Death by boiling
Death by boiling was a method of execution in which a person is killed by being immersed in a boiling liquid such as oil or water. While not as common as other methods of execution, boiling to death has been used in many parts of Europe and Asia.
Executions of this type were often carried out using a large vessel such as a cauldron or a sealed kettle that was filled with a liquid such as water, oil, tar, or tallow, and a hook and pulley system.
Death in these cases was by severe scalding caused by the hot liquids (water or oil). Immersion burns would form on the arms, torso and legs. Prolonged scalding would result in anything up to fourth-degree burns of the skin. The epidermis and the dermis are destroyed, leading to the complete breakdown of subcutaneous fat.
In England, statute 22, passed in 1532 by Henry VIII, made boiling a legal form of capital punishment. It began to be used for murderers who used poisons after the Bishop of Rochester's cook, Richard Roose, gave several people poisoned porridge, resulting in two deaths in February 1531. He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to be boiled to death without benefit of clergy. A contemporary chronicle reports the following:
"He roared mighty loud, and divers women who were big with child did feel sick at the sight of what they saw, and were carried away half dead; and other men and women did not seem frightened by the boiling alive, but would prefer to see the headsman at his work."
In Scotland, several traditions existed of local power players who were boiled to death. For example, in 1222, with the consent of Jon Haraldsson, the "Bloody Earl" of Orkney, the bishop of Caithness Adam of Melrose and a monk named Surlo, are said to have been boiled to death by angry husbandmen over the bishop's aggressive means of collecting tithes. Alexander II is said to have executed upwards to eighty persons as a punishment for the crime, and the earl fled his lands. According to the Melrose Chronicle, Adam of Melrose was "burned alive", rather than boiled, and Alexander III executed up to 400. William de Soules, a nobleman involved in a conspiracy against Robert the Bruce was reputed to be a sorcerer consorting with evil spirits, and was boiled alive in 1321 at Ninestane Rig. Around 1420, Melville, the sheriff of the Mearns and laird of Glenbervie, who was resented for his strictness, was apprehended by some other nobles and thrown into the kettle. The nobles are said each to have taken a spoonful of the brew afterwards.
Boiling as an execution method was also used for counterfeiters, swindlers and coin forgers during the Middle Ages. In the Holy Roman Empire, for example, being boiled to death in oil is recorded for coin forgers and extremely grave murderers. In 1392, a man was boiled alive in Nuremberg for having raped and murdered his own mother. Coin forgers were boiled to death in 1452 in Danzig and in 1471 in Stralsund. Even as late as in 1687, a man was boiled to death in oil in Bremen for having been of valuable help to some coin forgers who had escaped justice.
In 16th-century Japan, the semi-legendary Japanese bandit Ishikawa Goemon was boiled alive in a large iron kettle-shaped bathtub. His public execution, which might have included his entire family, was done after he failed to kill warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
In 1675, a Sikh martyr, called Bhai Dayala, was boiled to death in Delhi after he refused to accept Islam. He was put into a cauldron full of cold water which was then heated to boiling point. Sikh scriptures record that Dayala recited the Japji of Guru Nanak and the Sukhmani of Guru Arjan as he died.
In a 2004 document from US Department of State, the following is written:
During the year, there were no developments or investigations in the following 2002 deaths in custody: Mirzakomil Avazov and Khusnuddin Olimov, members of Hizb ut-Tahrir who were tortured to death in Jaslyk Prison in Karakalpakstan resulting in extensive bruises and burns, the latter reportedly caused by immersion in boiling water.
Depictions in Western culture
Early reports of cannibals from islands in the Pacific, such as Fiji or Papua New Guinea, killing western Christian missionaries were mistakenly assumed to involve some form of boiling alive. This became a fertile ground for film makers and especially cartoonists, whose clichéd depiction of tourists or missionaries sitting restrained in a large cauldron above a wood fire and surrounded by bone-nosed tribesmen was a staple of popular magazines and film for decades. Examples include the dream sequence in the movie Bagdad Café.
In Jack Vance's 1983 fantasy novel Lyonesse - Suldrun's Garden, Prince Aillas and his party (all recently escaped slaves) arrive at a village (Vervold) where the blacksmith's son removes their iron collars. The blacksmith himself has been condemned to death by boiling, for the crime of striking the local lord (Halies), who had raped his young daughter. Prompted by Aillas, the son cuts holes in the cauldron to delay the execution. When this is discovered the next morning, Halies' Chief Archer (Hunolt) orders the son to make repairs or share his father's fate. Aillas and his group, assisted by some of the villagers, ambush and kill all Halies' cutthroat bodyguards, and capture Halies and Hunolt. "[Halies] was trussed up, knees high and seated in the cauldron, and Hunolt was placed beside him. Water filled the cauldron to cover their chests and fire was given to the faggots. Around the cauldron the people of Vervold leapt and capered in a delirium of excitement. Presently they joined hands and danced around the cauldron in three concentric circles."
- Geoffrey Abbott, Execution blunders, pages 21–22.
- Scald and Burn Care, Public Education City of Rochester Hills Accessed February 24, 2008
- Weigh-House, Deventer
- Kesselring, K.J. (Sep 2001), A Draft of the 1531 'Acte for Poysoning', The English Historical Review Vol. 116, No. 468, pp. 894–899, JSTOR 579196
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boiling to Death". Encyclopædia Britannica 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Burke, H.S: "The men and women of the English reformation", London 1870 p.240
- Chisholm 1911.
- Newlin, George (2000), Understanding Great expectations, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, p. 136, ISBN 978-0-313-29940-7, OCLC 41488673
- Leslie, Frank, Frank Leslie, and Ellery Sedgwick. 1876. Frank Leslie's popular monthly. [New York]: Frank Leslie Pub. House. p 343
- Pinkerton: "A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages, Volume 3", London 1809, p.158 The same tradition is transmitted in Journal (1842). The Scottish journal of topography, antiquities, traditions. Edinburgh: Stevenson and Menzies. p. 248.
- Soc. Diff. Use. Knowl. (1842), p.310 in Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1842). The Biographical Dictionary. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 310.
- "The Complete Works of Sir Walter Scott, New York 1833 p.216
- "The new statistical account of Scotland, Volum 18", Edinburgh 1838, pp.34-35
- Monter, E. William (2007). A bewitched duchy: Lorraine and its dukes, 1477-1736. Librairie Droz. p. 163. ISBN 978-2-600-01165-5.
- Mayer, M.M: "Kleine Chronik der Reichsstadt Nürnberg: Mit einem Grundrisse, Nuremberg 1847 p.102,
- Krüger, J.G: "Die beglückte und geschmückte Stadt Lübeck", 1697, p.20
- Klemptzen, N.von:"Nicolaus Klemzen vom Pommer-lande und dessen fürsten geschlecht-beschreibung", Stralsund 1771, p.39
- "Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung, Volum 1, p.116, review of "Taschenbuch für vaterländische Geschichte", Berlin 1843
- Goemonburo - Goemon-style bath
- Singha, H. S (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
- "Uzbekistan: Two Brutal Deaths in Custody". Hrw.org. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- US Department of State: Diplomacy In Action, Uzbekistan
- Vance, Jack (1983). Lyonesse: Book 1, Suldrun's Garden. New York: Berkley Books. pp. 304–309. ISBN 0-425-05873-5.