2013 Macanese legislative election

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Macanese legislative election, 2013

← 2009 15 September 2013 2017 →

33 seats in the Legislative Assembly
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Chan Meng Kam (cropped).jpg António Ng.jpg Mak Soi Kun (cropped).jpg
Leader Chan Meng Kam António Ng Mak Soi Kun
Party ACUM AMN UGM
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy
3 lists (APMD+ANMD+LNM)
Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Macau (Direct) Macau (Direct) Macau (Direct)
Last election 2 seats, 12.00% 3 seats, 19.35% 1 seat, 7.30%
Seats won 3 2 2
Seat change Increase1 Decrease1 Increase1
Popular vote 26,385 23,039 16,248
Percentage 18.02% 15.73% 11.09%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Ho Ion Sang (cropped).jpg José Pereira Coutinho (cropped).jpg MUDM
Leader Ho Ion Sang José Pereira Coutinho Angela Leong
Party UPP NE NUDM
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Macau (Direct) Macau (Direct) Macau (Direct)
Last election 1 seat, 9.90% 1 seat, 9.10% 1 seat, 9.94%
Seats won 2 2 1
Seat change Increase1 Increase1 Steady
Popular vote 15,816 13,118 13,086
Percentage 10.80% 8.96% 8.94%

  Seventh party Eighth party
  Kwan Tsui Hang (cropped).jpg Melinda Chan (cropped).jpg
Leader Kwan Tsui Hang Melinda Chan
Party UPD MUDAR
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Macau (Direct) Macau (Direct)
Last election 2 seats, 14.88% 1 seat, 5.54%
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Decrease1 Steady
Popular vote 11,961 8,755
Percentage 8.17% 5.98%

President before election

Lau Cheok Va
CCCAE

Elected President

Ho Iat Seng
OMKC

The 2013 Macanese general election took place on 15 September 2013[1] according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. This election was the first of its kind succeeding the reform of the Legislative Assembly that created four new seats; two new geographical constituency seats and two new functional constituency seats. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, and 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive.[2]

Background[edit]

Formerly a Portuguese colony, Macau has been a Special Administrative Region within China since 1999.[3] As a Special Administrative Region it is entitled to a high degree of autonomy from the mainland Chinese legal system through the year 2050, although China represents the city on foreign policy matters.[3] Macau's economy is based primarily on its status as a tech and financial sector, as well as its internationally famous casino industry.[3]

The previous legislative election took place in 2009. The pro-democracy camp ANMD+APMD, led by António Ng, received 19.35% of the votes cast, and the next largest party, the pro-establishment camp UPD, received 14.88% in vote with 2 seats while the pro-establishment ACUM received 12.00% with 2 seats. Due to the characteristics of the Macanese election system, only 14 members are directly elected. On 1 July 2013 twenty-two parties have submitted their nominations for the direct election including current incumbents (Kwan Tsui Hang, Chan Meng Kam, António Ng, Paul Chan, Angela Leong, Ho Ion Sang, Au Kam San, José Pereira Coutinho, Mak Soi Kun, and Melinda Chan) and new candidates.[4]

New structure of the Legislative Assembly[edit]

See also: Legislative Assembly of Macau and Chief Executive of Macau

Previous Structure[edit]

Macau's government is headed by the Chief Executive, who controls government appointments and in many ways serves as the face of the city.[5] Prior to 2012, the Chief Executive was elected by a 300-member Election Committee consisting of representatives from functional constituencies. 100 total came from the industrial, commercial and financial sectors, 18 from the culture sector, 20 from the education sector, 30 from the "specialty" sector, 12 from the sports sector, 40 from the labor sector, 34 from the social services sector, and 6 total from various religious groups. 16 were representatives of the Macanese Legislative Assembly and 24 were Macanese representatives in the mainland Chinese government.[6] While all members of the Election Committee are technically elected, in practice they are effectively appointed as each functional constituency usually nominates only one candidate.[6]

Most power in the Macanese government is concentrated in the Legislative Assembly. Macau's Legislative Assembly is unicameral (consisting of a single house). Prior to 2012 it had 29 members - 12 directly elected (in citywide elections), 10 indirectly elected (appointed through election by functional constituencies representing "employee", "business", "professional" and "charity/culture/education/sports" interests) and 7 appointed by the Chief Executive.[6]

Macanese democracy advocates had criticized the large number of indirectly elected members, charging that these tended to be pro-establishment and pro-Beijing businesspeople. As an alternative, they called for a larger number of directly elected legislators.[7]

2012 reform package[edit]

As a result of the 2012 passage of "Amendment to Electoral Law for the Legislative Assembly of Macau" also known as the "+2+2+100" Law, the number of Legislative Council members is increased from 29 to 33. Two new geographical constituency seats, and two new indirectly elected Functional Constituency seats are created. Another key proposal was increasing the Election Committee for the chief executive election from 300 members to 400 on the next Chief Executive election in 2014.[7][8] These changes were designed to create representation for a larger number of groups in the Election Committee and to reduce the power of the Chief Executive over the Legislative Assembly. However, democracy advocates criticized the law for not going far enough.[7][8]

Geographical constituency[edit]

Under the constitutional reform package passed in 2012, this election saw AL increase its total size from 29 seats to 33 seats, half of which are geographical constituencies (GCs) and half functional constituencies (FCs). The GC seats are returned by universal suffrage in citywide elections, with gaining two extra seats.

Geographical constituency No. of Seats
2008 2012 Change
Macau 12 14 +2

Functional constituencies[edit]

The Welfare, Culture, Education, and Sports constituency is split into two groups. Culture and Sports retains the two seats of the initial group, with the two incumbents (Victor Cheung Lup Kwan and Chan Chak Mo) running unopposed. Culture and Sports continues to be run by the Excellent Culture and Sports Union Association. A new constituency is created for Welfare and Education, receiving one seat (Cahn Hong, unopposed). Welfare and Education is managed by the Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education.

Additionally, one seat is added to the Professionals constituency, lead by the Macau Professional Interest Union. Chan Lek Lap is elected, unopposed.

Functional Constituency 2008 2012 Change
Business 4 4 0
Labor 2 2 0
Professional 2 3 +1
Welfare and Education 2 2 0
Culture and Sport 0 1 +1

The pro-democracy lists[edit]

This year, there are three lists for the pro-democrats instead of two campaigning on high property prices and freedom of speech. The three lists included the New Macau Association (ANM), New Hope (NE), and the addition of New Macau Liberals.

Antonio Ng for ANM campaigns for universal suffrage, promotion of a minimum wage and public housing, and increasing government accountability.[9]

José Maria Pereira Couthino of NE campaigns for improvements in public housing and pension services, equal pay for workers, and increasing government accountability.[10]

Jason Chao Teng-hei is a radical young candidate for New Macau Liberals and a prominent social activist for LGBT rights.[11]

The pro-establishment lists[edit]

Pro-establishment Chan Meng-kam, casino owner and lawmaker-elect of the ACUM, said he believed the city should implement universal suffrage "step by step", and that functional constituencies should be preserved.

Others with casino links on the pro-establishment lists were Angela Leong On-kei of New Union for Macau's Development and Melinda Chan Mei-yi of the Alliance for Change. Leong is married to gambling mogul Stanley Ho Hung-sun, while Chan is married to casino tycoon David Chow Kam-fai.[11]

Macanese Election Laws[edit]

Macau's direct electoral system is based around proportional representation, with elections carried out through a closed party-list balloting system.[12] This means that each geographic electoral district has multiple members, with the number of its seats filled by each competing party determined by the proportion of the vote that party receives. Parties nominate a slate of candidates (generally, one per seat in each district where the party is competing). After the election, party leaders decide who from the slate will fill the party's legislative seats.

Shortly before usual campaign period for the 2013 elections, the Electoral Affairs Commission of Macau banned the use of commercial advertising by election candidates.[13] The new election rules stipulate that candidates should not carry out activities that could influence voters in the two-month period between their registration and the start of the campaign period on August 31. Commercial advertising is barred from most public areas, except those specially designated by the government.[13] Even in areas where campaigning is permitted, it is still limited to a 14-day official campaign period.[14] These restrictions are intended to limit the advertising advantage of wealthy business interests. However, they have been criticized for limiting the amount of canvassing candidates with less money can do, thus encouraging clientelistic bloc voting where parties simply strike deals with associations, business interests and community leaders to turn out assured votes in their favor.[14] Working around the rules, candidates resorted to using loudspeakers to promote their campaigns.[13]

Among the most powerful special interests in Macau are casinos. Macau's casino industry has a long history of Triad and other organized crime connections. Since laws around casinos were liberalized in 2002 to promote more foreign investment, the Triad has lost its stranglehold on Macau's casino industry (although it remains deeply embedded in it).[15] Casinos have long played a major role in clientelistic politics in Macau, and since liberalization their influence has further increased.[6][15][16]

Controversies[edit]

The total of the void ballot is very close to the total of the winning vote[17]

Electoral Affairs Commission Bias[edit]

Jason Chao chairman of New Macau Association accuse the CAEAL (Electoral Affairs Commission) being bias suggesting the New Macau Liberals should modifying their political platform by deleting two sentences "Secretary for Administration and Justice Florinda Chan must step down for her ineffectuality," and "an investigation into former Chief Executive Edmund Ho’s alleged abuse of power." On 23 August Jason Chao suggests he may sue the CAEAL after the legislative election.[18]

Scandals[edit]

Community members bribed potential voters with food and transportation and caught by The Commission Against Corruption[edit]

Mr. He, who was a member of a social community of Macau, and Mr. Huang were accused of bribing potential voters and caught by the Commission Against Corruption on September 13. Mr. He has called several members of his community and asked them to support a candidate. He offered free meals and transportation in exchange for the support. Mr. Huang has helped Mr. He call more than one hundred voters based on Mr. He’s testimony.[19]

UPD and UGM false start[edit]

Kwan Tsui Hang (Union for Development) and Mak Soi Kun (Macau-Guangdong Union) were both accused of illegal campaigning on 8 August 2013. In various locations banner supporting Kwan Tsui Hang were hung outside of the campaigning period. Lee Kin Yun claims UGM vice-president Mak Soi Kun was vote buying during a function gift bags were handed out with the name, photo and address of Mak Soi Kun with the estimated value of 100 Macanese pataca.[20]

The ongoing campaign has severely interfered with public order[edit]

On March 22, four members of Macau Conscience delivered campaign material at Haojiang High School without permission and monitored by more than ten police officers. They are even asked to join the protest around the campus.[21]

Nomination list dispute within MS2[edit]

Luiz Pedruco president of 21st Century Macau Association was accused of replacing José Estorninho with his own named on the nomination list. Under the pressure, he purposes a rally in 30 June 3013 to properly nomination its list of members. Electoral Affairs Commission of Macau soon disqualified 21st Century Macau Association for the lack of valid signatures required for Nomination.[22]

Lack of organization at polling places[edit]

During the voting day, 14 people were reported to police because of illegally recording voting process. They came from 8 different polling stations. 13 of them were arrested immediately by police, and one of them were brought back to the police station for further questioning.[23]

8000 notifications of voting were sent back to polling stations by postal service because of wrong address[edit]

Since July 2013, voting notifications with important information regarding voting agenda and other relevant information have been sent to citizens. By August 2013, all the notifications have been sent, but 8000 of them were sent back by postal service. This incident has caused repercussions in Macau society.[23]

No accessibility facilities at polling places.[23][edit]

Ballot and Results[edit]

e • d Summary of the 15 September 2013 Legislative Assembly of Macau election results
Political affiliation
Popular votes
% of Votes
Change in
% of vote
Seats
Net change
in seats
13 Macau United Citizens Association (ACUM) 26,385 18.02 Increase6.02 3 Increase1
8 Macau-Guangdong Union (UMG) 16,248 11.09 Increase3.79 2 Increase1
14 Progress Promotion Union (UPP) 15,816 10.80 Increase0.90 2 Increase1
9 New Hope (NE) 13,118 8.96 Decrease0.14 2 Increase1
1 New Macau Development Union (NUDM) 13,086 8.94 Decrease1.00 1 Steady
6 Union for Development (UPD) 11,961 8.17 Decrease6.71 1 Decrease1
19 Democratic Prosperous Macau Association[nb 1] (APMD) - AMN1 10,986 7.50 Decrease4.08 1 Decrease1
5 Democratic New Macau Association[nb 1] (ANMD) - AMN2 8,826 6.03 Decrease1.74 1 Steady
12 Alliance for Change (Mudar) 8,755 5.98 Increase0.44 1 Steady
7 Macau Civic Watch (Cívico) 5,524 3.57 Decrease0.19 0 Steady
20 Caring for Macau (CPM) 5,323 3.63 N/A 0 Steady
2 New Macau Liberals[nb 1] (LNM) - AMN3 3,227 2.20 N/A 0 Steady
11 Association of Joint Efforts to Improve the Community (MAC) 2,306 1.57 N/A 0 Steady
18 Breakthrough Action (AI) 1,641 1.12 N/A 0 Steady
10 Macau Dream (IM) 1,006 0.69 N/A 0 Steady
3 Association of Macau Activism for Democracy (AAPD) 923 0.63 N/A 0 Steady
4 Citizens' Rights Promotion Association (APDC) 848 0.58 N/A 0 Steady
16 Grassroots Supervision (SPCB) 368 0.25 N/A 0 Steady
15 Labour Movement Front (MO) 227 0.15 N/A 0 Steady
17 Social Democratic Alliance (ALDES) 179 0.12 N/A 0 Steady
Total and Turnout 151,881 100 14 Increase2
Valid votes 146,453 96.42
Invalid votes 1,083 0.72
Blank votes 4,345 2.86
Eligible voters 276,034
Functional constituencies and appointed members
Macau Business Interest Union (OMKC) 4 Steady
Employees Association Joint Candidature Commission (CCCAE) 2 Steady
Macau professional Interest Union (OMCY) 3 Increase1
Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education (APSSE) 1 Increase1
Excellent Culture and Sports Union Association (União Excelente) 2 Steady
Members appointed by the Chief Executive 7 Steady

Voter Turnout[edit]

The 2013 elections were met with a significant improvement in voter quality, with nearly 280,000 Macau residents having registered as voters for the election. Despite being called the “low-profile” election by many in the media, this election in fact reflected a high voter turnout at 55%.[14] This marked an increase of 80% from the 2001 election, and the turnout rate exceeded 59%. This enormous increase in political participation may be attributed to the high levels of competition between the political parties and the introduction of dynamic newcomers in the face of candidates backed by powerful local families.[24]

However, ultimately the top two lists, in terms of number of votes received, featured candidates hailing from, and relying on clanship connections with, the Fujianese and Guangdong communities. Macau’s strong “association culture”[14] that advantages such candidates was demonstrated clearly in this year’s elections with the win of ACUM’s pro-Beijing candidate, Chan Meng-kam, who is both a Fujianese community leader and a casino owner. He secured the highest number of votes at 26,385 (18% of the total), breaking a record in Macau by winning three seats from a single candidate list.[11]

Meanwhile, newer, pro-democrat candidates such as Jason Chao Teng-hei, a radical young candidate for New Macau Liberals faced difficulties winning out at the polls. Initially hoping to secure the youth vote, he was only able to get 3,227 votes in the face of the new restrictions on campaigning, ultimately resulting in a loss of one of the democrats’ three seats.[11]

Candidates lists and results[edit]

Geographical constituencies (14 seats)[edit]

Voting System: Closed party-list proportional representation with the Highest averages method.

Results of Macanese legislative election, 2013
Macau Geographical Constituency (澳門)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 New Union for Macau's Development
Nova União para Desenvolvimento de Macau
(NUDM)
Angela Leong On Kei (elected)
Wong Seng Hong
Fok Chi Chiu
Siu Yu Hong
Antonio Lei In Pun
Ho Chak San
Ng Sut I
Szeto Tie Fung
13,086 8.94
 
1
2 New Macau Liberals
Liberais da Nova Macau
(Liberais)
Jason Chao Teng Hei
Chiang Meng Hin
Ieong Man Teng
Choi Chi Chio
Sio Chon Fong
3,227 2.20
 
3 Activism for Democracy Association
Associação de Activismo para a Democracia
(AAPD)
Lee Kim Yun
Lam Meng
Ng Ka Lok
Chong Lai In
923 0.63
 
4 Association for Promotion of Civic Rights
Associação de Promoção de direitos dos cidadãos
(APDC)
Hong Weng Kuan
Fong Kam Han
Iam Kam Chan
Lei Mei Teng
848 0.58
 
5 New Democratic Macau Association
Associação de Novo Macau Democrática
(ANMD)
Au Kam San (elected)
Sou Ka Hou
Lei Cheong Hou
Chan Lok Kei
Cheang Mio San
Chan Wai Chun
8,826 6.03
 
1
6 Union for Development
União para o Desenvolvimento
(UPD)
Kwan Tsui Hang (elected)
Lam Lon Wai
Pai Ki Man
Sa Ang
Leong Wai Fong
Leong Pou U
Leong Sun Iok
Tam Pou Iong
Cheong Man Fun
11,961 8.17
 
1
7 Civil Watch
Observatório Cívico
(Cívico)
Agnes Lam Iok Fong
Ng Man Yun
Rui Miguel Rebelo Leão
Cheong Chi Pong
Keong Wai Cheng
5,524 3.57
 
8 Macau-Guangdong Union
União de Macau-Guangdong
(UMG)
Mak Soi Kun (elected)
Zheng Anting (elected)
Ho Song Fat
Lo Choi In
Ha Chon Ieng
Wu Hong Mui
Cheong Tat Wa
Leong Chan Kun
Pedro Ip
Lao Ka U
16,248 11.09
 
2
9 New Hope
Nova Esperança
(NE)
José Maria Pereira Coutinho (elected)
Leong Veng Chai (elected)
Melina Tam Leng I
Linda Ieong Man I
Che Sai Wang
Lam I Man
Ricardo da Luz
António Armando Joaquim da Rocha Teixeira
Cartar Singh Mann
13,118 8.96
 
2
10 Association for the Promotion of Democracy, Freedom,
Human Rights and Rule of Law of Macau
Associação para Promoção da Democracia, Liberdade,
Direitos Humanos e Estado de Direito de Macau

(Ideais de Macau, IM)
Cheong Weng Fat
Carl Ching Lok Suen
Cheong Kuok Seng
Chan Kam Fa
Hong Man Tei
Si Sok On
1,006 0.69
 
11 Association for Together Efforts to Improve the Community
Associação Esforço Juntos para Melhorar a Comunidade
(Melhorar a Comunidade; MAC)
Pun Chi Meng
Ho Tin Ka
Cheung Shek Chiu
Fong Lai Meng
Ip Chi Leng
2,306 1.57
 
12 Alliance for Change
Aliança Pr’a Mudança
(MUDAR)
Melinda Chan Mei Yi (elected)
Wu Kam Hon
Wu Keng Kuong
Lei On Teng
Mio I Chong da Silva
Cheong Ho Ian
Hong Lai Kei
Iu Hei Man
Lam Pui Ieng
Fong Kin Fu
8,755 5.98
 
1
13 United Citizens Association of Macau
Associação dos Cidadãos Unidos de Macau
(ACUM)
Chan Meng Kam (elected)
Si Ka Lom (elected)
Song Pek Kei (elected)
Vivian Lou Io Pin
Loi Chi On
Chan Tak Seng
Chan Iat Peng
Lei Ip Kan
Ao Ieong Kuong Kao
Lou Ho Ian
Chan Hio Loi
Io Chao U
U Kuai Hong
Hoi Long Tong
26,385 18.02
 
3
14 Union for Promoting Progress
União Promotora Para o Progresso
(UPP)
Ho Ion Sang (elected)
Wong Kit Cheng (elected)
Cheung Kin Chung
Ma Kin Chung
Ma Kin Cheong
Au Ka Fai
Sio Fu Pak
Leong Hong Sai
Iun Ioc Va
Chon Chong
Ao Ieong Ut Seng
Cheang Iok
15,816 10.80
 
2
15 Workers' Movement Front
Frente do Movimento Operário
(Movimento Operário, MO)
Leong Seak
Chio Man Cheng
Wong Nai Seong
Cham Choi Ha
Chio Chun Tai
227 0.15
 
16 Supervision by the Lower Class
Supervisão pela Classe Baixa
(SPCB)
Lee Sio Kuan
Chan Kam Kuong
Tou Cong Meng
Loi Chong Pan
Kuan Chi Hong
Wu Iok Kuan
Lei Chi Peng
Fong Hong Tak
Chong Sio U
368 0.25
 
17 Democratic Society Alliance
Aliança da Democracia de Sociedade
(ALDES)
Lei Man Chao
Ng Sek Io
Ho Heng Kuok
Ng Cheok Hei
Jose Kuok Cheok Man
Leong In Pok
Chong Seak Long
Kuok Kam Ian
179 0.12
 
18 Innovative Action
Ações inovadoras
(Ações inovadoras, AI)
Kou Ngon Fong
Lai Man Fai
Tong Weng Io
Cheong Hoi Kuan
1,641 1.12
 
19 Prosperous Democratic Macau Association
Associação de Próspero Macau Democrático
(APMD)
António Ng Kuok Cheong (elected)
Paul Chan Wai Chi
Lei Kuok Keong
Cheong Wai Kit
Lei Kuok Fu
Kong Shun Mei
10,986 7.50
 
1
20 Caring Macau
Cuidados para Macau
(CPM)
Kuan Vai Lam
Lou Kit Long
Cheang Un Fan
Song Wai Kit
Lei Chong Sam
Ao Sut In
Ana Maria Manhão Sou
Wong Chi Kuong
5,323 3.63
 
TOTAL 151,881 100
 
14

Functional constituencies (12 seats)[edit]

Business (4 seats)
Party/Allegiance List № Candidate(s) Elected
Macau Business Interest Union
União dos Interesses Empresariais de Macau
(OMKC)
1 Ho Iat Seng walkover
2 Kou Hoi In walkover
3 Cheang Chi Keong walkover
4 José Chui Sai Peng unopposed
Labor (2 seats)
Employees Association Joint Candidature Commission
Comissão Conjunta da Candidatura das Associações de Empregados
(CCCAE)
1 Lam Heong Sang walkover
2 Lei Cheng I unopposed
Professionals (3 seats)
Macau Professional Interest Union
União dos Interesses Profissionais de Macau
(OMCY)
1 Chui Sai Cheong walkover
2 Leonel Alberto Alves walkover
3 Chan Iek Lap unopposed
Welfare and Education (1 seat)
Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education
Associação de Promoção do Serviço Social e Educação
(APSSE)
1 Chan Hong unopposed
Culture and Sport (2 seats)
Excellent Culture and Sports Union Association
Associação União Cultural e Desportiva Excelente
(União Excelente, UE)
1 Victor Cheung Lup Kwan walkover
2 Chan Chak Mo walkover

Nominated Members (7 seats)[edit]

Members appointed by the Chief Executive Fernando Chui Sai On

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.macaudailytimes.com.mo/macau/42330-election-commission-issues-guidelines-warns-against-free-dining-and-bans-ads.html[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Seguí, Viviana. "Electoral laws get final approval". Macau Daily Times. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Sit, Victor F.S.; Hui, Vivian; Leung, Gladys (2012). Macau Through 500 Years. Enrich Professional Publishing.
  4. ^ Chan, Viviana (2 July 2013). "22 listas candidatas a 14 lugares no Hemiciclo". Jornal Tribuna de Macau. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. ^ "The Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China". Wayback Machine. March 31, 1993. Archived from the original on 8 March 2005. Retrieved 6 April 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. ^ a b c d Yu, Eilo Wing-Yat (2007-08-01). "Formal and Informal Politics in Macao Special Administrative Region Elections 2004–2005". Journal of Contemporary China. 16 (52): 417–441. doi:10.1080/10670560701314248. ISSN 1067-0564.
  7. ^ a b c "2012-08-30 (Macau Daily Times) Electoral laws get final approval - ATFPM". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  8. ^ a b "Legislature passes '+2+2+100' bills amid walkout by 4 lawmakers | Macau News". Macau News. 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  9. ^ "民主昌在此 - QOOZA BLOG 網上日誌". blog.qooza.hk. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  10. ^ "澳門公職人員協會". www.atfpm.org.mo. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  11. ^ a b c d "Macau democrats blame voters for losing one seat". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  12. ^ "IFES Election Guide | Elections: Macau Parl Sept 2013". www.electionguide.org. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  13. ^ a b c "Macau holds low-profile election". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  14. ^ a b c d "Macau's strict election rules backfire". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  15. ^ a b Lam, Newman M.K.; Scott, Ian (2011). Gaming, Governance and Public Policy in Macau. Hong Kong University Press.
  16. ^ "World news explained - Casino boss Chan Meng Kam's party biggest winners in Macau elections". RFI. 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  17. ^ "Legislative Assembly Election Report" (PDF).
  18. ^ Yu, Grace. "New Macau Liberals may sue CAEAL after election". Macau Daily Times. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  19. ^ "澳門廉署拘兩涉賄選人士". Apple Daily 蘋果日報. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  20. ^ "AL candidates accuse others of 'gun-jumping'". Macau Daily Times. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  21. ^ "第五屆立法會選管會爭議性做法和安排|論盡媒體 AAMacau". 論盡媒體 AllAboutMacau Media. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  22. ^ "Luiz Pedruco still undecided on election list details". 28 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  23. ^ a b c "Legislative Assembly Election Report" (PDF).
  24. ^ Sheng, Li (2016). "The Transformation of Island City Politics: The Case of Macau". Island Studies Journal. 11: 521–536 – via Lexis Nexis.
  1. ^ a b c These are the three electoral lists of New Macau Association

External links[edit]