Llŷr (Welsh: Llŷr Llediaith (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɬɨːr ˈɬɛdjaiθ]); Lleddiaith meaning "half-speech" or "half-language") is a figure in Welsh mythology, probably originally a deity, probably derived from Irish Ler ("the Sea"), father of Manannán mac Lir. Other than his progeny and odd titbits, his identity remains obscure.
The Welsh Triads states that Llŷr was imprisoned by Euroswydd, and presumably, Penarddun consequently married Euroswydd, giving birth by Euroswydd to her two younger sons, Nisien and Efnisien, as stated in the Second Branch.
William Shakespeare's play King Lear is based on material taken secondhand (through Raphael Holinshed) from Geoffrey of Monmouth's mythical king King Leir, who has often been connected, but is likely unrelated, to Llŷr.
The House of Llŷr
|Beli mab Mynogan|
|Brân the Blessed(♂)||Manawydan(♂)||Rhiannon||Pwyll||Brânwen(♀)||Matholwch||Nisien(♂)||Efnisien(♂)|
(*) Unbordered names are figures not in Llŷr's line of descent, though perhaps members of the extended family.
(*) This stemma is subject to further elaboration. If the Beli above is to be equated with Beli Mawr then Caswallawn stands as Penarddun's sibling. But Bromwich observes that Penarddun should be emended to being the sister of Beli, which would bring consistency with statement elsewhere that Caswallawn and Bran are cousins.
- Bromwich 1961, triads #8 and #52
- Mackillop 1998
- Mackillop 1998, "Llŷr is often assumed to be borrowed from the Irish Lir, the patronym of the sea-god Manannán
- Jones & Jones 1949, New Revised ed. 1993, p. 21, "Bendigeidfran son of Llŷr was crowned king.. His two brothers on the mother's side (Nisien and Efnisien) were sons of Euroswydd by his mother Penarddun."
- Bromwich 1961, triad #52
- Mountain 1998 Celt. Enc. vol. 4, p. 930, "Penarddun then married Euroswydd and bore his children Nissyen and Evnissyen"
- Mackillop 1998, "Many trace Shakespear's.. Lear to Llŷr, but the route is tortuous; Shakespeare drew from Holinshed's Chronicles (1577)", etc.
- Bromwich 1961, endnotes, p.284- on "Bran Vendigeit m. Llyr".
- Mackillop, James (1998), Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192801201, p. 301, under "Llŷr".
- Mountain, Harry (1998), Celtic Encyclopedia (preview), 4, Universal-Publishers, pp. 929–, ISBN 978-1-58112-893-2
- The New Companion to the Literature of Wales, Meic Stevens.
- Bromwich, Rachel (1961), Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads (snippet), Cardiff: University of Wales Press
- Bromwich, Rachel (2006), Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Triads of the Island of Britain, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 0-7083-1386-8
- Gantz, Jeffrey (translator) (1987). The Mabinogion. New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044322-3.
- Jones, Gwyn; Jones, Thomas; Jones, Mair (1993). The Mabinogion. London: Everyman. ISBN 9780460872973.