Lupao, Nueva Ecija
|Municipality of Lupao|
Map of Nueva Ecija with Lupao highlighted
|Region||Central Luzon (Region III)|
|Barangays||24 (see Barangays)|
|• Type||Sangguniang Bayan|
|• Mayor||Alex Rommel V. Romano|
|• Electorate||25,605 voters (2016)|
|• Total||121.33 km2 (46.85 sq mi)|
|Population (2015 census)|
|• Density||360/km2 (930/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)44|
|Climate type||Tropical monsoon climate|
|Income class||3rd municipal income class|
|Revenue (₱)||103,985,235.68 (2016)|
Lupao is subdivided into 24 barangays.
- Agupalo Este
- Agupalo Weste
- Alalay Chica
- Alalay Grande
- Barangay Arimal
- Bagong Flores
- Poblacion East
- Poblacion North
- Poblacion South
- Poblacion West
- Salvacion I
- Salvacion II
- San Antonio Este
- San Antonio Weste
- San Isidro
- San Pedro
- San Roque
- Santo Domingo
During the Spanish rule, the territorial jurisdiction of the province of Nueva Ecija extended to as far south at Cabiao and the towns of San Quintin, Rosales, Balungao and (H)umingan in the north, which later on formed part of the province of Pangasinan. Lupao was a component barrio of Umingan. It remained so until 1871 when some residents led by a Señor Calderon petitioned the Governor General for the segregation of Lupao as a barrio of Umingan and the eventual creation of Lupao as “Tenencia Absoluta” to be headed by a Teniente Absoluto. On September 28, 1871, the Govierno Superior Civil de Filipinas decreed the creation of Lupao as Tenencia Absoluta. It signified the formal segregation as barrio and the eventual creation as “pueblo” of the province of Nueva Ecija. Under the Spanish rule, a pueblo is created through the Laws of the Indies and represented a local government unit. The pueblo was an agency of the Central Government.
Salvacion was the first barrio of Lupao. Its initial territory also included Barrio Cabaritan now known as San Jose City. Barangay San Roque was known as Odiao and San Isidro as Macaniaoed. Among the first leaders of the municipality during the twilight years of Spanish Rule were Benito Romualdo as “Capitan Municipal” and Celestino Jabalde as ‘Juez de Paz”.
In 1898, soon after the Treaty of Paris (1898) was signed and the payment of 20 million pesetas for the possession of the Philippines, the United States Military Government (USMG) issued General Order No. 43 proclaiming the establishment of municipal governments. The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission) acting as the upper house of a bicameral legislature then issued Act No.82 in 1901, “The 1901 municipal code” provided for popularly elected presidents (mayor), vice presidents (vice mayor), and councilors to serve on municipal boards.
It was only in 1913 that Lupao became a town mainly through the concerted efforts of Gen. Manuel Tinio and Assemblyman Isauro Gabaldon of the Philippine Assembly (lower house). Its founding fathers were Victoriano Joanino, Calixto Laureta, Felix Carpio, Juan Briones, Anacleto Ganareal, Luis Mamaligsa, Gregorio Babagay, Sicto Baclig, Remigio Blas Caoile and Candido Mata.
During the Second World War, Japanese Imperial forces was occupied and entering the invaded the towns of Lupao in 1942.
In 1945, the combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth military ground troops was liberated and re-invasion the towns at Lupao and defeats Japanese Imperial forces started the Battle of Lupao and ended World War II. The established of the main headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and United States Army was active on 1945 to 1946 and stationed in Lupao, Nueva Ecija after the Battle of Lupao on 1945 between the Japanese and the combined Filipino-American troops.
During a military operation against the New People's Army on February 10, 1987, seventeen civilians, including an elderly couple and six children, were murdered by the Alpha Company, 14th Infantry (Avengers) Battalion, of the Philippine Army. The murders were carried out by the 14th Infantry after they failed to capture the NPA who had killed the Second Lieutenant Edgar Dizon, the platoon leader of the government troops in a sneak attack the night before. In an act of frustration and anger, the 14th Infantry gathered up unarmed civilians hiding in the rice paddies and murdered them with gunfire and bayonets, leaving 17 dead and 8 wounded, claiming that the dead were members of NPA. All 24 soldiers of the 14th Infantry Battalion were eventually tried before military court but were all acquitted, despite first-hand testimonies of the survivors. This great act of deception and cover-up by the military became known as the infamous "Lupao Massacre." 
On September 25, 2005, three NPA members were killed by soldiers of 71st Infantry Battalion during a hot pursuit operation against seven fully armed NPA in Barangay Cordero, Lupao.
|Population census of Lupao|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
Lupao belongs to the first type of climate in the Philippines. This type of climate has two (2) pronounced seasons: dry from the month of November to April and Wet during the rest of the year. This type of climate is typically hot, humid and tropical and is generally affected by the neighboring topography and the prevalent wind direction that varies within the year.
Residents in Lupao are called "Lupaoenian". Ilocano is widely spoken especially in the barrios. Population is predominantly Ilocano in origin, According to the 2007 census, Lupao had a population of 36,832 people, 80% Ilocano and 20% Tagalogs, Kapampangans and Pangasinans. The world war babies, veterans, baby boomers, teachers and farmers composed the majority of the population. Just like any other local municipality, the younger population would leave home to find work in major cities and abroad.
Due to its history and cultural background, Lupaoenian cuisine is greatly influenced by the Ilocanos and Pangasinenses. Rice is a staple food. Bangus, bagoong and alamang from Dagupan. Tinapa or smoked fish is also a famous dish which was commonly made locally in Ubbog. Locals also love their vegetables such as diningdeng- a concoction of vegetables & fish sauce; and boiled kamote tops. Goat "kalding" is a common treat for all occasions. It is a common ingredient on dishes such as pinapaitan, kilawin & adobo.
The locals are also fond of sweets like tinudok, espasol, puto, tambutambong, tupig, kalamay, ginataang bayabas and ingkiwar. Exotic food such as "Tapang usa" or venison, "Baboy-ramo" or wild hog meat, Abu-os "ant egg" were predominantly catered from Namulandayan brought to city center until the late 1980s, which probably extinct the local deers and hogs in the mountainside.
- Sto. Domingo Dam
- Macannae Dam
- Macarina Resort
- Pinzal Falls
- Vanilla Dam
- Saddam Resort
- "Municipality". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Province: Nueva Ecija". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
- Census of Population (2015). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Historical background of Lupao". Local Government of Lupao. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Haugen, Gary (1999). Good News About Injustice. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. pp. 149–156. ISBN 978-0-8308-3710-6.
- Bolos, Abner. "Two Presidents and the Lupao Massacre". Bulatlat. Retrieved August 26, 2006.
- Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
- "Province of Nueva Ecija". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
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