Mental health of Jesus
The question of whether the historical Jesus was in good mental health has been explored by multiple psychologists, philosophers, historians, and writers. The first to openly question Jesus' sanity was French psychologist Charles Binet-Sanglé, the chief physician of Paris and author of the book La Folie de Jésus. This view finds both supporters and opponents.
Opinions challenging the sanity of Jesus
The topic of the assessment of the psyche of Jesus first occurs in the gospels. The Gospel of Mark reports the opinion of members of Jesus' family who believe that Jesus "is beside himself". Some psychiatrists, religious scholars and writers explain that Jesus' family, followers and contemporaries seriously regarded him as delusional, possessed by demons, or insane.
And when his family heard it, they went out to seize him, for people were saying, “He is beside himself”. And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Be-el′zebul, and by the prince of demons he casts out the demons”.
The accusation contained in the Gospel of John is more literal.
There was again a division among the Jews because of these words. Many of them said, “He has a demon, and he is mad; why listen to him?”— John 10:19-20 (RSV)
The topic was taken up again in the nineteenth century with the first quest for the historical Jesus. David Friedrich Strauss (Das Leben Jesu, second edition, 1864) claimed that Jesus was a fanatic. Friedrich Nietzsche (Thus Spoke Zarathustra, The Antichrist) suggested his mental immaturity. Oskar Panizza introduced Jesus as a psychopathological and paranoid case. Georg Lomer (as George de Loosten, Jesus Christus vom Standtpunkte des Psychiaters, 1905) described Jesus as a man with a "fixed delusional system". However, it was not until Charles Binet-Sanglé, in his four-volume work La folie de Jésus, discussed the topic extensively and visibly.
In short, the nature of the hallucinations of Jesus, as they are described in the orthodox Gospels, permits us to conclude that the founder of Christian religion was afflicted with religious paranoia. (vol. 2, p. 393)
His view was shared by the New York psychiatrist William Hirsch who, in 1912, published his study Religion and Civilization: The Conclusions of a Psychiatrist, enumerating a number of Jesus' mentally aberrant behaviours. Hirsch agreed with Binet-Sanglé in that Jesus had been afflicted with hallucinations, and pointed to his "megalomania, which mounted ceaselessly and immeasurably". Hirsch concluded that Jesus was "paranoid" – pure and simple, adding that:
But Christ offers in every respect an absolutely typical picture of a wellknown mental disease. All that we know of him corresponds so exactly to the clinical aspect of paranoia, that it is hardly conceivable how anybody at all acquainted with mental disorders, can entertain the slightest doubt as to the correctness of the diagnosis. (p. 103)
Soviet psychiatrist Y. V. Mints (1927) also diagnosed Jesus as suffering from paranoia. The literature of the USSR in the 1920s, following the tradition of the demythologization of Jesus, created in the works Strauss, Renan, Nietzsche and Binet-Sanglé, put forward two main themes – mental illness and deception. This was reflected in the novel by Mikhail Bulgakov The Master and Margarita, in which Jesus is depicted (articulated by Pilate) as a harmless madman. It was only at the turn of the 1920s and 1930s that in the Soviet Union's propaganda won the mythological option, namely the denial of the existence of Jesus.
Jesus' mental health was also questioned by the British psychiatrists William Sargant and Raj Persaud, a number of psychologists of the psychoanalytic orientation, e.g., Georges Berguer in his study "Quelques traits de la vie de Jésus au point de vue psychologique et psychanalytique".
Władysław Witwicki, a rationalist philosopher and psychologist, in the comments to his own translation of the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (Dobra Nowina według Mateusza i Marka) attributed to Jesus subjectivism, increased sense of his own power and superiority over others, egocentrism and the tendency to subjugate other people, as well as difficulties communicating with the outside world and multiple personality disorder, which made him a schizothymic or even schizophrenic type (according to the Ernst Kretschmer's typology).
English psychiatrist Anthony Storr in his final book Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus (1996) suggests that there are psychological similarities between crazy "messiahs" such as Jim Jones, David Koresh, and respected religious leaders, including Jesus. Storr tracks typical patterns, often involving psychotic disorders that shape the development of the guru. His study is an attempt to look at Jesus as one of many gurus. Storr agrees with most scholars of historical Jesus who are inclined to the hypothesis of Jesus as apocalyptic prophet.
It seems inescapable that Jesus did share the apocalyptic view that God's final conquest of evil was at hand and that God's kingdom would be estabished upon earth in the near future.
Storr recognizes Jesus' many similarities to other gurus. It is, for example, going through a period of internal conflict during his fasting in the desert. According to him, if Jesus really considered himself a deputy for God and believed that one day he would come down from heaven to rule, he was very similar to the gurus whom he had previously described as preachers of delusions possessed by mania of greatness. He notes that Jesus was not ideal in family life (Mark 3:31–35, Mark 13:12–13). Gurus often remain indifferent to family ties. Other similarities, according to Storr, include Jesus' faith in receiving a special revelation from God and a tendency to elitism, in the sense that Jesus believed that he had been specially marked by God.
In 1998–2000 Pole Leszek Nowak (born 1962) from Poznań authored a study in which, based on his own history of religious delusion of mission and overvalued ideas, and information communicated in the Gospels, made an attempt at reconstructing Jesus' psyche, with the view of Jesus as apocalyptic prophet, taking into account the hypothesis of "suicide by proxy". He does so in chapters containing, in sequence, an analysis of character traits of the "savior of mankind", a description of the possible course of events from the period of Jesus' public activity, and a naturalistic explanation of his miracles.
Religious Studies scholar Justin Meggitt suggests in his article ″The Madness of King Jesus: Why was Jesus Put to Dead, but his Followers were not?″ (2007) and in his book The Madness of King Jesus: The Real Reasons for His Execution (2010) that Pilate and the other Romans regarded Jesus as an insane, deceived lunatic. Therefore, only Jesus was sentenced to death, while his disciples were not. Jesus was to be presented to Pilate and sentenced to death as a royal pretender, while the standard Roman procedure was the prosecution and execution of would-be insurgents with their leaders. Jesus' disciples not only did not meet such a fate, but even later they did not experience any harassment from the Roman authorities while preaching about Jesus.
In 2012 a team of psychiatrists, behavioral psychologists, neurologists, and neuropsychiatrists from the Harvard Medical School published a research which suggested the development of a new diagnostic category of psychiatric disorders related to religious delusion and hyperreligiosity. They compared the thoughts and behaviors of the most important figures in the Bible (Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Paul) with patients affected by mental disorders related to the psychotic spectrum using different clusters of disorders and diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV-TR), and concluded that these Biblical figures "may have had psychotic symptoms that contributed inspiration for their revelations", such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, manic depression, delusional disorder, delusions of grandeur, auditory-visual hallucinations, paranoia, Geschwind syndrome (Paul especially), and abnormal experiences associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The authors suggest that Jesus sought to condemn himself to death ("suicide by proxy").
Opinions defending the sanity of Jesus
Opinions and publications questioning the sanity of Jesus, especially Charles Binet-Sanglé and William Hirsch, triggered polemical reactions. They were first challenged by Albert Schweitzer in his doctoral thesis entitled The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism (Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu: Darstellung und Kritik, 1913) and by psychiatrist Walter Bundy in his 1922 book The psychic health of Jesus.
A broad current of liberal scholarship has interpreted Jesus′ Baptism as a vocational experience. After having led a perfectly normal life in the province of Galilee, at the moment of his Baptism he is said to have had an earth-shattering experience. It was then, we are told, that he became aware of his special relationship to God and his religious mission. This mission, moreover, supposedly originated from the expectation motif then dominant in Israel, creatively reshaped by John, and from the emotional upheaval that the event of his Baptism brought about in Jesus′ life. But none of this can be found in the texts. However much scholarly erudition goes into the presentation of this reading, it has to be seen as more akin to a ″Jesus novel″ than as an actual interpretation of the texts. The texts give us no window into Jesus′ inner life – Jesus stands above our psychologizing (Guardini, Das Wesen des Christentums).
And he may well have thought (I think he did think) that he would be made the messiah in the future kingdom. That may have been a rather exalted view of himself, but I don’t think it makes Jesus crazy. It makes him an unusually confident apocalyptic prophet. There were others with visions of grandeur at the time. I don’t think that makes him mentally ill. It makes him a first-century apocalyptic Jew.
- Criticism of Jesus
- Divine madness
- Foolishness for Christ
- God complex
- Grandiose delusions
- History of mental disorders
- Jerusalem syndrome
- Lewis's trilemma
- List of messiah claimants
- Messiah complex
- Psychology of religion
- Quest for the historical Jesus
- Religion and schizophrenia
- Retrospective diagnosis
- Sexuality of Jesus
- Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1908–1915). La folie de Jésus [The Madness of Jesus] (in French). 1–4. Paris: A. Maloine. LCCN 08019439. OCLC 4560820.
- Havis, Don (April–June 2001). "An Inquiry into the Mental Health of Jesus: Was He Crazy?". Secular Nation. Minneapolis: Atheist Alliance Inc. ISSN 1530-308X. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Murray, Evan D.; Cunningham, Miles G.; Price, Bruce H. (October 2012). "The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Psychiatric Association. 24 (4): 410–426. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11090214. ISSN 1545-7222. OCLC 823065628. PMID 23224447.
- Meggitt, Justin J. (June 1, 2007). "The Madness of King Jesus: Why was Jesus Put to Dead, but his Followers not?". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. London: SAGE Publications. 29 (4): 379–413. doi:10.1177/0142064X07078990. ISSN 0142-064X.
- Hirsch, William (1912). Religion and Civilization: The Conclusions of a Psychiatrist. New York: Truth Seeker. p. 135. LCCN 12002696. OCLC 39864035. OL 20516240M.
That the other members of his own family considered him insane, is said quite plainly, for the openly declare, "He is beside himself."
- Kasmar, Gene (1995). All the obscenities in the Bible. Brooklyn Center, MN: Kas-mark Pub. Co. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-9645-9950-5.
He was thought to be insane by his own family and neighbors in 'when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself ... (Mark 3:21-22 – The Greek existemi translated beside himself, actually means insane and witless), The Greek word ho para translated friends, also means family.
- Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 4. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
- Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Antichrist, § 31, 32.
- Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 19. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
- Panizza, Oskar (1898). "Christus in psicho-patologischer Beleuchtung". Zürcher Diskuszjonen (in German) (5): 1–8. OCLC 782007054.
- Düsterberg, Rolf (1988). Die gedrukte Freiheit: Oskar Panizza und die Zürcher Diskussjonen. Europäische Hochschulschriften; Reihe 1, Deutsche Sprache und Literatur; 1098 (in German). Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang. pp. 40–91. ISBN 3-8204-0288-8.
- Lomer, Georg (1905). Jesus Christus vom Standtpunkte des Psychiaters [Jesus Christ from the Standpoint of a Psychiatrist]. Bamberg: Handels-Druckerei. p. 90. OCLC 31247627.
- Gettis, Alan (June 1987). "The Jesus delusion: A theoretical and phenomenological look". Journal of Religion and Health. Springer. 26 (2): 131–136. doi:10.1007/BF01533683. ISSN 0022-4197. JSTOR 27505915. OCLC 4643399839. PMID 24301876.
- Hirsch, William (1912). Religion and civilization; the conclusions of a psychiatrist. New York: Truth Seeker. LCCN 12002696. OCLC 39864035. OL 20516240M.
- Sirotkina, I. (2003). Diagnosing Literary Genius: A Cultural History of Psychiatry in Russia, 1880—1930. JHU Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8018-7689-9.
- Минц, Я. В. (1927). "Иисус Христос — как тип душевнобольного" [Jesus Christ: A Sample of Mentally Ill]. Клинический архив гениальности и одарённости (эвропатологии) (in Russian). 3. Leningrad. pp. 243–252.
- Дождикова, Надежда (2009). "Чем был недоволен Берлиоз? О романе М. А. Булгакова "Мастер и Маргарита" и "проблеме Христа"". Нева (in Russian) (7). ISSN 0130-741X. Retrieved 2019-05-11.
- Sargant, William (22 August 1974). "The movement in psychiatry away from the philosophical". The Times: 14. ISSN 0140-0460.
Perhaps, even earlier, Jesus Christ might simply have returned to his carpentry following the use of modern [psychiatric] treatments.
- Persaud, Raj (27 April 1993). "Health: A madman can look a lot like a messiah: There is no easy way for cult followers to tell if their leader is sane, says Raj Persaud". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
Two thousand years ago Jesus received a crown of thorns. Today the Messianic have electro-convulsive therapy.
- Berguer, Georges (1920). Quelques traits de la vie de Jésus: au point de vue psychologique et psychanalytique (in French). Genève–Paris: Edition Atar. OCLC 417009760.
- Berguer, Georges (1923). Some aspects of the life of Jesus from the psychological and psycho-analytic point of view. Translated by Brooks, Eleanor Stimson; Brooks, Van Wyck. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. LCCN 23012901. OCLC 2628145. OL 6656731M.
- Nowicki, Andrzej (1982). Witwicki (in Polish). Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. pp. 7–9. ISBN 83-214-0301-8.
- Witwicki, Władysław (1958). Dobra Nowina według Mateusza i Marka [The Good News according to Matthew and Mark] (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. OCLC 681830910.
- Szmyd, Jan (1996). Psychologiczny obraz religijności i mistyki: z badań psychologów polskich [Psychological picture of religiousness and mysticism: from the research of the Polish psychologists] (in Polish). Kraków: Wydawn. Naukowe WSP. p. 197. ISBN 978-8-3868-4154-7.
- Citlak, Amadeusz (2015). "Psychobiography of Jesus Christ in view of Władysław Witwicki's theory of cratism". Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration. Scientific Society KUL. 21 (1–2): 155–184. doi:10.2478/pepsi-2015-0007. ISSN 2300-0945. OCLC 998362074.
- Jarzyńska, Karina (2008-04-10). "Jezus jako egocentryczny schizotymik". Racjonalista (in Polish). Fundacja Wolnej Myśli. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
- Storr, Anthony (1996). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-82818-9.
- "Obituary: Anthony Storr". The Telegraph. 2001-03-21. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
- "Feet Of Clay: The Power and Charisma of Gurus". Storytel. 2015-05-19. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
- Storr, Anthony (1997). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press Paperbacks. p. 142. ISBN 0-684-83495-2.
- Storr, Anthony (1997). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press Paperbacks. pp. 143–146. ISBN 0-684-83495-2.
- Not to be confused with Polish philosopher and lawyer Leszek Nowak (1943–2009), also from Poznań.
- Leszek Nowak, Prywatna Witryna Internetowa Leszka Nowaka at Internet Archive (in Polish)
- Analysis of fragments of the New Testament books for Jesus as apocalyptic prophet: Leszek Nowak, "A great mistake and disappointment of early Christianity" at Internet Archive (in Polish)
- Leszek Nowak, "Prowokator" ("Instigator") at Internet Archive (in Polish)
- Meggitt, Justin J. (2010). The Madness of King Jesus: The Real Reasons for His Execution. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-8488-5410-9.
- Gofrey, Neil (2016-02-01). "The Madness of King Jesus". Vridar.org. Retrieved 2019-12-06.
- Schweitzer, Albert (1948). The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism. Translated by Joy, Charles R. Boston: Beacon Press. LCCN 48006488. OCLC 614572512. OL 6030284M.
- Schweitzer, Albert (1913). Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu: Darstellung und Kritik (in German). Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). LCCN 13021072. OCLC 5903262.
- Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
- Hyder, Olivier Quentin (1977-12-01). "On the Mental Health of Jesus Christ". Journal of Psychology and Theology. Biola University. 5 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1177/009164717700500101. ISSN 0091-6471. OCLC 7318879878.
- Martinez, Pablo; Sims, Andrew (2018). Mad or God? Jesus: The healthiest mind of all. London: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-1-783-59606-5.
- Sims, Andrew (2018-07-17). "Mad or God? A senior psychiatrist on the mental health of Jesus". Christian News on Christian Today. Christian Today. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
- McDowell, Josh (1977). "Lord, Liar, or Lunatic?". More Than a Carpenter. Wheaton, Illinois: Living Books. pp. 22–32. ISBN 978-0-8423-4552-1.
- Strobel, Lee (2013). "The Psychological Evidence". The Case for Christ. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. pp. 154–166. ISBN 978-0-3103-3930-4.
- Pope Benedict XVI (2007). Jesus of Nazareth: From the Baptism in the Jordan to the Transfiguration. New York: Doubleday. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-3855-2434-6.
- Ehrman, Bart D. "Were Jesus' Followers Crazy? Was He? Mailbag June 4, 2016". The Bart Ehrman Blog. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1908). "La Folie de Jésus (tome 1). Son hérédité. Sa constitution. Sa physiologie". Internet Archive (in French). A. Maloine. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1910). "La Folie de Jésus (tome 2). Ses connaissances. Ses idées. Son délire. Ses hallucinations". Internet Archive (in French). A. Maloine. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1912). "La Folie de Jésus (tome 3). Ses facultés individuelles. Ses sentiments. Son procès". Internet Archive (in French). A. Maloine. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1915). "La Folie de Jésus (tome 4 et dernier). Sa morale, son activité. Diagnostique de sa folie". Internet Archive (in French). A. Maloine. Retrieved 2019-11-20.