66 00 00
ÿØÿÛ
ÿØÿà␀␐JFIF␀␁
ÿØÿî
ÿØÿá??Exif␀␀
0 jpg
jpeg
JPEG raw or in the JFIF or Exif file format
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
49 4C 42 4D
FORM????ILBM 0
any
ilbm
lbm
ibm
iff
IFF Interleaved Bitmap Image
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
38 53 56 58
FORM????8SVX 0
any
8svx
8sv
svx
snd
iff
IFF 8-Bit Sampled Voice
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
41 43 42 4D
FORM????ACBM 0
any
acbm
iff
Amiga Contiguous Bitmap
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
41 4E 42 4D
FORM????ANBM 0
any
anbm
iff
IFF Animated Bitmap
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
41 4E 49 4D
FORM????ANIM 0
any
anim
iff
IFF CEL Animation
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
46 41 58 58
FORM????FAXX 0
any
faxx
fax
iff
IFF Facsimile Image
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
46 54 58 54
FORM????FTXT 0
any
ftxt
iff
IFF Formatted Text
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
53 4D 55 53
FORM????SMUS 0
any
smus
smu
mus
iff
IFF Simple Musical Score
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
43 4D 55 53
FORM????CMUS 0
any
cmus
mus
iff
IFF Musical Score
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
59 55 56 4E
FORM????YUVN 0
any
yuvn
yuv
iff
IFF YUV Image
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
46 41 4E 54
FORM????FANT 0
any
iff Amiga Fantavision Movie
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ??
41 49 46 46
FORM????AIFF 0
any
aiff
aif
aifc
snd
iff
Audio Interchange File Format
4C 5A 49 50 LZIP 0 lz lzip compressed file
4D 5A MZ 0 exe

scr

sys
dll

fon

cpl

iec

ime

rs

tsp

mz

DOS MZ executable and its descendants (including NE and PE)
5A 4D ZM 0 exe DOS ZM executable and its descendants (rare)
50 4B 03 04
50 4B 05 06 (empty archive)
50 4B 07 08 (spanned archive)
PK␃␄
PK␅␆
PK␇␈
0 zip
aar
apk
docx
epub
ipa
jar
kmz
maff
odp
ods
odt
pk3
pk4
pptx
usdz
vsdx
xlsx
xpi
zip file format and formats based on it, such as EPUB, JAR, ODF, OOXML
52 61 72 21 1A 07 00 Rar!␚␇␀ 0 rar Roshal ARchive compressed archive v1.50 onwards[12]
52 61 72 21 1A 07 01 00 Rar!␚␇␁␀ 0 rar Roshal ARchive compressed archive v5.00 onwards[13]
7F 45 4C 46 ␡ELF 0 Executable and Linkable Format
89 50 4E 47 0D 0A 1A 0A ‰PNG␍␊␚␊ 0 png Image encoded in the Portable Network Graphics format[14]
C9 É 0 com CP/M 3 and higher with overlays[15]
CA FE BA BE Êþº¾ 0 class Java class file, Mach-O Fat Binary
EF BB BF  0 txt
others
UTF-8 byte order mark, commonly seen in text files.[16][17][18]
FF FE ÿþ 0 txt
others
UTF-16LE byte order mark, commonly seen in text files.[16][17][18]
FE FF þÿ 0 txt
others
UTF-16BE byte order mark, commonly seen in text files.[16][17][18]
FF FE 00 00 ÿþ␀␀ 0 txt
others
UTF-32LE byte order mark for text[16][18]
00 00 FE FF ␀␀þÿ 0 txt
others
UTF-32BE byte order mark for text[16][18]
2B 2F 76 38
2B 2F 76 39
2B 2F 76 2B
2B 2F 76 2F
+/v8
+/v9
+/v+
+/v/
0 UTF-7 byte order mark for text[19][18]
0E FE FF ␎þÿ 0 txt
others
SCSU byte order mark for text[19][18]
DD 73 66 73 Ýsfs 0 UTF-EBCDIC byte order mark for text[19][18]
FE ED FA CE þíúÎ 0
0x1000
Mach-O binary (32-bit)
FE ED FA CF þíúÏ 0
0x1000
Mach-O binary (64-bit)
FE ED FE ED þíþí 0 JKS JavakeyStore
CE FA ED FE Îúíþ 0 Mach-O binary (reverse byte ordering scheme, 32-bit)[20]
CF FA ED FE Ïúíþ 0 Mach-O binary (reverse byte ordering scheme, 64-bit)[20]
25 21 50 53 %!PS 0 ps PostScript document
49 54 53 46 03 00 00 00
60 00 00 00
ITSF␃␀␀␀`␀␀␀ 0 chm MS Windows HtmlHelp Data
25 50 44 46 2D %PDF- 0 pdf PDF document[21]
30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11
A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C
0&²uŽfÏ␑¦Ù␀ª␀bÎl 0 asf
wma
wmv
Advanced Systems Format[22]
24 53 44 49 30 30 30 31 $SDI0001 0 System Deployment Image, a disk image format used by Microsoft
4F 67 67 53 OggS 0 ogg
oga
ogv
Ogg, an open source media container format
38 42 50 53 8BPS 0 psd Photoshop Document file, Adobe Photoshop's native file format
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
57 41 56 45
RIFF????WAVE 0 wav Waveform Audio File Format
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
41 56 49 20
RIFF????AVI␠ 0 avi Audio Video Interleave video format
FF FB
FF F3
FF F2
ÿû
ÿó
ÿò
0 mp3 MPEG-1 Layer 3 file without an ID3 tag or with an ID3v1 tag (which is appended at the end of the file)
49 44 33 ID3 0 mp3 MP3 file with an ID3v2 container
42 4D BM 0 bmp
dib
BMP file, a bitmap format used mostly in the Windows world
43 44 30 30 31 CD001 0x8001
0x8801
0x9001
iso ISO9660 CD/DVD image file[23]
53 49 4D 50 4C 45 20 20
3D 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
20 20 20 20 20 54
SIMPLE
=

T
0 fits Flexible Image Transport System (FITS)[24]
66 4C 61 43 fLaC 0 flac Free Lossless Audio Codec[25]
4D 54 68 64 MThd 0 mid
midi
MIDI sound file[26]
D0 CF 11 E0 A1 B1 1A E1 ÐÏ␑ࡱ␚á 0 doc
xls
ppt
msg
Compound File Binary Format, a container format used for document by older versions of Microsoft Office.[27] It is however an open format used by other programs as well.
64 65 78 0A 30 33 35 00 dex␊035␀ 0 dex Dalvik Executable
4B 44 4D KDM 0 vmdk VMDK files[28][29]
43 72 32 34 Cr24 0 crx Google Chrome extension[30] or packaged app[31]
41 47 44 33 AGD3 0 fh8 FreeHand 8 document[32][33][34]
05 07 00 00 42 4F 42 4F
05 07 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 01
␅␇␀␀BOBO
␅␇␀␀␀␀␀␀
␀␀␀␀␀␁
0 cwk AppleWorks 5 document
06 07 E1 00 42 4F 42 4F
06 07 E1 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 01
␆␇á␀BOBO
␆␇á␀␀␀␀␀
␀␀␀␀␀␁
0 cwk AppleWorks 6 document
45 52 02 00 00 00 ER␂␀␀␀ 0 toast Roxio Toast disc image file
8B 45 52 02 00 00 00 ‹ER␂␀␀␀
6B 6F 6C 79 koly end–512 dmg Apple Disk Image file
78 61 72 21 xar! 0 xar eXtensible ARchive format[35]
50 4D 4F 43 43 4D 4F 43 PMOCCMOC 0 dat Windows Files And Settings Transfer Repository[36] See also USMT 3.0 (Win XP)[37] and USMT 4.0 (Win 7)[38] User Guides
4E 45 53 1A NES␚ 0 nes Nintendo Entertainment System ROM file[39]
75 73 74 61 72 00 30 30
75 73 74 61 72 20 20 00
ustar␀00
ustar ␀
257 tar tar archive[40]
4F 41 52 ?? OAR? 0 oar OAR file archive format, where ?? is the format version.
74 6F 78 33 tox3 0 tox Open source portable voxel file[41]
4D 4C 56 49 MLVI 0 MLV Magic Lantern Video file[42]
44 43 4D 01 50 41 33 30 DCM␁PA30 0 Windows Update Binary Delta Compression[43]
37 7A BC AF 27 1C 7z¼¯'␜ 0 7z 7-Zip File Format
1F 8B ␟‹ 0 gz
tar.gz
GZIP compressed file[44]
FD 37 7A 58 5A 00 ý7zXZ␀ 0 xz
tar.xz
XZ compression utility
using LZMA2 compression
04 22 4D 18 ␄"M␘ 0 lz4 LZ4 Frame Format[45]
Remark: LZ4 block format does not offer any magic bytes.[46]
4D 53 43 46 MSCF 0 cab Microsoft Cabinet file
53 5A 44 44 88 F0 27 33 SZDDˆð'3 0 ??_ Microsoft compressed file in Quantum format, used prior to Windows XP. File can be decompressed using Extract.exe or Expand.exe distributed with earlier versions of Windows. After compression, the last character of the original filename extension is replaced with an underscore, e.g. ‘Setup.exe’ becomes ‘Setup.ex_’.
46 4C 49 46 FLIF 0 flif Free Lossless Image Format
1A 45 DF A3 ␚Eߣ 0 mkv
mka
mks
mk3d
webm
Matroska media container, including WebM
4D 49 4C 20 MIL␠ 0 stg "SEAN : Session Analysis" Training file. Also used in compatible software "Rpw : Rowperfect for Windows" and "RP3W : ROWPERFECT3 for Windows".
41 54 26 54 46 4F 52 4D
?? ?? ?? ?? 44 4A 56
AT&TFORM????DJV 0 djvu
djv
DjVu document
The following byte is either 55 (U) for single-page or 4D (M) for multi-page documents.
30 82 0‚ 0 der DER encoded X.509 certificate
44 49 43 4D DICM 128 dcm DICOM Medical File Format
77 4F 46 46 wOFF 0 woff WOFF File Format 1.0
77 4F 46 32 wOF2 0 woff2 WOFF File Format 2.0
3C 3F 78 6D 6C 20 <?xml␠ 0
after BOM
xml eXtensible Markup Language[17][47]
3C 00 3F 00 78 00 6D 00
6C 00 20
<␀?␀x␀m␀l␀␠␀
00 3C 00 3F 00 78 00 6D
00 6C 00 20
␀<␀?␀x␀m␀l␀␠
3C 00 00 00 3F 00 00 00
78 00 00 00 6D 00 00 00
6C 00 00 00 20 00 00 00
<␀␀␀?␀␀␀
x␀␀␀m␀␀␀
l␀␀␀␠␀␀␀
00 00 00 3C 00 00 00 3F
00 00 00 78 00 00 00 6D
00 00 00 6C 00 00 00 20
␀␀␀<␀␀␀?
␀␀␀x␀␀␀m
␀␀␀l␀␀␀␠
4C 6F A7 94 93 40 Lo§”“@
00 61 73 6D ␀asm 0 wasm WebAssembly binary format[48]
CF 84 01 Ï„␁ 0 lep Lepton compressed JPEG image[49]
43 57 53 CWS 0 swf Adobe Flash .swf
46 57 53 FWS
21 3C 61 72 63 68 3E 0A !<arch>␊ 0 deb linux deb file
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
57 45 42 50
RIFF????WEBP 0 webp Google WebP image file, where ?? ?? ?? ?? is the file size. More information on WebP File Header
27 05 19 56 '␅␙V 0 U-Boot / uImage. Das U-Boot Universal Boot Loader.[50]
7B 5C 72 74 66 31 {\rtf1 0 rtf Rich Text Format
54 41 50 45 TAPE 0 Microsoft Tape Format
47 G 0
0xBC
0x178
...
(every 188th byte)
ts
tsv
tsa
mpg
mpeg
MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-2 Part 1)[51]
00 00 01 BA ␀␀␁º 0 m2p
vob
mpg
mpeg
MPEG Program Stream (MPEG-1 Part 1 (essentially identical) and MPEG-2 Part 1)
00 00 01 B3 ␀␀␁³ 0 mpg
mpeg
MPEG-1 video and MPEG-2 video (MPEG-1 Part 2 and MPEG-2 Part 2)
66 74 79 70 69 73 6F 6D ftypisom 4 mp4 ISO Base Media file (MPEG-4)
78 01 x␁ 0 zlib No Compression (no preset dictionary)
78 5E x^ Best speed (no preset dictionary)
78 9C Default Compression (no preset dictionary)
78 DA Best Compression (no preset dictionary)
78 20 x␠ No Compression (with preset dictionary)
78 7D x} Best speed (with preset dictionary)
78 BB Default Compression (with preset dictionary)
78 F9 Best Compression (with preset dictionary)
62 76 78 32 bvx2 0 lzfse LZFSE - Lempel-Ziv style data compression algorithm using Finite State Entropy coding. OSS by Apple.[52]
4F 52 43 ORC 0 orc Apache ORC (Optimized Row Columnar) file format
4F 62 6A 01 Obj␁ 0 avro Apache Avro binary file format
53 45 51 36 SEQ6 0 rc RCFile columnar file format
65 87 78 56 e‡xV 0 p25
obt
PhotoCap Object Templates
55 55 AA AA UUªª 0 pcv PhotoCap Vector
78 56 34 xV4 0 pbt
pdt
pea
peb
pet
pgt
pict
pjt
pkt
pmt
PhotoCap Template
50 41 52 31 PAR1 0 Apache Parquet columnar file format
45 4D 58 32 EMX2 0 ez2 Emulator Emaxsynth samples
45 4D 55 33 EMU3 0 ez3
iso
Emulator III synth samples
1B 4C 75 61 ␛Lua 0 luac Lua bytecode[53]
62 6F 6F 6B 00 00 00 00
6D 61 72 6B 00 00 00 00
book␀␀␀␀mark␀␀␀␀ 0 alias macOS file Alias[54] (Symbolic link)
5B 5A 6F 6E 65 54 72 61
6E 73 66 65 72 5D
[ZoneTransfer] 0 Identifier Microsoft Zone Identifier for URL Security Zones[55]
52 65 63 65 69 76 65 64
3A
Received: 0 eml Email Message var5[citation needed]
20 02 01 62 A0 1E AB 07
02 00 00 00
␠␂␁b⍽␞«␇␂␀␀␀ 0 tde Tableau Datasource
37 48 03 02 00 00 00 00
58 35 30 39 4B 45 59
7H␃␂␀␀␀␀X509KEY 0 kdb KDB file
85 ?? ?? 03 ?? 0 pgp PGP file [56]
28 B5 2F FD (µ/ý 0 zst Zstandard compressed file[57][58]
52 53 56 4B 44 41 54 41 RSVKDATA 0 rs QuickZip rs compressed archive[59][60]
3A 29 0A :)␊ 0 sml Smile file
4A 6F 79 21 Joy! 0 Preferred Executable Format
31 0A 30 30 1␊00 0 srt SubRip File
34 12 AA 55 4␒ªU 0 vpk VPK file, used to store game data for some Source Engine games
2A 2A 41 43 45 2A 2A **ACE** 0 ace ACE (compressed file format)[citation needed]
60 EA 0 arj ARJ
49 53 63 28 ISc( 0 cab InstallShield CAB Archive File
4B 57 41 4A KWAJ 0 ??_ Windows 3.1x Compressed File
53 5A 44 44 SZDD 0 ??_ Windows 9x Compressed File
5A 4F 4F ZOO 0 zoo Zoo (file format)
50 31 0A P1␊ 0 pbm Portable bitmap
50 32 0A P2␊ 0 pgm Portable Gray Map
50 33 0A P3␊ 0 ppm Portable Pixmap
D7 CD C6 9A ×ÍÆš 0 wmf Windows Metafile
67 69 6D 70 20 78 63 66 gimp xcf 0 xcf XCF (file format)
2F 2A 20 58 50 4D 20 2A
2F
/* XPM */ 0 xpm X PixMap
41 46 46 AFF 0 aff Advanced Forensics Format
45 56 46 32 EVF2 0 Ex01 EnCase EWF version 2 format
45 56 46 EVF 0 e01 EnCase EWF version 1 format
51 46 49 QFI 0 qcow qcow file format
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
41 43 4F 4E
RIFF????ACON 0 ani Animated cursor
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
43 44 44 41
RIFF????CDDA 0 cda .cda file
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ??
51 4C 43 4D
RIFF????QLCM 0 qcp Qualcomm PureVoice file format
52 49 46 58 ?? ?? ?? ??
46 47 44 4D
(big-endian)
RIFX????FGDM 0 dcr Adobe Shockwave[61][62][63]
58 46 49 52 ?? ?? ?? ??
4D 44 47 46
(little-endian)
XFIR????MDGF
52 49 46 58 ?? ?? ?? ??
4D 56 39 33
(big-endian)
RIFX????MV93 0 dir
dxr
drx
Macromedia Director file format[64][62][63]
58 46 49 52 ?? ?? ?? ??
33 39 56 4D
(little-endian)
XFIR????39VM
46 4C 56 FLV 0 flv Flash Video file
3C 3C 3C 20 4F 72 61 63
6C 65 20 56 4D 20 56 69
72 74 75 61 6C 42 6F 78
20 44 69 73 6B 20 49 6D
61 67 65 20 3E 3E 3E
<<< Orac
le VM Vi
rtualBox
Disk Im
age >>>
0 vdi VirtualBox Virtual Hard Disk file format
63 6F 6E 6E 65 63 74 69
78
connectix 0 vhd Windows Virtual PC Virtual Hard Disk file format
76 68 64 78 66 69 6C 65 vhdxfile 0 vhdx Windows Virtual PC Windows 8 Virtual Hard Disk file format
49 73 5A 21 IsZ! 0 isz Compressed ISO image
44 41 41 DAA 0 daa Direct Access Archive PowerISO
4C 66 4C 65 LfLe 0 evt Windows Event Viewer file format
50 4D 43 43 PMCC 0 grp Windows 3.x Program Manager Program Group file format
4B 43 4D 53 KCMS 0 icm ICC profile
72 65 67 66 regf 0 dat Windows Registry file
21 42 44 4E !BDN 0 pst Microsoft Outlook Personal Storage Table file
44 52 41 43 4F DRACO 0 drc 3D model compressed with Google Draco[65]
47 52 49 42 GRIB 0 grib
grib2
Gridded data (commonly weather observations or forecasts) in the WMO GRIB or GRIB2 format[66]
42 4C 45 4E 44 45 52 BLENDER 0 blend Blender File Format[67]
00 00 00 0C 4A 58 4C 20 0D 0A 87 0A ␀␀␀␌JXL␠␍␊‡␊ 0 jxl Image encoded in the JPEG XL format[68]
00 01 00 00 00 ␀␁␀␀␀ 0 ttf

tte

dfont

TrueType font
4D 53 57 49 4D 00 00 00 D0 00 00 00 00 MSWIM␀␀␀Ð␀␀␀␀ 0 wim

swm

esd

Windows Imaging Format file

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Libpcap File Format". Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  2. ^ "Libpcap File Format". Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  3. ^ "PCAP Next Generation Dump File Format". Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  4. ^ "A. Format of the RPM file". Retrieved 2017-02-15.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Database File Format". Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  6. ^ "GitHub - NiLuJe/KindleTool: Tool for creating/extracting Kindle updates and more". Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  7. ^ Icons (at MSDN)
  8. ^ GRAPHICS INTERCHANGE FORMAT(sm) Version 89a
  9. ^ Computer Knowledge. "File Extension .CR2 Details". filext.com.
  10. ^ "Inside the Canon RAW format version 2, understanding .CR2 file format and files produced by Canon EOS Digital Camera". free.fr.
  11. ^ Bellard, Fabrice (2015). "BPG Image format".
  12. ^ "TechNote.txt: RAR version 4.00 - Technical information". 2010-12-01. The marker block is actually considered as a fixed byte sequence: 0x52 0x61 0x72 0x21 0x1a 0x07 0x00 Missing or empty |url= (help)
  13. ^ "RAR 5.0 archive format". Retrieved 2013-05-01.
  14. ^ "RFC 2083 - PNG (Portable Network Graphics) Specification Version 1.0". ietf.org.
  15. ^ Elliott, John C.; Lopushinsky, Jim (2002) [1998-04-11]. "CP/M 3.0 COM file header". Seasip.info. Archived from the original on 2016-08-30. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
  16. ^ a b c d e https://unicode.org/faq/utf_bom.html#BOM
  17. ^ a b c d https://odieweblog.wordpress.com/2016/04/10/how-to-load-xml-from-file-with-encoding-detection
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h https://docs.sdl.com/791187/581899/sdl-contenta-5-7/representations-of-boms-by-encoding
  19. ^ a b c https://unicode.org/L2/L2021/21038-bom-guidance.pdf
  20. ^ a b "Mac Developer Library". apple.com.
  21. ^ "File command PDF Magic format". Retrieved 2018-11-06.
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External links[edit]