Mwanza is a border town whose economy is based largely on transport. The agricultural economy for many years has depended upon citrus fruits (tangerine, lemon and grapefruit) as Mwanza is one of the few areas of the country where the climate is favourable for the growth of such crops. However, for over a decade production has been falling and the citrus industry has been in decline, despite efforts by the citrus growers association ZIPATSO.
Mwanza in 2003 was split into two districts, Neno and Mwanza, under the decentralisation program. Neno's population is 75,000.