Murders of Alison Parker and Adam Ward
|Murders of Alison Parker and Adam Ward|
|Date||August 26, 2015 |
Shooting: 6:46 a.m.
Manhunt 6:46 a.m. – c. 11:30 a.m. (EDT)
|Target||Alison Parker and Adam Ward|
|Weapons||Glock 19 9mm pistol|
|Deaths||3 (including the perpetrator)|
|Perpetrator||Vester Lee Flanagan II (aka Bryce Williams)|
|Motive||Perceived workplace animosity and racial prejudice, supposed revenge for the Charleston church shooting|
News reporter Alison Parker and photojournalist Adam Ward were employees of CBS affiliate WDBJ in Roanoke, Virginia who were fatally shot on August 26, 2015, while conducting a live television interview near Smith Mountain Lake in Moneta. They were interviewing Vicki Gardner, executive director of the local chamber of commerce, when all three were attacked by a gunman. Parker, age 24, and Ward, age 27, died at the scene, while Gardner survived.
The gunman was 41-year-old Vester Lee Flanagan II, also known by the professional pseudonym of Bryce Williams, a former reporter at WDBJ who had been fired in 2013 for disruptive conduct. After a five-hour manhunt, Flanagan shot himself during a car chase with police officers and died later at a hospital.
Parker and Ward were conducting a live interview with Gardner at Bridgewater Plaza in Moneta about upcoming events for the 50th anniversary of Smith Mountain Lake, 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Roanoke. The shooting occurred at 6:46 a.m. Eastern Time in the middle of the segment, which was broadcast on WDBJ's morning news program Mornin'. Video of the incident showed Parker conducting the interview when at least eight gunshots were heard, followed by screams. Ward's camera fell to the ground, briefly capturing the image of Flanagan holding a Glock 19 9mm pistol.
WDBJ production master control operators then switched back to Mornin' anchor Kimberly McBroom at the station's news studio, seemingly confused by what had just happened. She later said that she believed the noises could have been a car backfiring or shots being fired in the background.
Parker and Ward died at the scene. Gardner was also shot, but she survived following surgery at Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital. According to the state medical examiner's office, Parker died from gunshot wounds to her head and chest, while Ward died from shots to his head and torso. Gardner was shot in the back after she curled into a fetal position in an attempt to play dead. A total of 15 shots were fired.
Staff in the WDBJ newsroom reviewed video of the incident from Ward's fallen camera and identified Flanagan as the likely gunman. They alerted general manager Jeffrey Marks, who passed the information to the county sheriff. Flanagan faxed ABC News at 8:23 a.m. and then phoned shortly after 10:00 a.m., making a confession. During the ensuing manhunt, authorities tracked Flanagan's cell phone to locate him.
Flanagan abandoned his Ford Mustang at the Roanoke–Blacksburg Regional Airport and drove a rented Chevrolet Sonic north on I-81, then east on I-66. An automated license plate reader in a Virginia state trooper's car identified the rented Sonic at 11:20 a.m. The trooper called for backup and attempted to initiate a traffic stop, but Flanagan sped away. His car ran off the side of the road and struck an embankment near Markham after a pursuit of less than two miles. He was found inside the car with gunshot wounds which were apparently self-inflicted while he was driving. He was airlifted to Inova Fairfax Hospital in Falls Church, where he was declared dead at 1:26 p.m.
Alison Bailey Parker (August 19, 1991 – August 26, 2015) grew up in Martinsville, Virginia and attended Patrick Henry Community College and James Madison University. She interned at WDBJ in 2012, worked as a general assignment news reporter at ABC affiliate WCTI-TV in New Bern, North Carolina from December 2012 until May 2014, and then was hired by WDBJ in 2014 as a correspondent for Mornin'.
Adam Laing Ward (May 10, 1988 – August 26, 2015) was born in Daleville, Virginia. He grew up in Salem, Virginia and graduated from Virginia Tech with a degree in communications and media studies in 2011. He had worked at the station since July 2011 as a videographer, as well as an occasional sports reporter.
Vicki Gardner is originally from Union Springs, New York and has been the executive director of the Smith Mountain Lake Regional Chamber of Commerce since 2002. She underwent surgery in which her right kidney and part of her colon were removed and was released from the hospital on September 8, 2015.
Vester Lee Flanagan
Vester Lee Flanagan II
October 8, 1973
Oakland, California, U.S.
|Died||August 26, 2015 (aged 41)|
Falls Church, Virginia, U.S.
|Cause of death||Suicide by self-inflicted gunshot wounds|
|Other names||Bryce Williams|
|Education||San Francisco State University|
|Occupation||Television news journalist; former model|
Vester Lee Flanagan II (October 8, 1973 – August 26, 2015) was known professionally as Bryce Williams and was a native of Oakland, California. His family were Jehovah's Witnesses. He graduated from Skyline High School and attended San Francisco State University, earning a degree in radio and television in 1995. He interned at CBS affiliate KPIX in San Francisco in 1993, eventually working there as a production assistant and weekend news writer. He had been a small-time actor and model before beginning his career in journalism.
Flanagan worked as a general assignment news reporter at CBS affiliate WTOC-TV in Savannah, Georgia from February 1997 to March 1999. He worked as a reporter for NBC affiliate WTWC-TV in Tallahassee, Florida between March 1999 and March 2000. He later reported to news director Don Shafer that co-workers were making offensive comments about his sexual orientation. In an interview with the Daily Mail, former WTWC sports reporter Dave Leval said that Flanagan verbally abused two female staffers at the station on different occasions after they pointed out mistakes in his reporting, and several photographers tried to get out of working on stories to which Flanagan was assigned due to his "diva" behavior.
Flanagan lost his job due to "odd behavior" in March 2000, and he filed a civil lawsuit against WTWC alleging racial discrimination, as he was African-American. The lawsuit was settled under unspecified terms in January 2001. WTWC's owner Sinclair Broadcast Group had discontinued the station's news operations in November 2000 due to poor ratings and budget reductions. Flanagan worked for CBS affiliate WNCT-TV in Greenville, North Carolina from 2002 to 2004. He also found some work at ABC affiliate KMID in Midland, Texas.
Tenure at WDBJ
WDBJ announced on April 19, 2012 that they hired Flanagan as a multimedia journalist under the professional name Bryce Williams. Documents relating to his time at WDBJ suggest that the station's management considered him an experienced reporter, but there were conflicts with other reporters and with photographers. Office memos from WDBJ showed that news director Dan Dennison ordered him to contact Health Advocate in July 2012 after receiving complaints that co-workers were "feeling threatened or uncomfortable" while working with him. It is unclear whether he did so prior to his dismissal.
WDBJ dismissed Flanagan on February 1, 2013 because of his volatile behavior. According to a former colleague, upon learning of his dismissal, Flanagan lashed out at news room staffers, resulting in the staffers being put in a room while police escorted him out of the building. Ward allegedly recorded Flanagan as he was escorted out, and the two men had a confrontation earlier that day. Flanagan allegedly threw a wooden cross at Dennison, saying, "You need this." WDBJ provided security to the staffers for a time after the incident and directed them to call the police if he ever returned to the station. Flanagan filed an EEOC complaint against WDBJ, alleging racial discrimination, and he allegedly named Parker in it. The EEOC investigated, then dismissed the complaint as uncorroborated. Flanagan wrote a suicide note in which he said that he killed both of his cats out of rage after the incident.
Following his dismissal, Flanagan got a job at a local UnitedHealth Group call center. He had a confrontation with a female employee who casually pointed out how quiet he was being, to which he responded aggressively, telling her to never talk to him again. One of Flanagan's neighbors in his apartment complex described him as an arrogant person who acted rudely towards people around him. He was noted for sometimes throwing cat feces at the homes of neighbors with whom he had disputes.
Shooting and motives
Flanagan maintained accounts on Facebook and Twitter which were suspended after he was named as a suspect in the shooting. He repeated his claims of racial discrimination by WDBJ on both profiles, specifically naming Parker and Ward. He claimed that Parker had made a coded racist remark during her internship at WDBJ regarding a friend of Flanagan's, and that Ward had filed a complaint against him to WDBJ's human resources department after working with him on one occasion.
At 11:14 a.m. on the day of the shooting, Flanagan uploaded a 56-second phone camera video to his Twitter and Facebook accounts before they were suspended, shot from a first-person perspective of the incident. The video shows him walking up to the scene of the interview and brandishing a handgun for approximately 15 seconds without Ward, Parker, or Gardner noticing; Gardner later said that she had been blinded by the television lighting. He mutters "bitch" while pointing the weapon at Parker, and lowers the gun before raising it again and opening fire directly at her. Parker flinches and screams before attempting to escape the attack, and the light of Ward's camera is seen quickly dropping before Flanagan pulls the camera away and shuts it off.
ABC News received a 23-page fax at 8:26 a.m. allegedly sent by Flanagan entitled "Suicide Note for Friend & Family". He described his grievances over what he alleged to be racial discrimination and sexual harassment committed by black men and white women in his workplace, believing that he was targeted because he was a homosexual black man. Flanagan claimed to have been provoked by the Charleston church shooting two months before and made threatening comments about Dylann Roof, the perpetrator of that crime. He described the church shooting as a "tipping point", saying that his anger had been "building steadily" and describing himself as "a human powder keg… just waiting to go BOOM". A spokesman for the Franklin County Sheriff's Office said that Flanagan "very closely identified" with "individuals who have committed domestic acts of violence and mass murder, as well as the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S." He said that Jehovah had told him to act and expressed an admiration for Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, who perpetrated the 1999 Columbine High School massacre; and Seung-Hui Cho, the perpetrator of the 2007 Virginia Tech shooting. Flanagan said in the note, "Yeah I'm all fucked up in the head."
After Flanagan's death, officers searched his rental car and found various items, including a Glock pistol with several magazines and ammunition, a cell phone, letters, notes, a "to-do" list, a suitcase containing three license plates, and several disguises, including a wig.
President Barack Obama said that he was heartbroken over the murders. Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe said on Twitter that he also was heartbroken over the shooting, and he reasserted his support for gun control. He later made calls for tougher gun laws in the state and blamed the state legislature for failing to pass a package of gun control measures that he had proposed earlier in January. His remarks drew criticism from Republicans, who said that he was politicizing the tragedy. Virginia Senator Mark Warner gave his condolences to Parker and Ward's families, as well as to WDBJ and the first responders involved.
Parker's father, Andy Parker, said that he would become an advocate on the issue of gun violence prevention, comparing it to John Walsh's advocacy of crime prevention, and he said that he would speak with politicians and news outlets to address issues of mental health and improving care for those with mental illnesses. He had run as a Democratic candidate for the Virginia House of Delegates in 2007 but was not elected, and he urged politicians to strengthen laws against gun violence. His comments were made against pressure from the National Rifle Association (NRA), whom he criticized for preventing Senators and Representatives from passing such legislation in the past. He criticized Virginia Senators Tim Kaine, who criticized the NRA for blocking efforts by the Virginia General Assembly and Congress to tighten background checks for gun purchases, and Mark Warner for not directly contacting his family following the announcement that his daughter was one of the victims.
Staff members for Senator Kaine explained that Kaine had not contacted the victims' families at the time "out of respect for their space and privacy during this difficult time of grieving". The same reasoning was cited by Mark Warner on August 29, who said he did not immediately contact Parker's family out of respect to the family's privacy "at a time of unimaginable grief".
In the immediate wake of the shooting, various media productions were either delayed or pulled from television outlets. The first-season finale of the series Mr. Robot was postponed one week from its originally scheduled air date (the day of the murders) because the episode included a scene with similarities to the incident. IFC delayed airing an episode of its satirical series Documentary Now! which centered on two journalists who are killed on-camera as they track down a Mexican drug cartel leader. Warner Bros. Records decided to pull a television commercial for Disturbed's album Immortalized, as it depicted an incident similar to the killings.
Writing about news coverage of the incident, ThinkProgress noted, "There isn’t broad consensus about how to handle this type of coverage." Users of Facebook and Twitter criticized the sites' autoplay option, which allowed opted-in viewers to see graphic images of the shooting without warning. The New York Post, the New York Daily News, and British tabloids The Daily Mirror and The Sun were criticized for their decision to publish still frames from Flanagan's phone video of the murders on their front pages. ABC World News Tonight did not show any part of Flanagan's video; NBC Nightly News broadcast a still frame; and CBS Evening News showed a 25-second segment of the video. CNN aired the footage once every hour on the day of the shooting. The gun control lobbying group Everytown for Gun Safety shared the broadcast video with a three-second discretionary warning, despite WDBJ's plea on Twitter not to "share or post the video".
Christine Courtois chaired the American Psychological Association's post-traumatic stress disorder guidelines development panel, and she warned that anyone watching the footage was likely to be upset, possibly leading to acute stress disorder. The Guardian journalist Catherine Bennett criticized the media's use of frame shots and footage as "helping Flanagan achieve his vanity script." Ebony writer Jamilah Lemieux and Dexter Thomas of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the American mainstream media were too selective about rebroadcasting the footage of Parker and Ward's deaths to white audiences but have frequently showed content of many black people being killed. Los Angeles Times writer Mary McNamara wrote that reluctance to watch or share the graphic footage in order to prevent the fulfillment of "a killer's wish is not just absurd, it's agreeing to adopt a murderer's way of thinking." She said that people should watch the footage, not for entertainment, but to realize how brutal the murders were. New York Daily News writer Linda Stasi said that media criticism of showing footage contradicted frequent media decisions to publish other violent content.
The Virginia State Police ordered BBC journalists to delete the station's copy of the video of Flanagan crashing his car during the police chase before he committed suicide.
Battling online material
In sworn testimony before Congress in July 2019, Alison's father, Andy Parker, credited the HONR Network in assisting him to combat online offensive material and hoaxes spread after the tragedy, saying "the HONR Network who worked long hours flagging videos so that I was spared. When finding offensive content, HONR volunteers would click the report button below each video and check the appropriate box explaining how the video violates YouTube's Community Guidelines. Although hundreds of videos have been taken down due to their diligence, they are often stymied even with an enforceable copyright." He also added "I have engaged in direct communications with Google regarding the proliferation of these videos, but while they profess a desire to help, in reality they do nothing... [I met with] Google Director of Global Human Rights regarding specific content and our attempts to have it removed. Their response was “We’re really trying”. Since that meeting, there has been nothing but silence. Thanks to Section 230, Google has complete immunity and therefore no incentive to respond." On February 20, 2020, Andy Parker filed a complaint to the Federal Trade Commission alleging that YouTube had failed to enforce its own Terms of Service by keeping certain videos of the shooting on its website.
Following the murders, Patrick Henry Community College and the PHCC Foundation created the Alison Bailey Parker Memorial Scholarship in order to remember Parker, who graduated from the college in 2009. The scholarship is awarded annually to a student studying in a Media Design and Production program. In 2017, James Madison University dedicated a sound stage and control room in Harrison Hall to Parker, naming it the Alison B. Parker studio. The university's Media Arts & Design School also established the Alison B. Parker Memorial Fund in her honor.
The Salem Educational Foundation and Alumni Association established the Adam Ward Scholarship fund to remember Ward. He had previously attended Salem High School where his father, Buddy, had also worked as a guidance counsellor.
- Capital Gazette shooting
- Christine Chubbuck, a television news reporter and the first person to commit suicide on live television in 1974
- Crime in Virginia
- R. Budd Dwyer, the former state treasurer of Pennsylvania who shot himself on live television in 1987
- List of journalists killed in the United States
- Workplace aggression
- Merda, Chad (August 27, 2015). "ATF: Virginia gunman passed background check, obtained gun legally". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- Hodari, David (August 27, 2015). "Virginia news shooting: the unanswered questions". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- Pete Williams; Andrew Blankstein; Tom Winter (August 27, 2015). "Vester Flanagan Bought Gun Legally From Virginia Dealer, Officials Say". NBC News. NBC News Group, LLC. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Eliott C. McLaughlin; Catherine E. Shoichet (August 27, 2015). "Police: Bryce Williams fatally shoots self after killing journalists on air". CNN. Time Warner. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Web Staff (August 26, 2015). "Two WDBJ7 employees killed in attack at Bridgewater Plaza". WDBJ. Schurz Communications. Archived from the original on August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Rogers, Katie; Alan Blinder (August 26, 2015). "Virginia TV Reporter and Photographer Shot During Live Broadcast". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Bacon, John (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in on-air murder of journalists kills himself". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Stanglin, Doug; Tyler Pager (August 26, 2015). "Disturbed' Va. gunman angered by Charleston shootings". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Williamson, Jeff (August 26, 2015). "WDBJ Shooting Suspect Shot Himself, Died in Hospital". WHSV 3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "News anchor thought car backfired when gunman shot colleagues on air". Nine News. Nine Entertainment Co. August 27, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "Family of Vicki Gardner issues statement: 'We are grateful'". WTVR.com. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- Brand, Anna (August 26, 2015). "Reporter and cameraman killed during live broadcast". MSNBC. NBC News. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Helber, Steve; Pam Ramsey; Jonathan Drew (August 26, 2015). "Fired reporter kills 2 former co-workers on live TV". Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Vicki Gardner declared 'poster child' for bullet wound recovery at CRMH". WSLS10. August 31, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- "Virginia shootings: Slain TV journalists shot both in head and body". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Hauser, Christine (September 8, 2015). "Woman Injured in Virginia TV Shooting Is Out of the Hospital". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- "WDBJ shooting survivor: 'I played dead'". CNN. October 7, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Cleary, Tom (August 26, 2015). "Vester Lee Flanagan: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". heavy.com. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- McClam, Erin (August 27, 2015). "Virginia TV Shooting: Chilling Image Alerted Station to Killer Vester Flanagan". NBC News. NBC News Group, LLC. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Thomas, Pierre; Jack Cloherty; Jack Date; Mike Levine (August 26, 2015). "After Shooting, Alleged Gunman Details Grievances in 'Suicide Notes'". ABC News. The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Virginia gunman details grievances in lengthy 'suicide note,' references Charleston church shooting". WJW. Tribune Broadcasting. CNNwire. August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "TV murder suspect fatally shoots himself in Fauquier". Fauquier Now. August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Spencer, Hawes; Katie Rogers; Alan Blinder; Richard Pérez-Peña (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in Virginia Shooting of News Team Commits Suicide". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Keneally, Meghan (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in On-Air Shooting Dies From Self-Inflicted Wound". ABC News. The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Hedgpeth, Dana; Justin Jouvenal (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in slaying of two TV station employees in SW Virginia shoots himself and dies". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Austin College alumni and staff mourn slain newscaster".
- McCutcheon, Jaime (August 26, 2015). "Former WCTI reporter killed during TV live shot". WCTI-TV. Bonten Media Group. Archived from the original on August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Dashiell, Joe (August 26, 2015). "A look at the lives of WDBJ7's Alison Parker and Adam Ward". WDBJ. Schurz Communications. Archived from the original on August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "WDBJ7 TV: Adam Ward was a 'fine photojournalist'". USA TODAY.
- email@example.com 981-3356, Amy Friedenberger. "Adam Ward mourned, celebrated at Salem gathering (with video)". Roanoke Times.
- "WDBJ reporter Alison Parker, photographer Adam Ward hailed by colleagues, friends". WTVR-TV. Tribune Broadcasting. August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Scott, Eugene; Ted Barrett (August 28, 2015). "WDBJ reporter's father criticizes senators for not calling family". CNN. Time Warner. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Olivo, Antonio (August 26, 2015). "Shooting victim Vicki Gardner is head of local chamber of commerce". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- California Birth Index. "Vester L Flanagan, Born 10/08/1973 in California". California Birth Index. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Matt Pearce, Lee Romney and Natalie Schachar (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in killing of Virginia TV crew said he was 'just waiting to go BOOM'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
- Sernoffsky, Evan; Kurtis Alexander; Jenna Lyons; Rachel Swan (August 26, 2015). "Suspected killer in Virginia slayings had Bay Area ties". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Chan, Melissa (August 26, 2015). "Virginia shooter Vester Lee Flanagan is former model, 'high paid companion'; had sued news station for discrimination". New York Daily News. Daily News, L.P. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Report: Suspect in deadly on-air attack blamed Charleston shooting". CBS News. CBS Interactive. August 26, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Hood, Lindsay; Nguyen, Laura (August 26, 2015). "SD6 News Director hired, fired WDBJ shooting suspect at FL station in 2000". XETV-TDT. Bay City Television/Grupo Televisa. City News Service. Archived from the original on November 9, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- Picket, Kerry (August 26, 2015). "Former News Director: Roanoke Killer Would Get Into Physical Conflicts With Staff". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Mack, David (August 26, 2015). "Here's What We Know About The Virginia Shooting Suspect". BuzzFeed. BuzzFeed Inc. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Gauthier, Andrew (April 19, 2012). "WDBJ Adds Two Veteran Reporters". TVSpy. Mediabistro Holdings. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Blinder, Alan (August 26, 2015). "Documents Show Vester Lee Flanagan's Turbulent Tenure at TV Station Before Virginia Shooting". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Virginia shootings: Gunman ordered to seek medical help". BBC News. BBC. August 27, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "Inside Vester Lee Flanagan's life". Fox News. Fox News Network, LLC. August 27, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Gambino, Lauren; Jon Swaine (August 27, 2015). "Vester Flanagan told to seek medical help by Virginia TV station, say memos". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Ben Brumfield; Eliott C. McLaughlin; Catherine E. Shoichet (August 27, 2015). "Bryce Williams: A meticulous plan for a live televised murder". CNN. Time Warner. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Eck, Kevin (August 26, 2015). "Accused WDBJ Killer Shoots Self; Had Been Fired From Station in 2013". TVSpy. Mediabistro Holdings. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Gore, Leada (August 26, 2015). "Virginia TV shooter posts chilling video". The Birmingham News. Advance Publications. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Carissimo, Justin (August 26, 2015). "Vester Flanagan: Everything we know about the gunman who killed two WDBJ journalists on-air". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "A Life of Listing Grievances, and Then Virginia Gunman's Final Homicidal Explosion". The New York Times. August 27, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "Vester Flanagan, Virginia News Crew Shooter, Killed Two Cats Before Murders". Newsweek. August 28, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Dave Cullen (September 23, 2015). "Inside the Warped Mind of Vester Flanagan and Other Shooters". The New Republic. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Geller, Adam; Alan Suderman (August 27, 2015). "On-air shooter threatened to make 'headlines,' showed anger". Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "Former co-workers say Vester Flanagan had problems with work, anger, racism". USA Today. Gannett Company. August 29, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- Brown, Emily (August 26, 2015). "Chilling video shows gunman's perspective of on-air shooting in Virginia". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "The Latest: Police had contact with killer after firing". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Associated Press. August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- "Virginia shooting: injured woman says she did not see gunman before he fired". The Guardian. August 29, 2015. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- Silverstein, Jason (August 26, 2015). "TV news reporter, cameraman are fatally shot during live broadcast in Virginia; suspected shooter posts video of attack, then kills himself". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- McNeal, Caitlin (August 26, 2015). "Alleged Newscast Gunman Shoots Self After Posting Vid Of Shooting". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "Reporter, photographer shot to death on air in Virginia; suspect dies at hospital". Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. August 27, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Chuck Goudie; Ross Weidner; Ann Pistone; Christine Tressel; Barbara Markoff (August 26, 2015). "Ex-coworker shoots, kills news crew on live TV in Virginia". WLS-TV. ABC Owned Television Stations. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Meghan Keneally via Good Morning America (August 26, 2015). "Suspect in On-Air Virginia Shooting Identified". ABC News. The Walt Disney Company. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Robertson, Gary (August 26, 2015). "Virginia TV journalists killed by suspect with 'powder keg' of anger". Yahoo! News. Yahoo!. Reuters. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- "Vester Flanagan 'very closely identified' with foreign, domestic terrorists: Police". CBS12.com. August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- McClam, Erin (August 26, 2015). "Vester Lee Flanagan II, aka Bryce Williams, Named as Suspect in Live TV Shooting in Virginia". NBC News. NBC News. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- "What we know so far about Vester Lee Flanagan, the man who shot dead two journalists on TV". bailiwickexpress.com. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Jouvenal, Justin; Julie Zauzmer (August 27, 2015). "In Roanoke shooter's car, signs he was prepared to remain on the run". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Lavender, Paige (August 26, 2015). "Obama On Virginia Shooting: 'It Breaks My Heart'". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Bellware, Kim (August 26, 2015). "Gov. Terry McAuliffe Calls For Tougher Gun Laws After Virginia Shooting". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Terkel, Amanda (August 28, 2015). "Slain Reporter's Father Fears For His Safety As He Takes Up Gun Control Activism". The Huffington Post. AOL. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Chan, Emily (August 27, 2015). "Slain journalist's father says he'll push for stricter gun laws in U.S." CTV News. Bell Media. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Beckett, Lois (February 22, 2017). "Boyfriend of reporter killed on live TV aims to unseat NRA-endorsed lawmaker". The Guardian. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Keveney, Bill (August 27, 2015). "'Mr. Robot' finale delayed after Va. murders". USA Today. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Pedersen, Erik (August 28, 2015). "IFC Delays 'Documentary Now' Episode After News Team's On-Air Shooting". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Friedlander, Whitney (August 27, 2015). "IFC's 'Documentary Now!' Delays Episode Due to Virginia Shooting". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Billy Johnson Jr. (August 28, 2015). "Disturbed Album Ad Pulled After Eerie Parallels to On-Air Shooting". Yahoo! Music. Yahoo!. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Culp-Ressler, Tara (August 26, 2015). "The Media's Ethical Dilemma About How To Handle Footage Of People Shot On Live TV". ThinkProgress. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Gibbs, Samuel (August 27, 2015). "Facebook and Twitter users complain over Virginia shooting videos autoplay". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Sara Ashley O'Brien (August 27, 2015). "Virginia murders show ugly side of autoplay". CNN Money. Time Warner. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Bowerman, Mary (August 27, 2015). "'New York Daily News' cover causes outrage over graphic images of slain journalist". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Withnall, Adam (August 27, 2015). "Virginia shooting: New York Daily News and other newspapers spark outrage with front pages 'letting killer tell the story'". The Independent. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Ariens, Chris (August 27, 2015). "Of Evening Broadcasts, Only CBS Showed Gunman's Video of Deadly Shooting". TVNewser. Mediabistro Holdings. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (August 26, 2015). "A Major Gun Control Group Wants You to Watch the Virginia Shooting Video". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Barford, Vanessa (August 27, 2015). "The murders that rocked breakfast television". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Bennett, Catherine (August 29, 2015). "Nobody had to see Alison Parker's terror as she faced death". The Guardian. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Lemieux, Jamilah (August 27, 2015). "[WDBJ TRAGEDY] Death Videos, Grief and Complicated Emotions". Ebony. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Thomas, Dexter (August 27, 2015). "Are we afraid to watch white people dying?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- McNamara, Mary (August 26, 2015). "If we watch the Virginia TV shooting is the suspected shooter 'winning'?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Stasi, Linda (August 29, 2015). "It's time to focus on the evil, not the media". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Petersen, Kierran (August 26, 2015). "Update: Virginia police order BBC journalists to delete footage of suspected shooter's crash". PRI. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Parker, Andy (July 16, 2019). "Andy Parker Congressional Testimony" (PDF). US Federal Judiciary Committee. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
- Ormseth, Matthew (December 14, 2018). "Foundations Honor Sandy Hook Victims Six Years Later". courant.com. Hartford Courant Media Group. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019.
- Reichert, Corinne (February 20, 2020). "YouTube faces FTC complaint after failing to take down videos of journalist's murder". CNET. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
- "Patrick Henry Community College Foundation". patrickhenryfoundation.com.
- "Alison Parker Studio Dedication". www.jmu.edu.
- Francis, Caitlin. "Salem community remembers Adam Ward with scholarship for being #AdamLike". www.wdbj7.com.
- firstname.lastname@example.org 540-981-3342, Candy Long. "'Salem Strong' T-shirt sales to benefit Ward scholarship fund". Roanoke Times.