Mahmud Ali Durrani
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|Mahmud Ali Durrani
|National Security Adviser|
11 May 2008 – 10 January 2009
|Prime Minister||Yousaf Raza Gillani|
|Preceded by||Tariq Aziz|
|Succeeded by||Sartaj Aziz
(Appointment in 2013)
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States|
5 June 2006 – 9 May 2008
|Preceded by||Jehangir Karamat|
|Succeeded by||Husain Haqqani|
|Born||1941 (age 75–76)
|Alma mater||Pakistan Military Academy
National Defence University
|Years of service||1961–1998|
|Unit||25th Cavalry, Armoured Corps|
|Commands||Mil Secy to the President
1st Armoured Division, Multan
Pakistan Ordnance Factories
|Battles/wars||Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
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Major-General Mahmud Ali Durrani (Urdu: محمود علی درانی; born 1941), is a retired Pakistani two-star rank general officer, author of security studies, and a former National Security Advisor to the Pakistani government, serving from 2008 until his termination in 2009.
In January 2009, he was terminated as National Security Adviser by Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani for "failing to consult the Prime Minister foreign and national security relation matters". The matter in question was the acceptance by the Government of Pakistan of the Pakistani nationality of the sole surviving terrorist Ajmal Kasab, who was involved in the 2008 Mumbai attacks and was in the custody of the Mumbai Police.
Early years and military career
Durrani was born in 1941 in Abbottabad, which is in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (formerly North-West Frontier Province) of Pakistan. He is an ethnic Pashtun from the Durrani tribe. After graduating from Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 in the 24th PMA Long Course (same batch as General Jehangir Karamat who later became the Army chief) and winning the sword of honour, he served in various command, staff and instructional posts for about 16 years. From 1977 to 1982 he was Pakistani Armed Forces attaché in Washington, D.C. He then served as military secretary to the president of Pakistan until 1986.
Durrani was the posted as the commander the 1st Armoured Division in Multan, and being the former MS to the president persuaded the then Army chief and president General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to witness the tank exercise in Bahawalpur desert on 17 August 1988. It was on its way back to Islamabad, that the C-130 carrying the presidential and higher military entourage crashed right after taking off from Bahawalpur airport killing everyone on board.
He was also suspected by, then United States Ambassador to India, John Gunther Dean for being extraordinarily insistent with President Zia to visit the demonstration. From many circles within Pakistan he is considered to be the prime suspect in the incident. Durrani could prevail on Gen Zia because he had been his most trusted military secretary. Indeed, after Gen Zia's death, Begum Zia continued to repose trust in Gen Durrani, as narrated in Khaki Shadows by General Khalid Mahmud Arif the Chief of Staff (COS) under Zia, published in 2001.
Academic and diplomatic career
Durrani was also an advisor in the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, which he served from 2001 to 2004. After retiring from the Pakistani Army, he was actively involved in the peace efforts between Pakistan and India. As part of a process sponsored by the United Nations, he also worked with former senior officials from the United States, Russia and Iran to find a peaceful resolution to the Afghan crisis.
Durrani was appointed as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States by President Pervez Musharraf in June 2006, replacing another General Jehangir Karamat. They both belong to the Armoured corps of Pakistan Army, with Durrani being the third Armoured Corps officer to take the helms of ambassadorship at Washington, D.C.; the first one was Lt Gen Ejaz Azim, who was ambassador during General Zia-ul-Haq and Reagan era.
Durrani was also called "General Shanti" by an Indian newspaper for his effort in trying to promote peace with India and Pakistan.
National Security Adviser
Durrani was appointed National Security Adviser to Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani in April 2008 at the behest of Asif Ali Zardari who at the time only held the post of co-chairman Pakistan Peoples Party (he became the President in September 2008). This was partly the reason why Durrani was fired from his job as NSA by Gillani for not "taking Prime Minister into confidence" about Kasab's nationality, even though Durrani had consulted the ISI chief who had in turn consulted the President Zardari before announcing that Ajmal Kasab was a Pakistani national.
Durrani is the author of several books and studies, including India and Pakistan: The Cost of Conflict and the Benefits of Peace and Pakistan’s Security Imperatives: Year 2000 and Beyond. The first one he wrote when he was part of United States-sponsored Balusa Group formed under Ambassador Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C.
The book argued that in the process of Indo-Pakistan normalisation, based on the Balusa Group's recommendations, Pakistan should take the initiative in "re-engaging" India after the 1999 Kargil operation and subsequent negative events associated with Pakistan policies. Strikingly, the stages of engagement outlined in the book were followed closely by President Pervez Musharraf after 2001: "Preliminary Secret Contacts, Stage Two Secret Meetings, Summit, Follow-up Meetings."
He is the father of three children.
- Khalid Hasan. "Karamat dismisses reports of becoming interim Pakistan PM" Daily Times, 4 April 2006
- Humayun, Fahd (28 July 2016). "General perspective: Interview with Mahmud Ali Durrani". Dawn. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Qudssia Akhlaque, "Ambassador Durrani likely to be made security adviser" The News, 29 March 2008
- Ayaz Amir. "A second Junejo in the making?" The News, 10 January 2009
- Ayaz Amir. "For God's sake, leave" The News, 15 August 2008
- John Gunther Dean. Oral history at jimmycarterlibrary
- Najam Sethi. "Editorial: Good decision, bad implementation" Daily Times, 10 January 2009
- New Pakistani Envoy Staunchly Denies Country Is Terrorist Breeding Ground The Washington Diplomat, September 2006.
- Khalid Hasan. 'Durrani in, Karamat out' Daily Times, 23 March 2006
- Khalid Hasan. "New Pakistan ambassador dubbed General Shanti" Daily Times, 3 April 2006
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States