Painting of the goddess Meenakshi, depicted crowned, two-armed and with a green parrot perching on her right hand, circa 1820.
|Affiliation||Devi, Parvati, Tripurasundari|
She is mainly worshipped in South India where she has a major temple devoted to her known as the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, Tamil Nadu. She is also considered as a form of Goddess Lalitha Tripurasundari, one of the Dasa Maha Vidhyas.
According to one theory, "Meenakshi" is a Sanskrit-language term meaning "fish-eyed", derived from the words mina ("fish") and akshi ("eyes"). The Tamil-language equivalent is "Angayarkanni" or "Ankayarkannammai" (literally, "the mother with the beautiful fish eyes"). Various meanings of this appellation have been suggested, including that she was originally a goddess of the fisher-folk, that her eyes are "large and brilliant" like that of a fish, or that she has "long and slender" eyes shaped like the body of a fish. Another interpretation is that the name is based on the belief that the fish never close their eyes: the goddess similarly never stops watching over her devotees. Yet another interpretation states that the name is based on the ancient belief that the fish feed their young by merely looking at them; the goddess supposedly supports here devotees by merely glancing at them.
Several great hymns on the goddess were composed in the early modern period by many saints and scholars, including the famous Neelakanta Dikshitar. The stotram Meenakshi Pancharatnam (Five Jewels of Meenakshi), composed by Sri Adi Sankaracharya, is an incantation to her. Meenakshi does not directly appear in the stotram Lalita Sahasranama, though there is a reference to her in the line Vakthra lakshmi parivaha chalan meenabha lochana (She who has auspiciousness and glory of Lakshmi and has beautiful eyes which look like fish in the pond of her face).
One Tamil poem/song (Tamilpillai) portrays Meenakshi as the intersection of domesticity and divinity and as a global icon for all who deal with "impossible" children or husbands:
The great Shiva with the metel flower / Wanders through the courtyard of space / Destroying your work again and again / And then he comes before you. // You never get angry. / Every day you just pick up the vessels.
According to a legend found in the Tamil text Tiruvilaiyatarpuranam, king Malayadhwaja Pandya and his wife Kanchanamalai performed a yajna seeking a son for succession. Instead a daughter is born who is already 3 year old and has three breasts. Shiva intervenes and says that the parents should treat her like a son, and when she meets her husband, she will lose the third breast. They follow the advice. The girl grows up, the king crowns her as the successor and when she meets Shiva, his words come true, she takes her true form of Meenakshi. According to Harman, this may reflect the matrilineal traditions in South India and the regional belief that "penultimate [spiritual] powers rest with the women", gods listen to their spouse, and that the fate of kingdoms rest with the women. According to Susan Bayly, the reverence for Meenakshi is a part of the Hindu goddess tradition that integrates with the Dravidian Hindu society where the "woman is the lynchpin of the system" of social relationships. Her eyes are fabled to bring life to the unborn.
The temple complex at Madurai, Tamil Nadu in India is dedicated to Meenakshi as the primary deity. It is also referred to as Meenakshi Amman or Minakshi-Sundareshwara Temple. Meenakshi's shrine is next to that of her consort Sundareswar, a form of Shiva.
Though the temple has historic roots, most of the present campus structure was rebuilt after the 14th century CE, further repaired, renovated and expanded in the 17th century by Thirumalai Nayak. In early 14th century, the armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the temple, looted it of its valuables and destroyed the Madurai temple town along with many other temple towns of South India. The contemporary temple is the result of rebuilding efforts started by the Vijayanagara Empire rulers who rebuilt the core and reopened the temple. In the 16th century, the temple complex was further expanded and fortified. The restored complex houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers), each above 45 metres (148 ft) in height. The complex has numerous sculpted pillared halls such as Ayirakkal (1,000 pillar hall), Kilikoondu-mandapam, Golu-mandapam and Pudu-mandapam. Its shrines are dedicated to Hindu deities and Shaivism scholars, with the vimanas above the garbhagrihas (sanctums) of Meenakshi and Sundaresvara guilded with gold.
The temple is a major pilgrimage destination within the Shaivism tradition, dedicated to Meenakshi Devi and Shiva. However, the temple includes Vishnu in many narratives, sculptures and rituals as he is considered to be Meenakshi's brother. This has made this temple and Madurai as the "southern Mathura", one included in Vaishnava texts. The large temple complex is the most prominent landmark in Madurai and attracts tens of thousands visitors a day. The temple attracts over a million pilgrims and visitors during the annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, celebrated with much festivities and a ratha (chariot) procession during the Tamil month of Chittirai (overlaps with April–May in Georgian calendar, Chaitra in North India).
- Rajarajan, R.K.K. 2005. Minaksi or Sundaresvara: Who is the first principle? South Indian History Congress Annual Proceedings XXV, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, pp. 551-553.
- "Meenakshi Pancharatnam Lyrics – Meenatchi Pancha Ratnam". Hindu Devotional Blog. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- William P. Harman (1992). The Sacred Marriage of a Hindu Goddess. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-208-0810-2.
- Manly Palmer Hall, ed. (1949). Horizon, Volume 9, Issue 3. Philosophical Research Society. p. 33.
- Proceedings of the First International Conference Seminar of Tamil Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April, 1966. International Association of Tamil Research. 1968. p. 543.
- William Norman Brown (1978). "The Name of the Goddess Mīnākṣī "Fish-Eye"". India and Indology: Selected Articles. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 84–86. OCLC 871468571.
- Klaus K. Klostermaier (2014). A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oneworld. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-78074-672-2.
- Journal of Indian History. Department of History, University of Kerala. 2002. p. 96.
- Excerpt for the etymology of Meenatchi from "A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Tamil Language, Vol. VII, PART - II", page 68: மீனாட்சி ,Mīṉāṭci, பெ. (n. ) மதுரையை உறைவிடமாகக் கொண்ட தெய்வம்; Umā, the tutelary Goddess of Madurai. [மீன் + ஆட்சி. மீனைக் கொடியில் சின்னமாகக் கொண்டவள்.] Translation: [ Meen + Aatchi. Her who put the fish as symbol for the flag.] (மீன் - Mīṉ which means "fish", ஆட்சி- āṭci which means "rule")
- "Meenakshi Pancharatnam - In sanskrit with meaning". greenmesg.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
- Ramachander, P.R. "Goddess Lalithambigai - Lalitha Sahasranamam with meanings of each of 1000 sacred name". StarSai. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- Birth and birthgivers : the power behind the shame. Chawla, Janet. New Delhi: Shakti Books. 2006. ISBN 8124109389. OCLC 181090767.
- Richman, Paula (1997). Extraordinary Child: Poems from a South Asian devotional genre. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
- Harman 1992, p. 44-47.
- Brockman 2011, pp. 326–327.
- Susan Bayly (1989). Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700-1900. Cambridge University Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-521-89103-5.
- Madurai, Encyclopedia Britannica
- Vijaya Ramaswamy (2017). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 9–10, 103, 210, 363–364. ISBN 978-1-5381-0686-0.
- Bharne, Vinayak; Krusche, Krupali (2014-09-18). Rediscovering the Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443867344.
- King 2005, pp. 72-74.
- D. Uma 2015, pp. 39-40.
- Madurai, Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote: "The [Meenakshi] temple, Tirumala Nayak palace, Teppakulam tank (an earthen embankment reservoir), and a 1,000-pillared hall were rebuilt in the Vijayanagar period (16th–17th century) after the total destruction of the city in 1310."
- Michell 1995, pp. 9-10
- Tara Boland-Crewe; David Lea (2003). The Territories and States of India. Routledge. p. 401. ISBN 1-135-35624-6., Quote: "By the beginning of the 14th century south India was exposed to the depredations of Muslim raiders from the north, and even Madurai was destroyed in 1310, by Malik Kafur, briefly becoming the seat of a sultanate thereafter."
- Christopher Fuller (2003). "Madurai". In George Michell. Temple Towns of Tamil Nadu. Marg. pp. 94–113. ISBN 978-81-85026-213.
- Brian A. Hatcher (2015). Hinduism in the Modern World. Routledge. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-135-04631-6.
- D. Uma 2015, pp. 34-47.
- V. K. Subramanian (2003). Art Shrines of Ancient India. Abhinav Publications. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-81-7017-431-8.
- Edwin Francis Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 546 with note 45. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
- T. Padmaja (2002). Temples of Kr̥ṣṇa in South India: History, Art, and Traditions in Tamilnāḍu. Abhinav Publications. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-81-7017-398-4.
- Gopal 1990, p. 181.
- Diana L. Eck (2013). India: A Sacred Geography. Random House. pp. 277–279. ISBN 978-0-385-53192-4.
- Rajarajan, R.K.K. (2013). "* Mīnākṣī-Sundareśvara - 'Tiruviḷaiyāṭaṟ Purāṇam' in Letters, Design and Art". New Delhi: Sharada Publishing House.
- "Temple theertham". Arulmigu Meenakshi Sundareswarar Thirukoil. 2012. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
- Campantar (2004). "Campantar Tirumurai 1" (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
- Campantar (2004). "Campantar Tirumurai 3" (PDF). Online: Project Madurai.
- Thirunavukkarasar (2004), Appar Tirumurai 6 (PDF), Online: Project Madurai
- Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
- Brockman, Norbert C. (2011), Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 978-1-59884-655-3.
- Compiled (2008), Symbolism In Hinduism, Mumbai: Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, ISBN 978-81-7597-149-3.
- Cotterell, Arthur (2011), Asia: A Concise History, Delhi: John Wiley & Sons(Asia) Pte. Ltd., ISBN 978-0-470-82958-5.
- Datta, Amaresh (2005), The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti), Volume 2, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, ISBN 81-260-1194-7.
- Fuller, Christopher John (2004), The camphor flame: popular Hinduism and society in India, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5.
- Harman, William P. (1992), The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess, Delhi: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-1-59884-655-3.
- King, Anthony D. (2005), Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Taylor & Francis e-library, ISBN 0-203-48075-9.
- Kinsley, David (1998), Hindu goddesses: visions of the divine feminine in the Hindu religious tradition By David Kinsley, Delhi: The Regents of the University of California, ISBN 81-208-0394-9.
- Knott, Kim (2000), Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192853872.
- Michell, George (1995), Architecture and art of southern India: Vijayanagara and, Volume 1, Issue 6, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44110-2.
- National Geographic (2008), Sacred Places of a Lifetime: 500 of the World's Most Peaceful and Powerful Destinations, United States: National Geographic Society, ISBN 978-1-4262-0336-7.
- Nicholson, Louise (1997), National Geographic Traveler: India, 3rd Edition, USA: National Geographic Society, ISBN 978-1-4262-0595-8.
- Pal, Pratapaditya (1988), Indian Sculpture, Volume 2, Los Angeles: Museum Associates, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, ISBN 0-87587-129-1.
- Prentiss, Karen Pechilis (1999), The embodiment of bhakti, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512813-3.
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007), Historical dictionary of the Tamils, United States: Scarecrow Press, INC., ISBN 978-0-470-82958-5.
- Selby, Martha Ann; Peterson, Indira Viswanathan (2008), Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India, New York: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7245-3.
- Smith, David (1996), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India By David, United Kingdom: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-48234-8.
- V.K., Subramanian (2003), Art shrines of ancient India, New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-431-7.
- D. Uma (2015), Festivals of Meenakshi Sundareswarar temple, Madurai a historical and cultural perspective, Madurai Kamraj University
- V., Vriddhagirisan (1995), Nayaks of Tanjore, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0996-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Minakshi.|