|Motto: The city of open doors – World capital of coffee|
Location of the city and municipality of Manizales in the Department of Caldas
|Foundation||October 12, 1849|
|• Mayor||Jorge Eduardo Rojas Giraldo|
|• Total||571.84 km2 (220.79 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,160 m (7,090 ft)|
|• Density||770/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Eastern Time Zone (UTC-05)|
|Area code(s)||57 + 6|
|Website||Official website (Spanish)|
Manizales (Spanish pronunciation: [maniˈsales]) capital of the Department of Caldas, is a city and municipality in central Colombia, and part of the region of Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis, near the Nevado del Ruiz volcano.
Presently, the city is the main center for the production of Colombian coffee and an important hub for higher educational institutions.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Arts and culture
- 7 Attractions
- 8 Sports
- 9 Education
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Manizales was founded on October 12, 1849, in the midst of a civil war between bipartisan followers, Liberals against Conservatives. The city was founded by a group of twenty antioquians (The Expedition of the 20), who came from Neira and Salamina. There is a strong Spanish influence in the culture and the population was very homogeneous, mostly whites, until other ethnic groups migrated to the city in search of the universities.
Manizales is the capital city of one of the smallest Colombian departments. The city is described as having "abrupt topography", and is built in the Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of the longest continental mountain range of The Andes) with a great deal of ridgelines and steep slopes, which, combined with the seismic instability of the area, has required architectural adaptations and public works to make the city safer. Even though Manizales has this very difficult topography, there are many coffee plantations in its fertile lands. The city is located in the north of the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis ("Eje Cafetero"), near the volcano Nevado del Ruiz, which has an altitude of 5,321 meters (17,457.3 ft).
It is in the basin of the Chinchiná River and subbasin of the Guacaica River. Natural threats are earthquakes, mud slides, and volcanic eruptions.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Manizales has a subtropical highland climate (Cfb). Despite being located in the tropics, and due to its high altitude, the city seldom gets very hot during the course of the year, featuring spring-like temperatures throughout the year. Because of its tropical location, there are only two seasons in the city; the wet and dry seasons that alternate throughout the year with each lasting about three months. Monthly averages are quite uniform. Manizales receives about 1,500 millimetres (59 in) of precipitation a year, with October being wettest.
|Climate data for Manizales (1971-2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||22.0
|Average low °C (°F)||11.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||98
|Average rainy days||14||15||20||23||24||20||17||17||20||25||20||16||231|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81||80||81||84||85||84||81||81||84||87||86||83||83|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||173.9||136.6||129.4||109.4||113.0||125.3||160.3||137.2||111.0||93.1||111.6||143.8||1,544.6|
|Source #1: WMO (Normal 1971-2000)|
|Source #2: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (Humidity & Sunshine) |
Its core business traditionally has been the cultivation and production of coffee. This culture allowed the creation of new jobs and several factories, some of which remain in the metropolitan area while others have reduced their operations or moved to other cities aggravating the unemployment problem. These companies are engaged in products such as liquor, shoes, rubber, chocolate, banks, detergents and soaps, threshing and packaged coffee, sweets and metallurgy, among others. In addition there are institutions and companies involved in the coffee sector as the Departmental Committee of Coffee Growers of Caldas, Almacafé, Cenicafé, and a number of other industries involved in the process of coffee (threshers, cooperatives, exporters).
From the latter half of the twentieth century many universities settled in the city to the point that some studies have pointed to them and regard Manizales as the second largest city. The universities are attended by students from various regions of the country such as Tolima, Risaralda, Valle, Quindio Antioquia, Nariño, and Huila, among others.
At present, economic activity has been distinguished the service sector in the form of call centers.
Manizales won first place in the special category of business promotion in the V Iberoamerican Digital Cities Award, organized by the Latin American Association of Research Centers and Telecommunication Enterprises (AHCIET). In a 2010 study conducted by the World Bank, Manizales ranked first as the city of Colombia where it is best and easiest to do business.
The city has an urban nomenclature of Carreras (Colombian name for most avenue roads) that increases from north to south, and streets that increase from west to east. The main road of the city is the 23rd, called Santander Avenue as well, which occupies the highest point and extends along the crest of the hill; the formation of the city is planning a longitudinal central axis running the 23rd eastward. Parallel to South Avenue and Kevin Angel Avenue north orientation continues Santander Avenue in a lower level. In the center there is an avenue, Gilberto Alzate Avendaño, that continues fast flow westward.
Among the major industrial parks are Juanchito Industrial Park (Km 10 via the Magdalena River) and the Alta Suiza.
- Travel around by public bus costs 1.350 COP to 1.700 COP (between 60 and 70 US cents). To get around by taxi is quite cheap with a minimum fee of 3.500 COP (about 1.50 US dollar). Getting on gondola lift (to buses terminus and Villamaría) costs 1.600 COP (70 US cents). Travel by bus to nearby cities is also fairly cheap; for example, a bus ride to Medellín, a city 4 or 5 hours away, costs about 40.000 COP one way (about $17 US).
Despite the mountainous geography of Manizales, the city has a network of streets and highways that connect the different parts of the city, as well as different regions of the country. It also has a bus terminus located next to the Pan American Highway, in the area of 'Los Cámbulos', from and to which vehicles bound for several cities. The presence of taxis is massive enough, the service is controlled by a meter that charges according to the distance and travel time. The rates vary in a range from 3.000 to 10.000 Colombian pesos (US $1.50-5). The airport area has a charge of about 3000 pesos (U.S. $1.5). There are multiple routes of buses, minibuses and groups that allow movement to any area of the city.
Manizales is located in the center of the three main cities of Colombia, in the so-called "Triángulo de Oro". The distance between Manizales and Bogotá is 303 km, between Manizales and Medellín 194 km, and between Manizales and Cali 263 km. It is connected to neighboring capitals Pereira and Armenia through the Autopista del Café (Coffee Freeway).
Because of the topography, traffic on east-west direction and vice versa, is flatter and faster than in a north-south or south-north, therefore the avenues Santander, Parallel, Kevin Angel, are arranged longitudinally most of its length. The few avenues with a north-south or south-north are the Centennial and October 12, the first most important because it connects the center with one of the station where major access routes merge towards the city.
- Avenida Santander. Was the first avenue of the city, formerly called Cervantes. It is the most important avenue of the city. This makes travel in the east-west direction (2 lanes) and west-east (2 lanes). This avenue does his entire route of the Carrera-23 from 32nd Street in the industry founders to Calle 71 in the battalion sector and vice versa. All around are some of the most important places of the city like: Founders Theatre, Alley Building, Plaza 51, The Triangle, Panorama Towers, University of Caldas, Catholic University, Cervantes Building, Park Antonio Nariño, Instituto Universitario de Caldas, Herbeo Tower, General Cable Plaza and the Zona Rosa. Mobility in this avenue: – 9 Traffic (West-East), 9 Traffic (East-West) – 2 `bridges.
- Avenida Paralela. was the second city avenue. This makes travel in east-west direction (2 lanes) and west-east (2 lanes). This avenue does his entire tour of the street race 25 from 33 in the Founders Park to Calle 71 in the Palermo neighborhood and vice versa. All around are important places of the city such as St. Stephen's Cemetery, University of Caldas, Palogrande Stadium. Mobility in this avenue: – 5 Traffic (West-East), 5 Traffic (East-West) – 3-2 `bridges Glorieta.
Modern version of the system in the 20s communicated it with Mariquita called Aerial Cable Manizales – Mariquita. It has two lines in operation and under construction:
- Founders – The Cambulos.
It is the first line in Manizales Cable Air inaugurated October 30 of 2009. This cable line connecting the center of the city, with the transport terminal with a length of 2.1 km (1.3 mi) Each cabin has a sitting capacity of eight passengers and can carry 1,530 passengers per hour. It has three stations in its route:
The Cambulos "Located in Manizales Transport Terminal '- Bethany '" is the intermediate station located in the area of the source' - Founders' "Ubicadada in Manizales downtown, adjacent to Founders Park and around Park Caldas "
The Cable – The Yarumos. This is the second line in Manizales aerial cable and an extension of 760 meters. Its purpose is tourism. It has two stations in its route:
'Laureles "behind the mall Cable Plaza '- The Yarumos '" In the Ecopark The Yarumos »
- The Cambulos – Villamaria.
Manizales has a domestic airport called La Nubia Airport which has a runway of about 1,400 meters and provides services from 6 am to 6 pm. Due to weather conditions, it is often closed by low visibility. Meanwhile, the existence of buildings over two floors close to the head and make it unfeasible topographical expand the airport, which has become an obstacle to regional development; For these reasons, Coffee International Airport is being built within the metropolitan area, in the town of Palestina, 25 minutes from the city. It will have a runway of 2,800 meters to 1,525 m, which would be extended to 3,500 meters in order to receive long-range aircraft. It is expected that the new airport is on duty 24 hours a day. It is currently being conducted and the adequacy of the ground motion.
Arts and culture
The most important cultural events held in the city are the Manizales' International Theater Festival, which is one of the major theater events in Latin America and the Manizales Jazz Festival which gather jazz musicians from all over the world, which is held annually.
The Manizales Fair was born in 1951 with the first centenary of the city. It began with the presentation of grand bullfights and with typical "Manolas" parade (Spanish parade). Due to its hospitality, more shows and presentations have been brought into the fair, such as International Coffee Beauty Pageant which together with the bullfighting season turn into the main events of the fair. Currently the fair includes activities like horseback riding rarades, typical presentations, "trova" concerts, other parades, national and international musicians and bands, expositions, and cultural shows. It is an important celebration in the country, like the Barranquilla Carnival.
Miss Coffee International
Miss Coffee International, also known as Miss International Queen of Coffee (from Spanish: Reinado Internacional del Café) is an international beauty contest held annually in Manizales as part of the Feria de Manizales, a fair promoting the region known for its flagship product, coffee. The pageant is also one of the key events scheduled in the bullfighting season.
The international beauty contest originally began in 1957 celebrated every two years (1957, 1959, 1961, 1963) under the name of Continental Queen of Coffee. However, to give a wider scope, in 1972 changed its name to Miss International Queen of Coffee Pageant, so, admitting participation coffee producing countries in other continents. Manizales is permanent home since its first version.
- Annual Fair of Manizales (Feria de Manizales) [January]
- Bullfighting Season of Manizales [January]
- International Coffee Beauty Pageant [January]
- Image Festival [April]
- International Theater Festival [September/October]
- Manizales Jazz Festival [September/October]
- Gold museum of the Banco de la Republica
- Museum of Natural History Universidad de Caldas
- Museum of Art Universidad de Caldas
- Archaeological Museum Universidad de Caldas
- Botanical Garden Universidad de Caldas
- Natural Museum of Histories CC
- Museum of Science and the Game Universidad Nacional de Colombia
- Cathedral of Manizales, the third tallest in Latin America, at 113 meters
- Nevado del Ruiz Natural Park (with caves and snow)
- Thoughts Recinct Park (El Recinto del Pensamiento)
- Los Yarumos Ecological Park
- Ruiz Hot Springs ("Thermal Waters")
- Otún Hot Springs ("Thermal Waters")
- La Rochela
- Simon Bolivar Park
- (Francisco Jose de) Caldas Park
- Rustic Club
- Manizales Club
- Route of Nereidas
- Route to Neira
- Route of Rioclaro
- Route of Chinchiná
- Route of La Cabaña
- Murillo Route
- Route of "Cerro Bravo"
- Paramo Cocteles
A unique landmark is Torre Horveo, a tower of a former cableway now a monument.
Manizales has sports centers especially in the area of the Palogrande Stadium The city also has a football team the Once Caldas, which is housed in the Palogrande Stadium, won of the Copa Libertadores 2004, and 4 times the Category First A of Colombia, being in the historical position as eighth, also has had two basketball teams Caldas Bancafetero Aces and Wise Caldas which have become champions of the Colombian Professional Basketball in 1989 and 2000 respectively, both had to host the Coliseum Mayor Jorge Uribe and both are currently inactive, and also in the sport of futsal cup microfútbol in both male with Real Caldas FS and female with Real Caldas, and the FIFA Futsal League in Club Deportivo Linear which won the 2011-II, all these had to host Coliseum Minor Vargas Ramón Marín.
Manizales has also been home to sporting events such as the Fourth National Games in 1936, South American U-20, 1987, the Copa America 2001 the South American U-20 2005 and most important World Cup 2011 U-20.
Manizales is an important regional cultural and educational center. It has more universities per capita than any other city in Colombia. The city has a student population of some 30,000 people that attend to 6 colleges and universities:
- Universidad Nacional de Colombia
- Universidad de Manizales
- Universidad Autónoma de Manizales
- Universidad Católica de Manizales
- Universidad Luis Amigó
- Universidad de Caldas
Twin towns – Sister cities
Manizales is twinned with:
- Rosario, Argentina
- Montreal, Canada
- Lisbon, Portugal
- Oxford, England
- Barcelona, Spain
- Valencia, Spain
- Bayamón, Puerto Rico
- "Cartas Climatologicas - Medias Mensuales - Aeropuerto La Nubia (Manizales)" (in Spanish). Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- La Patria (3 January 2015). "Llegan los nuevos precios en el 2015". La Patria. Colprensa. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Documento Conpes 3270" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 2. Retrieved August 16, 2010.[dead link]
- "Festival de Manizales" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Feria de Manizales: lo más destacado de la tradición taurina en América en el escenario del café" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2012-03-27.
- "Venezolana Ivanna Vale se coronó Reina Internacional del Café". El Universal. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario - Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
- Manizales' Gallery in Wikimedia Commons
- Birds from Manizales
- Checklist of birds from Manizales and surroundings