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National/Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System
NASAMS 1, Bodø, 2005.jpg
NASAMS launcher
TypeSurface-to-air missile system
Place of originNorway/United States
Service history
In service1998–present
Used bySee operators
Production history
DesignerKongsberg Defence & Aerospace
ManufacturerKongsberg Defence & Aerospace

Flight altitude21 km (NASAMS 2)
Maximum depth30 km (NASAMS 2)[1]

NASAMS (National/Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) is a distributed and networked medium to long range air-defence system. NASAMS was the first surface-based application for the AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile).

NASAMS 2 is an upgraded version of the NASAMS air-defense system and it has been operational since 2007.


The system integrates US-built MPQ-64 Sentinel air defense radar and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles with an indigenously developed Battle management C4I system called FDC, short for Fire Distribution Center. The FDC connected to a MPQ-64 radar forms an "Acquisition Radar and Control System" (ARCS). The missile has a horizontal range of up to 25 km.[2] Other sources cite a range of 'over 15 km'[3] but this depends on the missile version used.


The Norwegian company Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) teamed up with Raytheon and initiated the NASAMS programme as a cooperative effort for the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF). The network-centric air defence system NASAMS was declared fully operational capable in 1998 but had an initial operational capability as early as in 1994/95.

Until the late 1990s the RNoAF ground-based air defence solution, also known as the Norwegian Solution (NORSOL), consisted of three different weapon systems; the 40mm Bofors L70 gun (controlled by the Oerlikon Contraves FCS2000 monopulse doppler tracking radar), the laser beam riding RBS 70 MANPADS system and the NASAMS. All three systems were integrated through the ARCS via field wires and radio.[clarification needed] The ARCS maintained connection to higher echelons and ensured protection of friendly aircraft while preventing over- and underkill for all subordinate weapon systems. NASAMS capabilities[4] are enhanced by the system's networked and distributed nature.

NASAMS 2[edit]

NASAMS launcher on a Scania 113H truck
NASAMS launcher

The RNoAF together with KDA conducted a mid-life update of NASAMS, called NASAMS 2, and the upgraded version was first handed over to RNoAF in mid-2006. The major difference between the two versions is the use of Link 16 on NASAMS 2 as well as a better ground radar. Full operational capability (FOC) was expected for 2007.

A complete NASAMS (2) battery consists of 12 missile launchers (LCHR) (each one carrying six AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles), eight radars (AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel F1 Improved Sentinel X band 3D radar), one fire control centre (CTOC), one electro-optical camera vehicle (MSP500) and one Tactical Control Cell (TCC) vehicle.

The upgrades consist of:

  • New radars, which can be mounted on a variety of vehicles. The radars have their own power supply and can process and distribute the data independently. The vehicles can be connected via radio links, cable, through Multi Rolle Radio, or through TADKOM.
  • The radars have a broader frequency spectrum and variable rotation speeds, and also an increased capacity to spot and follow targets.
  • Each module can automatically determine its position with its northfinder and GPS instruments.
  • The control centre modules can be mounted on a large variety of vehicles
  • The electro-optical MSP500 sensor is equipped with a laser rangefinder and a TV-camera, as well as an upgraded thermographic camera. These can be used to fire the missiles passively, which has been successfully tested.

The control system can detach itself from the sensors, in order to become less visible.

NASAMS 3[edit]

In April 2019 RNoAF upgraded its NASAMS 2 to NASAMS 3, and in May 2019 the first live firing test were conducted.[5]

Much of the development of the NASAMS 3 is from the disbanded Raytheon project SLAMRAAM.[6][7]


On 22 February 2015, Raytheon announced the development of the Extended Range upgrade to the NASAMS AMRAAM missile offering (AMRAAM-ER). Development work began in 2014, and the missile is actually an Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile using AMRAAM guidance. The first flight test took place in August 2016.[8] Production was expected by 2019.[9] Engagement envelope is expanded with a 50 percent increase in maximum range and 70 percent increase in maximum altitude;[10][11] The missile was testfired at Andøya Space Center in May 2021. [12][13]

Service history[edit]

NASAMS has been exported to the United States, with the NASAMS 2 upgrade having been exported to Finland, the Netherlands, Spain, Oman, and Chile.[14][15] Chile is though not mentioned as an official user, as Kongsberg stated: "NASAMS is in operational use in Norway, Spain, USA, the Netherlands, Finland, and one undisclosed customer, and in production for Oman."[16]

Several NASAMS were used to guard air space over Washington, D.C. during the 2005 United States presidential inauguration, and are used to protect air space around the White House.[17][18][19]

On 26 October 2017, Lithuania announced that it would be purchasing the NASAMS system to improve its own air defense capabilities.[20]

Australia announced on 10 April 2017 that approval for a single supplier limited Request for tender (RFT) to Raytheon Australia io develop NASAMS for the ADF ground-based air-defence system.[21]

On 20 June 2019, Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace AS (Norway) was awarded a contract by Raytheon Australia worth US$185m for delivery of NASAMS components, while Raytheon Australia is the prime contractor to deliver NASAMS to the Australian Government Land 19 Phase 7B program.[22] [23]

On 7 September 2021, Kongsberg Defence (Australia) and Raytheon Technologies, revealed that they had passed factory acceptance tests of the first two Fire Distribution Centres for the NASAMS, which will be locally assembled in Australia in its AUS$2.5 billion air-defence network.[24] Defence minister Marise Payne announced first pass approval fo on 10 April 2017.[25] The Australian NASAMS will feature locally made components and be mounted on Hawkei vehicles.


There are 12 official operators as of 2020, Kongsberg stated:[26] "NASAMS is in operational use in Norway, Spain, USA, the Netherlands, Finland and one undisclosed customer. The system is in production for Oman, Lithuania, Australia, Hungary and Qatar. NASAMS is in use with both Armies and Air Forces around the world. In addition Poland, Greece, Sweden and Turkey operate the KONGSBERG Command and Control solution for various weapon systems."

  •  Australia – March 2019, Defence Minister Christopher Pyne and Defence Industry Minister Linda Reynolds said NASAMS-3 will be locally-assembled, valued at A$2.5 billion[27].[28]
  •  Lithuania – Latest version NASAMS-3 battery delivered in June 2020, the second one in October.[33][34]
  •  Netherlands - Two batteries in 2006, each consisting of 1 fire-control center, 1 radar and 3 launchers.[35][36]
  •  Norway NASAMS-2 and NASAMS-3 [31]
  •  Spain - Four fire units NASAMS-2 acquired in 2003.[31][37]
  •  United States – Used with AN/TWQ-1 Avenger for additional protection to high-value targets and Washington D.C.[38][31]
    Spanish NASAMS launcher vehicle during a military parade in Spain

Future operators[edit]

  •  Oman – Ordered in January 2014, for a sum of $1.28 billion.[39][40]
Finnish Sisu E13TP NASAMS 2 launcher vehicle
  •  Hungary – Ordered AMRAAM-ER in May 2020, following AMRAAM C-7 missiles, used with the NASAMS system (ordered officially in November 2020).[41] Planned delivery in 2023.[42]
  •  Qatar – Ordered in July 2019.[43] Qatar is the first country to procure AMRAAM-ER, the surface-to-air extended-range variant.[44]

Potential operators[edit]

  •  India – The Defence acquisitions council (DAC), chaired by the then defence minister Nirmala Sitharaman, has approved the acceptance of necessity (AON) for the acquisition of NASAMS-II worth around $1 billion from the US.[45]

The Indian Air Force has indicated to its government that they are not interested in NASAMS, and will rather continue developing the Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme.[46]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Air Defense: India Gets Integrated". 2020-03-06. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  2. ^ "Air Defense: SLAMRAAM Dies From Loneliness". Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  3. ^ Defense Update. "Finland Selects Nowregian/U.S. NASAMS for SA-11 Replacement". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  4. ^ "Front page -". Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  5. ^
  6. ^ "For the first time in 14 years, the Army itself can protect itself from air strikes". (in Norwegian). 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  7. ^ "Raytheon delivers first NASAMS High Mobility Launcher to Norway". 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  8. ^ - Goes long, flies high - Raytheon’s new extended-range, surface-to-air missile will enhance proven air defense system (2016-10-06)
  9. ^ Extended range air defence fires up -, 23 February 2015
  10. ^ Raytheon completes first AMRAAM-ER missile flight tests from NASAMS air defense system -, 5 October 2016
  11. ^ Surface-Launched AMRAAM (SL-AMRAAM / CLAWS), United States of America -
  12. ^ "Update: Raytheon readies for initial flight test of baseline AMRAAM-ER design". 2021-01-05. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  13. ^ "Raytheon Missiles & Defense, KONGSBERG complete first AMRAAM-ER missile live-fire test | Raytheon Missiles & Defense".
  14. ^ "Rapid Fire: 2010-06-22". Defense Industry Daily. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
  15. ^ Dutch Order NASAMS-SLAMRAAM Air Defense Systems (2006-12-08)
  16. ^ "NASAMS September 2015". Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  17. ^ Lund, Elisabeth (2006-02-16). "Norske våpen vokter presidenten". Økonomisk Rapport (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2006-05-19. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  18. ^ Christensen, Maj. Ola K. (2005-03-08). "The Norwegian Solution!". Battle Griffin 2005 (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2005-11-16. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  19. ^ NASAMS September 2015 : "Washington DC has since 2005 been protected 24/7 by NASAMS."
  20. ^ "Lithuania buys Norwegian air defence system amid Russia fears". Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  21. ^ "$2 billion for NASAMS GBAD system - Australian Defence Magazine". Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  22. ^ "Kongsberg Wins $185.5M To Supply NASAMS Components To Australia". Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  23. ^ "Kongsberg awarded NASAMS contract with Australia worth 1.6 billion NOK". Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  24. ^ Defenestrate. "Land 19 Short-Range-Ground-Based Air Defence System". Defence SA (in Australian English). Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  25. ^ "NASAMS selected for Australian Army GBAD system". IHS Jane's 360. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  26. ^ NASAMS AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM (19-08-2019)
  27. ^ LaPorta, James (8 November 2017). "Raytheon, Australia ink first deal for ground-based air defense system". UPI. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  28. ^ Kerr, Julian (25 March 2019). "Australian NASAMS to integrate locally designed active phased-array radars". Jane's 360. Sydney. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  29. ^ "Чили получит норвежские зенитные комплексы NASAMS". (in Russian). 10 October 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  30. ^ "Finland selects KONGSBERG/Raytheon air defence system". 29 April 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d "NASAMS Air Defence System - promotional material". Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  32. ^ "Indonesia receives, deploys first NASAMS 2 air defense system". 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  33. ^ "Lithuania takes delivery of NASAMS Norwegian air defense missile system". Army Recognition. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  34. ^ "NASAMS medium-range air defence system officially handed over to the Lithuanian Armed Forces". Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  35. ^ "Army Ground Based Air Defence System". (in Dutch). 7 October 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  36. ^ "Air defence contract with the Netherlands". 6 December 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  37. ^ "Spanish Army Conducts Successful NASAMS Live-Fire Exercise". Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  38. ^ Marc Ambinder (2015-04-16). "The futuristic air defense system of Washington, D.C. was defeated by a postman". The Week. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  39. ^ "Oman to spend more". IHS Janes. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Hungary to order AMRAAM-ER".
  42. ^ "Controversial agreement in box: Replaces Soviet Kub air defense with Norwegian-developed Nasams". (in Norwegian). 2020-11-23. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  43. ^ "Qatar to become first AMRAAM-ER user". IHS Janes. 10 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  44. ^ "Qatar To Get New AMRAAM-ER Surface To Air Missiles, U.S. Capital May Be Next". The War Zone. The Drive Media, Inc. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  45. ^ "Like Washington and Moscow, Delhi too to get missile shield". 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  46. ^ "Not Keen On NASAMS-II, IAF Wants Indian Missile Defence". 2020-07-20. Retrieved 2021-01-29.

External links[edit]