List of journalists killed in the United States
Numerous journalists have been murdered or killed in the United States while reporting, covering a military conflict, or because of their status as a journalist. At least 39 of these have been directly targeted as a result of their journalistic investigations.
The most dangerous sector of the US media after 1980 has been the race and ethnic press. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, ten journalists serving the Vietnamese, Haitian and Chinese immigrant communities were killed in political assassinations between 1980 and 1993. Chauncey Bailey, who was the editor at a large circulation African American newspaper, was murdered in 2007 for his investigative reporting.
Since the September 11 attacks, terrorism-related deaths involving journalists is another trend.
In some cases, journalists have been attacked but survived, such as Victor Riesel.
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (May 2013)
|November 7, 1837||Elijah Parish Lovejoy||Alton Observer||Alton, Illinois||This abolitionist editor was killed by a pro-slavery mob.|
|June 6, 1843||James Hagan||Vicksburg Sentinel||Vicksburg, Mississippi||Hagan was killed in a duel by Daniel Weisiger Adams-the son of a man he had criticized in his newspaper.|
|February 29, 1844||James A. Ryan||Vicksburg Sentinel||Vicksburg, Mississippi||The Vicksburg Sentinel was a Democratic paper and Ryan was killed by his rival Whig counterpart in a duel on their second fight.|
|September 15, 1848||John Jenkins||Vicksburg Sentinel||Vicksburg, Mississippi||Killed in a fight with an attorney after the two had a previous altercation.|
|June 22, 1854||Joseph Mansfield||San Joaquin Republican||Stockton, California||Mansfield was killed in a fight with a rival editor, both of whom were Democrats.|
|May 20, 1856||James King of William||Daily Evening Bulletin||San Francisco, California|||
|April 6, 1862||Irving W. Carson||New-York Tribune||Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee||First journalist to be killed during the U.S. Civil War. Killed by a cannonball fire while covering the Battle of Shiloh and General Ulysses S. Grant.|
|June 23, 1863||Lynde Walter Buckingham||New York Herald||Aldie, Virginia||Killed as a result of an ambush during the U.S. Civil War. He was buried at the Mount Zion Old School Baptist Church-VDHR 53-339 in Aldie.|
|October 6, 1863||James R. O'Neill||Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper||Baxter Springs, Kansas||O'Neal was an artist-correspondent murdered by Quantrill's guerrillas at the Baxter Springs Massacre.|
|May 6, 1864||Samuel Fiske (aka Dunn Browne)||Springfield Republican||Fredericksburg, Virginia||Capt. Fiske wrote under the name Dunn Browne and served in the army and was mortally wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness.|
|September 14, 1866||Ridgeway Glover||Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper||Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming||While covering the American Indian Wars, Glover was killed and mutilated during the construction of Fort Kearny in 1866.|
|November 5, 1871||Frederick Wadsworth Loring||Appleton's Journal||Wickenburg, Arizona||Was killed while on assignment out west in what is known as the Wickenburg Massacre, an attack on a stagecoach by Native Americans.|
|June 25, 1876||Mark Kellogg||Associated Press||Little Bighorn Battlefield, Montana||The first Associated Press journalist to die while reporting.|
|March 27, 1877||J. Clarke Swayze||Topeka Daily Blade||Topeka, Kansas||Swayze was killed after publishing a critical article about his murderer.|
|April 23, 1880||Charles de Young||The Daily Dramatic Chronicle||San Francisco, California||With his brother M. H. de Young, he founded the newspaper that would become the San Francisco Chronicle. The mayor's son killed him in revenge for a feud de Young had with his father.|
|November 17, 1881||A. B. Thornton||Boonville News||Boonville, Missouri||The town marshal killed Thornton because of criticism from the newspaper and won acquittal based on the perception that the criticism was too intense.|
|March 27, 1884||Charles L. Kusz||The Gringo and Greaser||Manzano, New Mexico||Shot through his window by unknown gunman on horses. His newspaper was reform oriented and created enemies as it sought changes.|
|May 5, 1887||Roderick D. Gambrell||The Shield and Sword||Jackson, Mississippi||Shot by Colonel Jones S. Hamilton for publishing allegations of corrupt business practices Hamilton was engaged in with the state of Mississippi. Hamilton was shot by Gambrell, but survived and was later acquitted of his murder by a jury.|
|May 1, 1888||John H. Martin||New Mississippian||Jackson, Mississippi||Shot in a street encounter with ex-Confederate General Wirt Adams, who was also shot and killed by Martin. Martin published numerous attacks on Adams's character in part due to his association with Colonel Hamilton, killer of the aforementioned Roderick D. Gambrell. Wirt Adams was the brother of Daniel Weisiger Adams who 45 years before had killed a Vicksberg newspaper editor in a duel|
|February 1, 1891||Ignacio Martínez||El Mundo||Laredo, Texas||Owned a newspaper that wrote critical articles on the regime of Mexican President Porfirio Díaz. His murderers fled to Mexico and were never arrested.|
|February 23, 1891||Albert C. Osborne||Sunday World||Columbus, Ohio||Killed in a shootout with William J. Elliott, a rival editor of the Sunday Capital, and Elliott's brother, Patrick. A bystander was also killed and a number of others wounded. Elliott was convicted of second-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment at Ohio Penitentiary.|
|April 1, 1898||William Cowper Brann||Iconoclast||Waco, Texas||Wrote critical articles about Baptists. Shot in the back during a duel.|
|January 15, 1903||Narciso Gener Gonzales||The State||Columbia, South Carolina||He was killed by James H. Tillman, the Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, who was acquitted of murder by a jury.|
|November 9, 1908||Edward W. Carmack||Nashville American||Nashville, Tennessee||Former congressman and senator. He was killed by a former army officer who disapproved of his name appearing in an article and threatened the editor.|
|December 25, 1915||Huang Yuanyong||Shao Nian Zhong Guo Weekly||San Francisco, California||The Chinese national was murdered while visiting the United States. The case remained unsolved but Kuomintang (KMT) supporters were suspected of carrying out the assassination at the Shanghai Low restaurant.|
|July 16, 1927||Don Mellett||Canton Daily News||Canton, Ohio||Shot to death in his garage as a result of a conspiracy with a crime boss and the police chief of Canton.|
|June 9, 1930||Jake Lingle||Chicago Tribune||Chicago, Illinois||Killed in gangland-style by associates of Al Capone. In addition to his job as a reporter, Lingle was on the payroll of Capone's criminal organization.|
|July 23, 1930||Jerry Buckley||WMBC-AM||Detroit, Michigan||Gunned down on election night.|
|September 6, 1934||Howard Guilford||The Saturday Press||Minneapolis, Minnesota||Editor of a newspaper that exposed rampant corruption and organized crime in Minnesota involving Jewish mobsters such as Kid Cann and prominent local and state politicians, including Governor Floyd B. Olson. He and partner Jay Near won the US Supreme Court decision in Near v. Minnesota.|
|December 9, 1935||Walter Liggett||Midwest American||Minneapolis, Minnesota||He wrote about political corruption and organized crime, exposing links between Minneapolis Jewish mob leader Kid Cann and Minnesota Governor Floyd B. Olson. He is believed to have been killed on the orders of Cann, possibly with the knowledge or consent of Olson.|
|January 11, 1943||Carlo Tresca||Il Martello (The Hammer)||New York City, New York||Radical socialist newspaper editor and labor activist; believed to have been killed by a Mafia hitman.|
|January 22, 1945||Arthur Kasherman||Public Press (alternative)||Minneapolis, Minnesota||His death figured into Hubert Humphrey's mayoral victory.|
|July 29, 1949||W.H. "Bill" Mason||KBKI (AM)||Alice, Texas||Known as a crusading radio journalist in a county ruled with an iron hand by local law enforcement, Mason was shot dead by Sheriff deputy Sam Smithwick, who Mason had publicly accused of running a strip club. The senate candidate who lost to Lyndon B. Johnson believed that Smithwick had information about how the election had been rigged but Smithwick was hanged before their meeting. Mason's tombstone reads: "He had the nerve to tell the truth for a lot of little people."|
|September 30, 1962||Paul Guihard||Agence France-Presse||Oxford, Mississippi||Guihard was a British-French civilian who was killed during the civil rights era at the University of Mississippi. He was assigned to photograph the events surrounding James Meredith's attendance when he turned his focus on riots and in the confusion was shot. His murder remains an unsolved case.|
|August 29, 1970||Rubén Salazar||Los Angeles Times||Los Angeles, California||Salazar was killed by deputies of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department while covering the Chicano Moratorium protest in East Los Angeles. The park where the protest took place was later renamed Salazar Park in his honor.|
|June 2, 1976||Don Bolles||Arizona Republic||Phoenix, Arizona||Murdered by a car bomb. Initially assumed to have been a mafia hit, three local men were later convicted of his death. The motive was determined to have been feared exposure of involvement in a land fraud scheme.|
|March 9, 1977||Maurice Williams||WHUR-FM||Washington, D.C.||He was murdered during the 1977 Hanafi Siege.|
|June 28, 1978||John A. Kelly||WHDH-TV||Boston, Massachusetts||Killed during the Blackfriars Massacre.|
|July 21, 1981||Duong Trong Lam||Cai Dinh Lang (The Village Temple)||San Francisco, California||Killed by gunfire from a member of one of two anti-communist groups that claimed responsibility for his assassination.|
|August 24, 1982||Nguyen Dam Phong||Tu Do (Freedom)||Houston, Texas||Was assassinated at his home by an anti-communist group.|
|June 19, 1984||Alan Berg||KOA (AM)||Denver, Colorado||A liberal radio show host who was murdered by a white nationalist group.|
|October 15, 1984||Henry Liu (a.k.a. Chiang Nan)||Freelancer and author||Daly City, California||A critic of the Kuomintang who was assassinated on the orders of the Kuomintang.|
|August 9, 1987||Tap Van Pham (a.k.a. Hoai Diep Tu)||Mai||Garden Grove, California||He was assassinated by arson while sleeping in his office by an anti-communist group that took responsibility.|
|November 22, 1989||Nhan Trong Do||Van Nghe Tien Phong||Fairfax County, Virginia||A layout designer who worked with Triet Le, he was the first employer of the Vietnamese-language magazine to be assassinated.|
|September 22, 1990||Triet Le||Van Nghe Tien Phong||Bailey's Crossroads, Virginia||A columnist of controversial content for the same Vietnamese magazine that employed Nhan Trong Do. Assassinated.|
|February 18, 1991||Jean-Claude Olivier||WLQY-AM (1320)||Little Haiti, Miami, Florida||A colleague of D'Or, he was known for his controversial commentary and was assassinated on his way to his car.|
|March 15, 1991||Fritz D'Or||WLQY-AM (1320)||Little Haiti, Miami, Florida||A colleague of Olivier's at WLQY, he was assassinated as he left a club.|
|March 11, 1992||Manuel de Dios Unanue||El Diario La Prensa||Queens, New York City, New York||Murdered by Colombian drug traffickers for writing about drug trade.|
|October 24, 1993||Dona St. Plite||WKAT||Little Haiti, Miami, Florida||St. Plite was attending a benefit for former colleague Fritz Dor when he was also assassinated for supporting Jean-Bertrand Aristide.|
|August 19, 1997||Dennis Joos||Colebrook News and Sentinel||Colebrook, New Hampshire||Joos, the editor of the News and Sentinel, was at work when 62-year-old Carl Drega entered the building and shot a local judge (whose office was located in the same building as the News and Sentinel). Joos attempted to disarm Drega but was fatally shot. Drega, who had earlier killed two state troopers in a parking lot, then fled to Bloomfield, Vermont, where he wounded four more troopers in a shootout before being killed by police.|
|October 18, 2000||James Edwin Richards||Citizen journalist, editor and publisher||Venice, Los Angeles, California||Richards was murdered at his Oakwood neighborhood home in the neighborhood where he had established himself as a citizen crime reporter.|
|September 11, 2001||Bill Biggart||Freelance photographer||Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York||Killed while photographing the rescue effort outside the World Trade Center before the tower collapsed.|
|October 5, 2001||Robert Stevens||Sun||Boca Raton, Florida||Murdered as one of the media targets of the 2001 anthrax attacks less than a month after 9/11.|
|August 2, 2007||Chauncey Bailey||The Oakland Post||Oakland, California||After investigating corruption and criminal activities connected to Your Black Muslim Bakery, Bailey was murdered on his way to work by an associate of the bakery.|
|August 26, 2015||Alison Parker||WDBJ 7||Moneta, Virginia||Parker, a reporter, and Ward, a photojournalist, were shot on live television by one-time colleague Vester Flanagan while interviewing a subject about tourism.|
|May 30, 2018||Zachary Stoner||Citizen journalist||Chicago, Illinois||Stoner, a music journalist who ran a YouTube channel covering the Chicago hip hop scene and life in his community, was shot and killed while leaving a concert. Stoner's murder remains unsolved.|
|June 28, 2018||Gerald Fischman||The Capital||Annapolis, Maryland||Five employees (four journalists and a sales associate) of The Capital were murdered during the Capital Gazette shooting in the newspaper's office. The suspect in the shooting, Jarrod Ramos, had held a grudge against the newspaper since it published a story about his guilty plea in a criminal harassment case in 2011. Hiassen was an editor and columnist, Fischman was an editorial columnist, Winters was a features journalist. McNamara was a sports reporter for the Capital and the editor for the affiliated weekly Bowie Blade-News. Also killed in the shooting was Rebecca Smith, a sales associate for Capital Gazette Communications.|
|April 25, 2021||Aviva Okeson-Haberman||KCUR-FM||Kansas City, Missouri||Okeson-Haberman was an investigative political reporter for National Public Radio. She was killed by a bullet that entered her apartment through a window.|
|September 3, 2022||Jeff German||Las Vegas Review-Journal||Las Vegas, Nevada||German, an investigative journalist, was stabbed multiple times outside his home. On September 7, Clark County public administrator Robert Telles was arrested as the suspect in German's murder. German had written an investigative series about alleged mismanagement in Telles' office, and Telles had lost a primary election for his position that June.|
|February 22, 2023||Dylan Lyons||Spectrum News 13||Pine Hills, Florida||Lyons, a television news reporter for Spectrum News 13, was shot and killed while filming a story on a homicide that happened earlier that day. His colleague, photographer Jesse Walden, was injured but survived. The police arrested the suspect in the original homicide, who is expected to face murder charges for allegedly committing the first homicide, the shooting of the journalists, and a later shooting in which a woman was injured and her nine year old daughter was killed.|
Other journalists and media workers killed on 9/11
The only professional, working journalist to die while covering the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City was photojournalist Bill Biggart, who was killed by falling debris as he was taking photographs. However, the International Federation of Journalists, which also counts media workers, said that six other media workers and a journalist who were not working at the time died in the attacks. Among those media workers listed as killed were six broadcast TV engineers, who worked inside a tower, and another professional photojournalist, who was a passenger on the first plane that was flown into the WTC.
- Rod Coppola, TV engineer for WNET-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- Donald DiFranco, TV engineer for WABC-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- Steve Jacobson, TV engineer for WPIX-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- Bob Pattison, TV engineer for WCBS-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- Thomas Pecorelli, professional freelance photojournalist, American Airlines Flight 11 passenger
- Isias Rivera, TV engineer for WCBS-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- William Steckman, TV engineer for WNBC-TV, WTC (North Tower)
- ^ a b c d Peele, Thomas (August 1, 2012). "Death stalks some reporters working their beats in U.S." Plain Dealer. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- ^ Katel, Peter (July 5, 1993). "A Rash of Media Murders". Newsweek. Retrieved October 21, 2013.[dead link] Alt URL Archived October 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Kuruvila, Matthai (January 31, 2008). "Grassroots ethnic reporting a perilous calling". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- ^ Stacy, Stacy Lu (June 1996). "Journalism for the Brave | American Journalism Review". Ajr.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f Carney, Eliza Newlin (November 1993). "The Dangers of Being A Vietnamese Reporter". American Journalism Review. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f Thompson, A.C. (November 3, 2015). "Terror in Little Saigon". ProPublica & Frontline.
- ^ a b Christopher Heredia, Leslie Fulbright and Marisa Lagos (August 2, 2007). "Hit man kills newspaper editor on Oakland street". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- ^ Simon, Joel (February 10, 2009). "Attacks on the Press in 2008: Introduction". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- ^ Guggenheim, Ken (May 6, 2002). "Memorial Adds Names of 51 Journalists". Editor & Publisher. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- ^ Gelder, Van (January 5, 1995). "Victor Riesel, 81, Columnist Blinded by Acid Attack, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- ^ "Elijah Parish Lovejoy". The Untold Story: Activism & Social Justice at Colby. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Elijah Parish Lovejoy". Altonweb at the Riverbend. Archived from the original on February 2, 1999. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ a b Davis, Jefferson (1974). James T. McIntosh (ed.). The Papers of Jefferson Davis: Volume 2 June 1841 – July 1846. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 252–253.
- ^ a b Davis, Jefferson (1974). James T. McIntosh (ed.). The Papers of Jefferson Davis: Volume 2 June 1841 – July 1846. Louisiana State University Press. p. 62.
- ^ Davis, Jefferson (1974). James T. McIntosh (ed.). The Papers of Jefferson Davis: Volume 2 June 1841 – July 1846. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 318–319.
- ^ "A Crime Scene: Vicksburg, Mississippi" (blog). The Trans-Mississippian. June 3, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Noble, Doug. "Criminal annals 93: Gold fields and Judge Lynch". Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Casey, James P. "Assassination of James King of Wm.: San Francisco, May 14th, 1856". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Woolley, Lell Hawley. "California 1849–1913 or The Rambling Sketches and Experiences of Sixty-Four Years' Residence in That State". Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Heidler, David Stephen; Jeanne T. Heidler; David J. Coles (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 426–427.
- ^ "Did you know?". Mosby Heritage Area Association Newsletter. Mosby Heritage Area Association. February 2010. Archived from the original (newsletter) on August 3, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Nichols, Bruce (2004). Guerrilla Warfare in Civil War Missouri, Volume II, 1863. McFarland.
- ^ Fiske, Samuel (1866). Mr. Dunn Browne's Experiences in the Army. Boston: Nichols and Noyes. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
Samuel Wheelock Fiske.
- ^ "Indian outrages". New York Times. September 27, 1866. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- ^ "The Pacific Coast, 1871: Frederick W. Loring's Death". Hartford Daily Courant. November 15, 1871. ProQuest 553691910.
- ^ Liddell, Marlane A. (May 1998). "The AP Looks Back: 150 Years of Capturing the Moment". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Topeka:John W. Wilson, who shot J. Clarke Swayze". Western Home Journal. April 5, 1877. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
- ^ McKee, Irving (August 1947). "The Shooting of Charles de Young". Pacific Historical Review. 16 (3): 271–284. doi:10.2307/3635998. JSTOR 3635998.
- ^ "Crimes and casualties". The Sun. November 21, 1881. ProQuest 534607699.
- ^ "Lawless New Mexico". Los Angeles Times. April 22, 1889. ProQuest 163457579.
- ^ Roderick D. Gambrell: Death of a Hip Pocket Reformer – YesterYear Once More Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- ^ Colonel Jones Stewart Hamilton: The Train and the Tragedies – YesterYear Once More Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- ^ a b Oshinsky, David M. (1996). Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-684-82298-3.
- ^ THE DOUBLE DEATH Which Disgraced Mississippi Last Tuesday. The Fatal Meeting Between General Wirt Adams and Mr. John H. Martin — The Cause of the Tragedy. – Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Georgia) May 4, 1888. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
- ^ Lloyd, Jane-Dale (1986). Porfirio Díaz frente al descontento popular regional, 1891–1893: antología documental (in Spanish). Universidad Iberoamericana. p. 65. ISBN 978-9688590119. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- ^ "WARRING EDITORS. Sensational Shooting Affray in Columbus, Oh. TWO MEN KILLED AND SEVEN SERIOUSLY WOUNDED". Sacramento Daily Union. Record-Union. February 24, 1891. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- ^ Dyer, B. F., Warden (1891). History of the Ohio Penitentiary, Annex and Prisoners. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Penitentiary Print. pp. 173–176.
- ^ Oshinsky, David M. (1900). Executive Documents. Annual Reports for 1899 Made to the Seventy-Fourth General Assembly of the State of Ohio, Part I. Columbus, Ohio: The Westbote Co., State Printers. pp. 805–812.
- ^ Conger, Roger N. (June 12, 2010). "William Cowper Brann". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Kantrowitz, Stephen (2015). Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy. UNC Press Books.
- ^ "Woman Tells How Carmack Was Slain" (PDF). The New York Times. February 17, 1909. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Lai, H. Mark (2010). Chinese American Transnational Politics. University of Illinois Press. p. 14.
- ^ "Where in the World Is Molly Zelko?". Chicago Reader. March 11, 1993. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- ^ "Death in Detroit". Time. August 4, 1930. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Former newspaper editor is slain". Lewiston Evening Journal. Associated Press. September 7, 1934. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ United Press (September 7, 1934). "Gag law case editor is slain". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved December 7, 2012.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "Liggett slaying stirs demand for clean-up". Milwaukee Journal. December 15, 1935. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Walter Liggett, editor, killed". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. December 10, 1935. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "The unsolved murder of famous anarchist Carlo Tresca". New York Daily News. August 14, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- ^ "The murder of journalist Arthur Kasherman". Rubbed Out. November 21, 2009. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ "Dime a dance place is shot up after slaying". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 31, 1949. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- ^ "On disputed Texas election". Schenectady Gazette. May 27, 1952. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- ^ Salinas, Alicia (June 9, 2010). "Alice, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- ^ Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 60–71.
- ^ Gustavo Reveles Acosta (August 29, 2010). "Ruben Salazar killing left impact on Hispanics, journalism". El Paso Times. Archived from the original on January 10, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
- ^ Laura Pulido; Laura Barraclough; Wendy Cheng (2012). A People's Guide to Los Angeles. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780520270817.
- ^ "Don Bolles' tragic death". Michigan Daily. June 16, 1976. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Hensley, Tatiana (May 28, 2006). "Bolles: Cautious man, dedicated journalist". Arizona Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Kelly, Charles (May 28, 2006). "Reverberations felt 30 years after Don Bolles' death". Arizona Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Ruelas, Richard (July 6, 2016). "James Robison, accused of bombing Republic reporter Don Bolles in 1976, dead at 90". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
The Republic confirmed Robison's death this week when it obtained a death certificate from the San Bernardino County clerk's office, showing he died in 2013 at age 90.
- ^ Glen Creno and Dennis Wagner (July 22, 2009). "Max Dunlap dies; was guilty of killing "Republic" reporter". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- ^ Associated Press, Notorious '76 bombing figure dies, reprinted in the Tucson Citizen (May 27, 2002). Retrieved 2016-10-16.
- ^ Vargas, Theresa (March 12, 2007). "'Some Things You Never Forget': Thirty years ago, gunmen stormed three D.C. buildings, taking 150 hostages and one life". Washington Post. p. B01. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ "Timeline: Whitey Bulger's Life in Boston". WGBH. June 22, 2011. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- ^ a b c d e Schou, Nick (August 16, 2007). "A History of Violence". OC Weekly. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e Schou, Nick (August 16, 2007). "Red Scare in Little Saigon". OC Weekly. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Coburn, Judith (February–March 1983). "Terror in Saigontown, U.S.A." Mother Jones. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Tuyen Ngoc, Tran (2007). Behind the Smoke and Mirrors: The Vietnamese in California, 1975—1994. Location: Publisher. p. 149. ISBN 9780549530671.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Kolker, Claudia (February 9, 1995). "Casualties of War". Houston Press. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Estes, Clarissa Pinkola (May 30, 2007). "The Ironies: White Supremacist Convicted of Slaying Alan Berg Dies". The Moderate Voice. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ Bishop, Katherine (March 9, 1988). "California Jury Is Told Defendant Admitted Slaying Journalist". New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ a b Ayres Jr, B. Drummond (September 25, 1990). "Slaying of Vietnamese Exiles in Washington Renews Refugee Fears". New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ "Political motives in two killings?". Spokane Chronicle. September 24, 1990. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- ^ a b c "Haiti's Culture of Violence Extends to Miami / The Christian Science Monitor". Christian Science Monitor. October 27, 1993. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- ^ "Controversial disc jockey shot to death". The Victoria Advocate. Associated Press. February 21, 1991. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- ^ Rhor, Monica (March 17, 1991). "Militant Haitian Activist Shot And Killed By Unidentified ManMilitant Haitian Activist Shot And Killed By Unidentified Man". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- ^ Ruiz, Albor (March 7, 2002). "Another Journalist Who Died In War". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- ^ Brock, Pope (March 30, 1992). "A Crusader Falls". People.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- ^ "Haitian Commentator's Death". Sun Sentinel. October 26, 1993. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- ^ "Memorial service held in Colebrook to remember victims of shooting rampage". WMUR. August 20, 2022. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
- ^ "Was an LA Activist Shot for His Anti-Crime Efforts? – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- ^ Piccalo, Gina; Streeter, Kurt (October 19, 2000). "Venice Anti-Gang Activist Killed in His Driveway". LA Times. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- ^ Neal, Rome (September 6, 2002). "Bill Biggart: Final Exposures". CBS News. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- ^ "Chronology of 2001 anthrax events". sun-sentinel. December 24, 2012. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- ^ "2 Virginia TV Crew Members Are Killed During Live Broadcast". New York Times. August 26, 2015.
- ^ "Zachary "ZackTV" Stoner". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- ^ Duncan, Ian; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (June 28, 2018). "Sources identify suspect in Annapolis Capital shooting as Jarrod Ramos, who had long-running feud with paper". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- ^ Marbella, Jean. "Capital Gazette editor Rob Hiaasen identified as victim of shooting at newspaper". baltimoresun.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ Wenger, Yvonne. "Capital Gazette shooting victim Wendi Winters: A prolific writer who chronicled her community". baltimoresun.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ Cox, Erin. "Capital Gazette shooting victim Gerald Fischman: Clever and quirky voice of a community newspaper". baltimoresun.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ McDaniels, Andrea K. "Capital Gazette shooting victim John McNamara: Sports reporting was his dream job". baltimoresun.com. Archived from the original on May 26, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ Anderson, Jessica. "Capital Gazette shooting victim Rebecca Smith: Recent hire loved spending time with family". baltimoresun.com.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Phil Helsel (April 26, 2021), Kansas City journalist dies after being struck by bullet in her home, NBC News
- ^ Watson, Michelle; Sarisohn, Hannah (September 5, 2022). "Las Vegas police seek public's help after veteran reporter is found dead outside his home". CNN. Retrieved September 5, 2022.
- ^ Ritter, Ken (September 7, 2022). "Police arrest Vegas-area elected official in reporter death". The Associated Press. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- ^ "Police arrest local official suspected of killing Las Vegas reporter Jeff German". Committee to Protect Journalists. September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
- ^ "Remembering Spectrum News 13 reporter Dylan Lyons". www.mynews13.com. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
- ^ "Keith Melvin Moses: What we know about suspect in deadly Pine Hills shooting". FOX 35 Orlando. February 22, 2023. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
- ^ "Reporter, 9-year-old dead; 2 others hurt in Orlando shooting, sheriff says". WESH. February 23, 2023. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
- ^ Kelly, Jason (February 27, 2023). "News 13 photographer Jesse Walden released from the hospital after being shot in Pine Hills". WFTV. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
- ^ O'Clery, Conor (December 22, 2001). "The parting shot". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on November 18, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- ^ Adler, Jerry (October 15, 2001). "Shooting To the End". Newsweek. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- ^ a b c d "100 Journalists Killed In 2001". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f "At Pakistan/Afghanistan Border; Journalist Among Dead and Media Workers Missing". IFEX.org. September 25, 2001. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2013.