Louis Hodes

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Louis Hodes
Born(1934-06-19)June 19, 1934
United States
Died19 June 2008(2008-06-19) (aged 74)
NationalityUnited States
Computer scientist
Cancer researcher
Known forLISP, Pattern recognition, Logic programming

Louis Hodes (June 19, 1934 – June 30, 2008) was an American mathematician, computer scientist and cancer researcher.[1]

Early life and Computer Science work[edit]

He got his PhD under Hartley Rogers with a thesis on computability.[1] With John McCarthy, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he helped produce the earliest implementations of LISP,[2] and under Marvin Minsky he did early research on visual pattern recognition in LISP.[3][4][5] He is also credited by some with the idea, and an initial implementation, of logic programming.[1][6][7][8]

Cancer research[edit]

In 1966 he moved into cancer-related research, specifically at National Institutes of Health and later the National Cancer Institute where he turned his interest in visual pattern recognition to medical imaging applications.[1][9] He also worked on efficient algorithms for screening chemical compounds for studying chemical carcinogenesis.[1][10][11][12][13][14] His work on models of clustering for chemical compounds was pronounced a "milestone" by the Developmental Therapeutics Program of the National Cancer Institute, for "revolutioniz[ing] the selection of compounds of interest by measuring the novelty of a chemical structure by comparing it to known compounds."[15]


  1. ^ a b c d e "Obituaries: Louis Hodes – scientist", Washington Post, 1 Aug 2008 [1]
  2. ^ McCarthy, J.; Brayton, R.; Edwards, D.; Fox, P.; Hodes, L.; Luckham, D.; Maling, K.; Park, D.; Russell, S. (March 1960), LISP I Programmers Manual (PDF), Boston, Massachusetts: Artificial Intelligence Group, M.I.T. Computation Center and Research Laboratory, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-17 Accessed May 11, 2010.
  3. ^ MIT research summary report, ch.XVI: Artificial Intelligence, p.166
  4. ^ "Artificial Intelligence Project—RLE and MIT Computation Center Memo 18—Some results from a pattern recognition program using LISP", undated memo, [2]
  5. ^ Hodes, L. "Machine Processing of Line Drawings", M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory Report, 54G-0028 March 1961
  6. ^ "Perspectives in Deductive Databases", Jack Minker, The Journal of Logic Programming v.5, #1, March 1988, pages 33–60 [3]
  7. ^ Foundations of disjunctive logic programming (1992), Jorge Lobo, Jack Minker, Arcot Rajasekar, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-12165-4, p.19 [4]
  8. ^ "Programming languages, logic and cooperative games" (1966), L. Hodes, Proceedings of the first ACM symposium on Symbolic and algebraic manipulation, pp. 1201–1217, [5]
  9. ^ "A programming system for the on-line analysis of biomedical images", Communications of the ACM v.13, #5 (May 1970) pp. 279–283 ISSN 0001-0782 [6]
  10. ^ "Substructure Search with Queries of Varying Specificity", Alfred Feldman, Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1979, 19 (3), pp 125–129, doi:10.1021/ci60019a003 [7]
  11. ^ "A two-component approach to predicting antitumor activity from chemical structure in large-scale screening", Louis Hodes, J. Med. Chem., 1986, 29 (11), pp 2207–2212, doi:10.1021/jm00161a013 [8]
  12. ^ "Clustering a large number of compounds. 1. Establishing the method on an initial sample", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1989, 29 (2), pp 66–71, doi:10.1021/ci00062a004 [9]
  13. ^ "Selection of molecular fragment features for structure-activity studies in antitumor screening", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1981, 21 (3), pp 132–136, doi:10.1021/ci00031a004 [10]
  14. ^ "Computer-aided selection of compounds for antitumor screening: validation of a statistical-heuristic method", Louis Hodes, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 1981, 21 (3), pp 128–132, doi:10.1021/ci00031a003 [11]
  15. ^ "Milestone (1981): Hodes model for ranking small molecule structures (sic)", www.cancer.gov [12]