Mark E. Smith
|Mark E. Smith|
Smith performing in May 2008
|Birth name||Mark Edward Smith|
5 March 1957|
Broughton, Lancashire, England
|Died||24 January 2018
Prestwich, Greater Manchester, England
Mark Edward Smith (5 March 1957 – 24 January 2018), sometimes referred to as MES, was an English singer and songwriter. He was best known as the lead singer, lyricist and only constant member of the post-punk group The Fall, which he led from 1976 until his death.[A] Smith formed the Fall after attending a Sex Pistols gig at the Manchester Free Trade Hall in June 1976. During their 42-year existence, the Fall's line-up included some 60 musicians who, with Smith, released 32 studio albums and many singles and EPs. His best-known recordings include "Totally Wired" and "Hit the North".
A long-term heavy drinker, Smith had a difficult and complex personality. He was celebrated for his biting and targeted wit, evident in his acerbic but highly quotable interview persona, for which he was much in demand by music journalists throughout his career. He was deeply suspicious of the trappings of fame, and largely avoided socialising with Fall associates. The dark and sardonic aspect of Smith's personality often seeped into his lyrics, and he especially sought to avoid music industry people, who became the frequent targets of his diatribes.[B] His vocal delivery included a characteristic of ending every line with "-ah" or "-uh". Smith's approach to music was unconventional; he did not have a high regard for musicianship, believing that "rock & roll isn’t even music really. It's a mistreating of instruments to get feelings over"; a tendency that contributed to the Fall's high turnover of musicians.
The Fall are regarded as one of the premier post-punk bands. Smith was notoriously difficult to work with but was revered by fans and critics during his lifetime, and was described as a "strange kind of antimatter national treasure".
Life and career
Smith was born to the working-class parents Irene (née Brownhill) and Jack Smith, in Broughton, Salford 7, the eldest of four siblings. He had three sisters: Suzanne (who later painted the front sleeve for the 1980 Fall album Grotesque (After the Gramme)), Caroline, and Barbara. His grandfather, James Brownhill, had been involved at the Dunkirk evacuation and fought in France during the Second World War. Jack was too young to have fought in the war, but joined the army as soon as he was old enough. The family moved to nearby Prestwich when he was six months old, occupying the house they inherited after his grandfather's death. Smith's father died suddenly in 1989 of a heart attack. He has said that he didn't become interested in music until he was about 14, when he discovered Captain Beefheart. He had early memories of The Beatles, but remembered thinking that it was all a bit effeminate.
He attended Sedgley Park Primary School, and later Stand Grammar School for Boys before quitting aged 16. That year, he left home and moved in with his girlfriend and future Fall keyboardist, Una Baines, later of the Blue Orchids. He subsequently took an evening class in A-level Literature. His first job was in a meat factory, before he became a shipping clerk on Salford docks.
Smith formed The Fall, named after the novel by Albert Camus, with friends Martin Bramah, Una Baines and Tony Friel, having dropped out of college at the age of 19. Originally they were named The Outsiders, after another Camus work. He gave up his job as a shipping clerk at Salford docks shortly afterward to devote his full energies to the band.
The early Fall line-up came of age during the 1970s punk rock movement, although their music underwent numerous stylistic changes, often concurrently with changes in the group's lineup. The band's 40 year career can be broken into five broad periods, based on the band's membership. These include their early late 1970s line-up, the classic Fall period of Hanley and dual drummers, the Brix years of 1984-89, their early 1990s revival, and everything after the on-stage fight in New York, after which Hanley quit and Smith was arrested (see below).
Smith married the American guitarist and Fall member Brix Smith on 19 July 1983, after they met in Los Angeles during the band's American tour earlier that year. They divorced in 1989, and he remarried twice after this. His second wife was Saffron Prior, who had worked for The Fall's fan club; their marriage ended in 1995. He married Eleni Poulou, also called Elenor or Elena, in 2001. Poulou joined the band in September 2002 and left in July 2016. Smith and Poulou divorced in 2016, and Smith's partner at the time of his death was his manager Pamela Vander.
Referring to the Fall's 60-odd former members, Smith claimed that he had "only" fired around half the number of people he is said to have dismissed, and that some left of their own free will. He would fire musicians for seemingly trivial reasons; he once dismissed a sound engineer for eating a salad, later explaining that "the salad was the last straw". Founding member Marc Riley was fired for dancing to a Deep Purple song during their Australian tour, although the two had had many arguments beforehand. Smith said that he often changed musicians so that they would not become lazy or complacent.
When the influential British DJ and Fall supporter John Peel died in 2004, Smith made a notorious appearance on the BBC's Newsnight show in which he seemed stunned and incoherent, and which he afterwards put down to a rare incidence of stage fright.
While the Fall never achieved widespread success beyond minor hit singles in the mid and late 1980s, they maintained a loyal cult following throughout their career. The widespread misunderstanding that the Fall was just a bunch of guys lead by MES is disproved by the reliance he had on a number of band members. In particular Steve Hanley is regarded as one of the most talented bassists of his generation, equal to Peter Hook, Andy Rourke or Gary Mounfield.
Solo work and collaboration
Alongside his work with The Fall, Smith released two spoken-word solo albums, The Post-Nearly Man (1998) and Pander! Panda! Panzer! (2002). Both feature readings of Fall lyrics set to collages of electronic sound effects and samples of Fall songs, as well as contributions from members of The Fall. Smith appeared as a guest vocalist for Edwyn Collins, Elastica, Gorillaz, Long Fin Killie, Mouse on Mars, Coldcut and Ghostigital. His contribution to Inspiral Carpets' 1994 song "I Want You" won UK top 20 recognition, topped John Peel's influential Festive Fifty and resulted in Smith's first appearance on the UK TV show Top of the Pops. He worked with Mouse on Mars on the project Von Südenfed, whose first album, Tromatic Reflexxions, was released in May 2007. Smith provided guest vocals on the song "Glitter Freeze" from the 2010 Gorillaz album Plastic Beach, and joined the group Shuttleworth to record the World Cup song "England's Heartbeat".
In 1986, he wrote the play Hey, Luciani based around the short reign of Pope John Paul I. Smith made a cameo appearance in the Michael Winterbottom film 24 Hour Party People (2002), while his younger self was portrayed by Sam Riley in a section that did not make the final cut of the film, but is featured as a deleted scene on the DVD. Smith made an appearance in the BBC Three sitcom Ideal in May 2007, playing a foulmouthed, chain-smoking Jesus. A fuzzy, muted version of Fall song "Hip Priest" (1982) appeared in the 1991 film The Silence of the Lambs.
Lyrical and vocal style
Smith's lyrics, delivered in a heavy Mancunian accent, are often cryptic, absurdist and inscrutable. His abstruse song titles, which he often derived from cutting out words and phrases from books and news papers, reflect the same tendency, with a notable example being "To Nkroachment: Yarbles" (1985). His vocal style is similarly unusual, and his delivery is well known and often parodied for his tendency to end each phrase with the word "ah". He often speak-sang or sing-slurred his lyrics, especially from the mid-1990s. His singing voice, particularly when playing live, has been described as "rambling", and he often interjected improvised rants between verses. He tended to write lyrics as free form prose into one of his many notebooks, and only later set them to pieces of music composed by Fall musicians. He was a prolific writer who often wrote in dense continuous prose, which he would later edit down into lyrics.
Smith recorded a number of his vocal tracks spontaneously at his home by singing into a dictaphone or cassette recorder, most notably sections of "Paintwork" from the 1985 Fall album "This Nation's Saving Grace", which also includes the voice of Alan Cooper discussing main sequence stars, from a documentary Smith happened to be watching at the time. He later adapted the resulting sound effect in the studio; examples include the use of a megaphone for the intro to "Bad News Girl" (1988).
His ability as a prose writer is evident in songs that abandon the verse/chorus format in favour of a long continuous narrative. Examples include "Spectre Vs Rector" (1979), "The North Will Rise Again" (1980), "Winter Part I" (1982), and "Wings" (1983). Fall songs written in this style are not concerned with character or story development, more establishing a sense of place and atmosphere. By the late 1980s, Smith had largely given up this format. Some early songs concern one of his assumed alter-egos, though always from a third person point of view. Examples include Roman Totale XVII, "the bastard offspring of Charles I and the Great God Pan", who appears in "The N.W.R.A" (1980), the live album Totale's Turns and the sleeve credits for Dragnet, as well as the characters in "Fiery Jack" (1980), "Hip Priest" (1982), "The Man Whose Head Expanded" (1983), and "Riddler" (1986). Rare first person narratives include "Frenz" and "Carry Bag Man", both from 1988's The Frenz Experiment, as well as "Bill Is Dead" (1990), which he said was his favourite Fall song, and "Edinburgh Man" (1991). He did not respond to requests to explain the meaning or sources behind his lyrics. When asked by a journalist as to how much of his self could be found in the song's characters, he replied "dunno, you're the one sitting there in your round glasses and leather jacket. You tell me what you think its an extension of...for every bloke pulling a pint, there's about ten thousand journalists writing an article about it."
Fragments of his lyrics often appeared handwritten on early Fall album and single covers, along with collages he had put together. In an 1983 interview with Sounds, Smith said that he liked artwork to reflect the album content and that his graphic choices reflected his attitude to music. He mentioned how he was drawn to cheap and misspelled posters, amateur layouts of local papers and printed cash and carry signs with "inverted commas where you don't need them". His technique was often imitated, for example on Pavement's early releases, which heavily resemble the artwork for Hex Enduction Hour (1982), and whom Smith described as "mere Fall copyists".
His lyrics were described by critic Simon Reynolds as "a kind of Northern English magic realism that mixed industrial grime with the unearthly and uncanny, voiced through a unique, one-note delivery somewhere between amphetamine-spiked rant and alcohol-addled yarn." He described his approach as wanting to combine "primitive music with intelligent lyrics". Thematically, his frequently densely layered words often centre around descriptions of urban grotesques, gloomy landscapes, "crackpot history", and are infused with regional slang. In interviews, Smith cited Colin Wilson, Arthur Machen, Wyndham Lewis, Thomas Hardy, Philip K. Dick as influences, as well as Edgar Allan Poe, Ezra Pound, Raymond Chandler, and H. P. Lovecraft.
A man of contradictions, Smith had a very complex character. He was often reactionary, didn't suffer fools, and was defiantly Northern England; according to Brix, he "had a chip on both shoulders. I remember him talking about fucking southern bastards a lot and not wanting to come to London. He hated London intensely. He’s quite contrarian as a person and as a writer, which is what gives him his edge." Throughout his career, he clashed with musicians, record producers, sound engineers, record label heads and fellow Manchester scene illuminati such as Tony Wilson, Peter Hook, Shaun Ryder and Morrissey, whom he disparagingly referred to as "Steven". Smith had a working class and anti-intellectual outlook, but a strong interest in literature. As writer Andrew Harrison observed, although he wished that a majority of his audience were miners and postmen, a great many were students or Guardian readers.
Smith was a lyricist of penetrating insight, but according to biographer Simon Ford treated musicians as would "[a] bad tempered despot". He was highly charismatic and cultivated a wiry and misanthropic personality during interviews and live performances. As an interviewee, his dry and caustic wit was very quotable, especially when he was critiquing other contemporary bands and "music personalities", a favoured pastime. He became a mainstay of the English music press throughout the 1980s and 1990s, and his sharp tongue often turned on the journalists themselves; many reported being nervous before meeting him, and published "war stories" afterwards.
Released as a single through Rough Trade in 1980
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Smith said that his favourite things in life were "Scottish people, cats, Coronation Street, and Can". He was a passionate football fan, and a lifelong Manchester City F.C. follower. He admired mavericks like George Best, whom he met and drank with, and remarked that if Best could have drawn a crowd of 40,000 people a week he should have been able to "do what he liked".
Originally a Labour supporter, Smith became disillusioned during the Tony Blair era and joined the Socialist Workers Party. Asked during a mid-1980s interview with Smash Hits as to what policies he would adopt if he became Prime Minister, he said "I'd half the price of cigarettes, double the tax on health food, then I'd declare war on France." He claims that his outsider political viewpoint is best described in title of his 1980 single "Prole Art Threat".
During performances he would often walk off stage, or interfere with the musician's instruments. During one such incident, at a 1998 gig at Brownies in New York, during a low point in his life when he was drinking heavily and band morale was at its lowest, he became involved in an onstage fight with the other musicians, which led to three Fall members, including long-term bassist Steve Hanley and original drummer Karl Burns, quitting the band, and ended with Smith's arrest for assaulting his girlfriend and Fall keyboardist Julia Nagle. Smith was ordered to undergo treatment for alcohol abuse and anger management. After a period of good behaviour, the charges were dropped.
In a tribute show on BBC (originally aired 25th or 26th January 2018) just after his death, his ex-wife, Brix Smith Start, described him as a "loving, gentleman", and "chivalrous".
Mark E Smith died on 24 January 2018, at his home in Prestwich after a long illness with lung and kidney cancer. He was 60 years old. The announcement was made by his partner and Fall manager Pam Vander. He had struggled with alcoholism and periodic drug use throughout his adult life and had undergone treatment on several occasions. His condition led to falls and resultant bone fragmentation several times since the mid 2000s, and he performed several dates in a wheelchair and cast. His health had been particularly bad during 2017, and he had suffered setbacks due to an adverse reaction when he was changed to a different medication, which led to further wheelchair-bound performances. A heavy smoker, Smith had long suffered from throat and respiratory problems. His work ethic and output never declined, and he continued to release a new album close to once a year.
Smith was both resigned and ambivalent about his legacy, especially in the terms of the fad-orientated music industry of which he was often harshly critical in his lyrics. He noted, somewhat bitterly, how "every artist wants credibility. A couple of years ago, I read a poll on the hundred best artists of all time. The Fall was in there between Mozart and Puccini. I was very proud of that. Of course, the next day I can pick up a paper and be the guy with no teeth who beats everybody up." Despite this, he was widely influential and critically acclaimed throughout his career, in part because he did not seek to capitalise on, or associate with, then current trends, which after they had ended might have dated the band. He was particularly dismissive of the Madchester scene, and the "techno shit" of the 1990s and early 2000s.
Similarly, he refused to look backwards; when recording he was adamant that the Fall not repeat themselves stylistically, and when playing live he refused to play old songs. The approach is further seen in his strategy of frequently replacing band members. Long-term fan John Peel said that "The Fall are the group against which all others must measure themselves", and when asked which Fall albums he would recommend to newcomers, he replied "all of them". In January 2005, Smith was the subject of The Fall: The Wonderful and Frightening World of Mark E. Smith, a BBC Four television documentary.
A number of alternative rock artists have mentioned Smith in their songs. The English band Elastica released the track "How He Wrote Elastica Man" in 2000, a reference to the 1980 Fall Song "How I Wrote 'Elastic Man'", while in 2014 the Fat White Family released an EP titled "I Am Mark E Smith". Sonic Youth covered three Fall songs, as well as the Kinks "Victoria", which they released in 1990 as the 4 Tunna Brix EP. The Pixies covered the 1989 Fall Track "Big New Prinz" during their 2013 world tour.
Solo work and collaborations
- Steve Hanley is second to Smith in longevity in the Fall, having served from 1979 to 1998. He is one of the few Fall musicians to whom Smith always gave credit. In a late 1980s interview, Smith said that "the most original aspect of The Fall is Steve...I've never heard a bass player like him. He is The Fall sound" See Melody Maker interview, 18 June 1983
- See for example Fall tracks "Music Scene" (1979), "Leave the Capitol" (1980), "Elves" (1984), and "Hey! Student" (1994)
- Edge (1989), 8.
- Youngs, Ian. "Mark E Smith: British rock's cult hero". BBC, 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018
- Parkes, Taylor. "The Fall and Mark E Smith As A Narrative Lyric Writer". The Quietus, July 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Maume, Chris. "The Fall's Mark E Smith has become a strange, antimatter national treasure". The Independent, 5 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2017
- "Musican, poet and satirist, Mark E Smith was driving force of The Fall". Irish Times. 25 January 2018.
- "Mark E Smith: wonderful and frightening". The Daily Telegraph. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Ford (2003), 1.
- Ford (2003), 2.
- Simpson, Dave. "The Fall: 10 of the best". The Guardian, 11 June 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2018
- Ford (2003), 3.
- "Mark E Smith obituary". The Guardian. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "The Fall singer Mark E Smith dies aged 60". BBC. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- Reynolds (2006), 174.
- Aroesti, Rachel. "Mark E Smith, lead singer with the Fall, dies aged 60". The Guardian, 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018
- O'Neil, Sean."Remembering The Fall's Mark E. Smith, rock’s most uncompromising voice". AV Club, 24 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Hughes, Rob (May 2016). "Slang Queen!". Uncut. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- Perry, Andrew (26 April 2016). "The Fall's Mark E Smith in full, exhilarating flow – review". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Harrison, Ian (2016). "The 40 Years War" (PDF). Mojo. 274: 66.
- Pareles, Jon (25 January 2018). "Mark E. Smith, Uncompromising Leader of The Fall, Dies at 60". The New York Times. p. B14.
- Chalmers, Robert. "Life lessons: Mark E Smith on bullying, the occult and why Stalin had the right idea". The Independent, 13 November 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Smith, Mark E. "Mark E Smith vs The Sound Engineer". Unknown. Retrieved 4 February 2018
- Mark E Smith on John Peel, BBC, 2004. Retrieved 8 January 2007
- "Dave Simpson – The Fallen". Thefallenbook.co.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Huey, Steve. Mark E. Smith profile, All Music. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Huey, Steve. "Mark E. Smith Songs. AllMusic. Retrieved 25 January 2018
- Thompson (2000), 425–427.
- Inspirals Biography Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pan, Arnold. "Mark E. Smith and Shuttleworth – "England's Heartbeat" (Unofficial World Cup Anthem)", Popmatters, 7 June 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2018
- Raggett, Ned. "Hey, Luciani!,. All Music; retrieved 25 January 2018
- Renshaw, David. "Mark E Smith backs Brad Pitt to play him in Fall biopic", NME, 28 December 2012. retrieved 24 January 2018
- "Mark E Smith Is Jesus", Uncut, 5 January 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Beck, Jay. Lowering the Boom: Critical Studies in Film Sound. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2008. 78. ISBN 978-0-252-07532-2
- Huey, Steve. "Mark E. Smith – Music Biography, Credits and Discography: AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Edge (1989), 55.
- Jones, Sasha-Frere."Mark E. Smith’s Mantras of Disdain". Village Voice, 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Kaplan, Ilana. "Mark E. Smith dead: Eight of The Fall's best tracks". The Independent, 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Ford (2003), xi.
- Robertson, Sandy."Hex Enduction". Sounds, 8 May 1982. Retrieved 4 October 2015
- Murphy, John L. "The Sound of an Autodidact's Snarl: 'Mark E. Smith and The Fall'". Popmatters, 23 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Herrington, Tony. "Mancunian Candidate". The Wire, September 1996.
- Reynolds (1996).
- Hogan, Marc. "10 Songs That Defined the Fall and Mark E. Smith". Pitchfork, 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Marvin, Joe. "Mark E. Smith interview". Fanzine Interview. Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- Smith, Mark E (2008). Renegade: The Lives and Tales of Mark E. Smith. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-91674-0
- Lee, Stewart (2004). "Mark E Smith, Man At His Best". Esquire Magazine. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
- Stubbs, David. "The Indelible Prinz". Melody Maker, 12th November 1988. Retrieved 12 November 1988
- Storytime With Mark E Smith BBC. Retrieved 21 December 2007
- Ford (2003), xii.
- O'Hagan, Sean. "Brix Smith Start: ‘Mark E Smith? He’s complicated’". The Observer, 1 May 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Siquig, Alex. "Why He Mattered: The Fall's Mark E. Smith: 1957-2018". The Outline", 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Harrison, Andrew. "Mark E Smith: A sudden end to forty years of prole art threat". New Statesman, 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Beaumont, Mark. "“I survived a Mark E. Smith interview”: one NME writer’s unique experience with the post-punk provocateur". NME, 25 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018
- Edge (1989), 65.
- Chalmers, Robert (13 November 2011). "Life lessons: Mark E Smith on bullying, the occult and why Stalin had the right idea". The Independent. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
- "Mark E Smith", Sunday Times, 25 January 2018; retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Mark E. Smith, Post-Punk Singer for The Fall Dead at 60". RollingStone.com. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Statement". thefall.xyz. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
- Berman, Stuart (25 January 2018). "The Connection Is Made: Elastica Goes M.I.A." Pitchfork. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Miller, Jeff. "The Pixies Re-Form, Return With a Vengeance". Hollywood Reporter, 11 September Retrieved 28 January 2018
- Edge, Brian (1989). Paintwork: A Portrait of the Fall. Omnibus. ISBN 978-0-7119-1740-8.
- Ford, Simon (2003). Hip Priest: The Story of Mark E. Smith and the Fall. Quartet. ISBN 978-0-7043-8167-4.
- Reynolds, Simon (1996). The Sex Revolts: Gender, Rebellion, and Rock 'n' Roll. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674802735.
- Reynolds, Simon (17 February 2006). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London, UK: Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-20105-3.
- Smith, Mark E. (25 September 2014). Renegade: The Lives and Tales of Mark E. Smith. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-241-97243-4.
- Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-607-6..
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