Closed list

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Closed list describes the variant of party-list systems where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole; thus they have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected. If voters had some influence, that would be called is an open list. Closed list systems are commonly used in party-list proportional representation, but most mixed electoral systems also use closed lists in their party list component.

In closed list systems, each political party has pre-decided who will receive the seats allocated to that party in the elections,[1] so that the candidates positioned highest on this list tend to always get a seat in the parliament while the candidates positioned very low on the closed list will not.

However, the candidates "at the water mark" of a given party are in the position of either losing or winning their seat depending on the number of votes the party gets. "The water mark" is the number of seats a specific party can be expected to achieve. The number of seats that the party wins, combined with the candidates' positions on the party's list, will then determine whether a particular candidate will get a seat.

List of locations with closed list systems[edit]

Countries using closed-list proportional representation as of 2020.
  Countries where all parties use a closed-list
  Countries where only some parties use a closed-list

Closed list proportional representation[edit]

Closed list mixed electoral systems[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Open, Closed and Free Lists —". ACE Project. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  2. ^ "{title}". Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-22. Retrieved 2018-09-02.
  3. ^ Lundberg, Thomas Carl (22 October 2010). "Post-communism and the abandonment of mixedmember electoral systems" (PDF). University of Glasgow. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  4. ^ "Elections - GRN Portal". Archived from the original on 2018-07-21. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  5. ^ Filimon, Paul (20 July 2015). "Legea ALEGERILOR PARLAMENTARE pe LISTE, promulgată de Iohannis". România Liberă (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2018-05-24.

External links[edit]