From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A missile firing unit (MFU) of the SPYDER-SR system
TypeShort and medium range air defence system
Place of originIsrael
Service history
Used bySee Operators
WarsRusso-Georgian War (unconfirmed), 2019 India–Pakistan border skirmishes
Production history
DesignerRafael Advanced Defense Systems
ManufacturerRafael Advanced Defense Systems
Specifications (SPYDER-SR)
Mass105 kg (231 lb) (Python-5)
118 kg (260 lb) (Derby)
Length3.1 m (10 ftin) (Python-5)
3.62 m (11 ft 11 in) (Derby)
Diameter160 mm (6.3 in) (both)
Warhead11 kg (24 lb) (Python-5)
23 kg (51 lb) (Derby)
Active laser and electromagnetic proximity fuse with back-up impact fuse

×4 Python-5 or Derby missiles in any combination per MFU
Wingspan640 mm (2 ft 1 in) (both)
Python-5: 20 km (12 mi)
Derby: 50 km (31 mi)[1]
Flight altitudePython-5: 9,000 m (30,000 ft)
Derby: 16,000 m (52,000 ft)[1]
Maximum speed Mach 4
Infrared homing and electro-optical imaging (Python-5)
Active radar homing (Derby)
Tatra truck
Mercedes-Benz Actros truck
RMMV HX truck
MAN TGS truck
Scania P-series truck
Dongfeng truck

The SPYDER ("Surface-to-air Python and Derby") is an Israeli short and medium range mobile air defence system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems with assistance from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). Rafael is the prime contractor and IAI is the major subcontractor for the SPYDER program. This system achieved a notable milestone in 2005 when missiles were fired against test targets in Shdema, Israel and scored direct hits. Since then, it has been showcased in multiple military exhibitions throughout the world.

The SPYDER is a low-level, quick-reaction surface-to-air missile system capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones, cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas. The system is fitted atop a Tatra truck, a Mercedes-Benz Actros truck, a MAN TGS truck, Scania P-series truck, Dongfeng truck, or a TELAR. It implements the Python-5 and Derby missiles of the same company. The SPYDER launcher is designed to fire Python-5 and Derby surface-to-air missiles which share full commonality with the air-to-air missiles. There are two variants of the SPYDER: the SPYDER-SR (short range) and the SPYDER-MR (medium range). Both systems are quick reaction, all weather, network-centric, multi-launchers, and self-propelled. A typical battery consists one central command and control unit, six missile firing units, and a resupply vehicle. The SPYDER-SR uses the EL/M-2106 ATAR radar while the SPYDER-MR incorporates the EL/M-2084 MMR radar. The latter is the same radar used by the Iron Dome system currently in service with the Israel Defense Forces.

Current operators of the SPYDER missiles system include India and Singapore. Peru's order for the SPYDER was pending as of 2012. There are reports that claim that Georgia operated the SPYDER-SR during the 2008 Russo-Georgian War but these allegations and assumptions have never been verified.


In 2005, a milestone for the SPYDER air defence system was achieved. The SPYDER successfully fired the Python 5 and Derby in a test range located in Shdema, Israel. The results were two direct kills against a couple of targets. At the trial, the radar and command and control unit engaged the targets at long and short ranges. The trial was part of a greater series of missile firings.[2]


The SPYDER air defence system has been showcased in 29 military exhibitions throughout the world. These exhibitions are:

  • 2004 DEFEXPO[3]
  • 2006 DEFEXPO[4]
  • 2006 Asian Aerospace[5]
  • 2006 International Defense Exhibition Bratislava[6]
  • 2006 Eurosatory[7]
  • 2007 AeroIndia Aerospace Exhibition[8]
  • 2007 IDET[9]
  • 2007 IDEF[10]
  • 2007 Paris Air Show[11]
  • 2007 MSPO International Defence Industry Exhibition[12]
  • 2007 Korean Aerospace and Defense Exhibition[13]
  • 2007 Expomil[14]
  • 2008 DEFEXPO[15]
  • 2008 Singapore International Air Show[16]
  • 2008 FIDAE[17]
  • 2008 Land Warfare Conference and Exhibition[18][19]
  • 2009 Aero India Aerospace Exhibition[20]
  • 2009 Australian Air Show[21]
  • 2009 Paris Air Show[22]
  • 2009 MSPO International Defence Industry Exhibition[23]
  • 2009 Expomil[24]
  • 2010 Singapore Air Show[25]
  • 2010 DEFEXPO[26]
  • 2010 FIDAE[27]
  • 2010 Eurosatory[28]
  • 2011 Aero India Aerospace Exhibition[29]
  • 2011 Latin America Aero & Defence[30]
  • 2011 SITDEF[31]
  • 2011 Paris Air Show[32]


SPYDER launcher

Command and control[edit]

EL/M-2106 ATAR[edit]

The Elta EL/M-2106 Advanced Tactical Acquisition Radar (ATAR) 3D Active electronically scanned array (AESA) surveillance radar is the Command and Control Unit (CCU) for the SPYDER-SR. This radar can track and engage multiple targets simultaneously and can control the missile firing units at a distance of up to 10 km away from the CCU.[33] The E/LM-2106 ATAR is a fourth generation defence radar designed by Elta and operates in the L-band wavelength. It is a field proven design that has operated in undesirable environments according to the designers and manufacturers. The range of detection for a fighter aircraft is 70–110 km. It can detect hovering helicopters at a range of 40 km and UAVs at 40–60 km.[34]

EL/M-2084 MMR[edit]

The radar sensor unit of the SPYDER-MR comprises the EL/M-2084 Multi Mission Radar (MMR) 3D AESA radar. The EL/M-2084 operates in the S-band. It can process up to 1200 targets when in air surveillance mode and also detects targets located 250 km away. When the radar is static, it covers 120° in the azimuth.[35]

Surface-to-air missiles[edit]

Ranges of Interception[edit]

As a short range air defence system, the SPYDER-SR has a short range of interception. The maximum altitude of interception is 9 km and the maximum range of interception is 15 km.[33] The SPYDER-MR has a greater operation range of 35 km and an altitude engagement of 16 km due to the missiles being equipped with boosters.[36][a]


The Python-5 is currently the most capable air-to-air missile (AAM) in Israel's inventory and one of the most advanced AAMs in the world. As a beyond-visual-range missile, it is capable of "lock-on after launch" (LOAL), and has all-aspect/all-direction (including rearward) attack ability. The missile features an advanced electro-optical infrared homing (with imaging infrared) seeker which scans the target area for hostile aircraft, then locks-on for terminal chase.[38]


The Derby is an active radar homing AAM that provides the SPYDER missile system with a fire-and-forget option due to its active radar guidance.[39]

  • Length: 362 cm
  • Span: 64 cm
  • Diameter: 16 cm
  • Weight: 118 kg
  • Guidance: Active radar homing
  • Warhead: 23 kg
  • Speed: Mach 4

In January 2023, Rafael announced that they had upgraded the Spyder to be able to counter tactical ballistic missiles by performing hardware and software upgrades to the Derby LR missile interceptor.[40]


SPYDER-SR and SPYDER-ER 360° slant launching missile systems provide quick reaction, lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) and lock-on-after launch (LOAL) capabilities, while extending the range of defense to up to a 40 km radius.[41]

SPYDER-MR and SPYDER-LR offer medium & long range target interception through vertical launch while pushing the defense envelope up to an 80 km radius.[41]

Both systems enable a 360° launch within seconds of the target being declared hostile ‒ and provide all-weather, multi-launch, and net-centric capabilities.[41]

The SPYDER systems have advanced ECCM capabilities and use electro-optical observation payloads as well as wireless data link communication.[41]

Operational use[edit]

  • During the Russo-Georgian War of 2008, it was believed that Georgia operated the SPYDER-SR.[42][43][44] The Georgian air force could have operated up to four launchers of the SPYDER-SR.[44]
  • On 26 February 2019, after the Balakot Airstrike, India used a SPYDER system to shoot down a surveillance drone of the Pakistan Armed Forces at the Indo-Pakistan Border at Gujarat.[45][46]
  • On 27 February 2019, during the 2019 Jammu and Kashmir airstrikes, Indian SPYDER system shot down an Indian Air Force (IAF) Mil Mi-17 in Budgam, Kashmir. All six IAF personnel on board the helicopter and one civilian on the ground were killed. After 6 months of investigation, IAF confirmed that shooting down of Mi-17 was a friendly fire and 5 IAF personnel were held guilty.[47][48][49]


Map with SPYDER operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

  • In 2012, Azerbaijan and Israel signed a $1.6 billion contract to supply unknown quantity of Spyder and Barak-8 SAM to Azerbaijan.[50]
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Armed Forces – On 25 September 2020, the Czech Ministry of Defense announced that it would begin negotiations with the Israeli government on the acquisition of SPYDER. Rafael said in a 27 September press release that the Czech MoD informed the Israeli MoD’s Directorate of International Defense Cooperation of the decision “[f]ollowing an international tender process, which lasted several years”. The Czech MoD reported that Minister of Defense Lubomír Metnar informed his government that his ministry had decided to begin negotiations with the Israeli government “on the possibility of acquiring a new modern anti-aircraft missile system for the Czech Army … designed to ensure the continuous defense of the airspace of the Czech Republic, especially the protection of troops and urban agglomerations, nuclear power plants, industrial centres, airports and other important facilities.”[51] The SPYDER-MR deal was valued at around $430 million. With deliveries expected in 2023, the SPYDER-MR would replace ageing Soviet-era 2K12 Kub systems,[52] in use by the Czech army since the 1970s. The Czech government announced on 27 September 2021 that it has signed an agreement to purchase four SPYDER batteries. The Czech Ministry of Defense said that the value of the deal was $627 million, and that delivery of the systems was scheduled to be completed by 2026. Under the contract, the Czech defense industry would take part in the program, supplying products and services worth more than 30 percent of its value. The Czech Army was expected to operate the supplied systems for at least 20 years. Combined with spending for maintenance and repairs, the acquisition would cost the country about $1 billion, according to the statement.[53] On 5 October 2021, it was reported that the Israeli Defense Ministry has signed the agreement, worth approximately $520m (ILS2bn). The deal was signed under the guidance of SIBAT, the International Defense Cooperation Directorate of the Ministry. The agreement was signed by IMoD Director-General major general Amir Eshel and Czech Republic Armaments and Acquisition Deputy Minister Lubor Koudelka. Eshel said: “The agreement that we signed today is yet another milestone in the strategic cooperation between our two countries and also reflects the visions of both Ministers Gantz and Metnar to further develop cooperation between Israeli and Czech industries. “This is the first time that Israel will deliver a full air defence system to a NATO country, and we are proud and thrilled that the Czech Republic is the one.”[54]
  • Defense Forces of Georgia – There were reports that a battery of the SPYDER missile system was operated in 2008.[42] No official confirmation exists and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) arms transfer database cannot confirm this.[58] Jane's Missiles & Rockets magazine previously cited a Rafael representative claiming that one of the two export customers of the SPYDER missile system already has theirs deployed.[42]
SPYDER quick reaction air defence system of Indian Air Force firing a Derby missile
  • Indian Air Force – In 2006, India planned to acquire 18 SPYDER-MR systems at a cost of $395.2 million (1,800 crore) for its air force.[59] The contract was reviewed by the Central Vigilance Commission, the Government’s anti-corruption agency, before the agreement was signed in September 2008.[60][61] In August 2009, the multibillion-dollar contract for Israeli anti-aircraft missiles was cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council headed by defence minister AK Antony.[59][62] Although previous estimates of the contract's value was ₹1,800 crore ($395.2 million), recent reports indicate a lower value of $260 million.[58][59] The Jerusalem Post contradicts these figures and mentions a price of $1 billion for the purchase of the surface-to-air missiles.[63] The SPYDER systems were delivered starting in 2012. 18 SPYDER-MRs along with 750 Python-5 surface to air missiles (SAMs) and 750 Derby SAMs has been delivered.[58]
  • Peruvian Armed Forces – In March 2012, Peru chose the winners of a $140 million competition meant to upgrade its ageing air defence systems out of the group of 20 defence companies.[64] Amidst the presence of Russia's Rosoboronexport and Chinese firms, the winners were Poland's Bumar Group, Israel's Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, and the USA's Northrop Grumman.[65][66] Rafael industries is expected to supply six SPYDER-SR systems in this deal. Status of the deal in unclear.
  • Philippine Air Force - Three batteries of the SPYDER-MR air defense system were purchased in a deal said to be worth over $141 million. Two batteries called SPYDER Philippine Air Defense System (SPADS) were formally inducted into service in November 2022.[67] The last battery is expected to be delivered in 2023.[68][69]
  • Republic of Singapore Air Force – In 2008, the Ministry of Defence ordered two SPYDER-SR batteries along with 75 Python-5 SAMs and 75 Derby SAMs. They were all delivered during 2011 and 2012.[58] Some SPYDER-SRs were operated by the 165 Squadron in 2011, it is also reported that more SPYDER-SRs are on order.[70] The RSAF SPYDER is mounted on MAN RMMV TG-MIL trucks. The SPYDER system achieved full operational capacity on 4 July 2018.[71]
  • VPA Air Defence – In 2015, Vietnam chose the SPYDER missile system as its new medium-range air defense missile system.[72] First deliveries were highlighted in July 2016. Vietnamese systems are mounted on RMMV HX range trucks. Five systems including 375 Python missiles and 375 Derby missiles were reportedly acquired.[73]
 United Arab Emirates

See also[edit]



  1. ^ The official brochure of the SPYDER missile system by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems contradicts the figures for the interception range for both the SPYDER-SR and SPYDER-MR. The brochure mentions that the interception range of the SPYDER-SR is 20 km instead of the 15 km and 50 km instead of 35 km for the SPYDER-MR.[37]


  1. ^ a b http://www.rafael.co.il/5616-687-en/Marketing.aspx
  2. ^ "RAFAEL'S SPYDER Catches Its Prey". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 6 February 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  3. ^ "RAFAEL Introduce New Integrated Business Areas at DEFEXPO 04". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 January 2004. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  4. ^ "DEFEXPO 2004, New Delhi, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  5. ^ "Asian Aerospace 2006". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  6. ^ "IDEB 2006 Bratislava, Slovak Republic". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 3 May 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  7. ^ "Eurosatory 2006, Paris France". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  8. ^ "AeroIndia 2007 - Bangalore, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  9. ^ "IDET 2007 - Brno, Czech Republic". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  10. ^ "IDEF 2007 - Ankara, Turkey". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 22 May 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  11. ^ "Paris Air Show 2007 - Le Bourget, France". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  12. ^ "MSPO 2007 - Kielce, Poland". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  13. ^ "Korean Aerospace and Defense Exhibition 2007 - Seoul, Korea". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 16 October 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Expomil 2007 - Bucharest, Romania". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 18 October 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  15. ^ "Defexpo 2008 - New Delhi, India". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Singapore Int'l Air Show - Singapore". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  17. ^ "FIDAE 2008 - Santiago, Chile". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  18. ^ "Multi-tiered Air Defense at LWC". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  19. ^ "Land Warfare Conference (LWC) - Brisbane, Australia 2008". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  20. ^ "Bangalore, India 11-15 February, 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Australian Air Show 2009 - Avalon, Australia". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Paris Air-Show 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  23. ^ "MSPO 2009, Kielce, Poland". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  24. ^ "Expomil, Romania, November 2009". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 November 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  25. ^ "Singapore Airshow 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  26. ^ "Rafael at Defexpo 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  27. ^ "FIDAE 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 23 March 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  28. ^ "Eurosatory 2010". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  29. ^ "Aero India 2011". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  30. ^ "LAAD 2011 - Brazil". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  31. ^ "SITDEF 2011 - Peru". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  32. ^ "PARIS AIR SHOW 2011". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  33. ^ a b "SPYDER-SR ADS". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  34. ^ "Medium Range 3D Tactical Air Defense Radar EL/M-2106 ATAR" (PDF). Israel Aerospace Industries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Multi–Mission Radar (MMR) Family - EL/M-2084" (PDF). Israel Aerospace Industries. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2011.
  36. ^ "SPYDER-MR ADS". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Spyder-SR / MR – Short and Medium Range Mobile Air Defense Systems" (PDF). Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  38. ^ "Python-5 – Full Sphere IR Air-to-Air or Surface-to-Air Missile" (PDF). Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  39. ^ "Derby – Active Radar BVR Air-to-Air or Surface-to-Air Missile" (PDF). Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  40. ^ Rafael upgrades Spyder system to counter tactical ballistic missiles. Defense News. 6 January 2023.
  41. ^ a b c d "SPYDER™ FAMILY". Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.
  42. ^ a b c Aminov, Said (21 August 2008). "Analysis: Georgia's Air Defence in the August War". Defence Web. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  43. ^ Cohen, Ariel; Hamilton, Robert E. (June 2011). The Russian Military and the Georgia War: Lessons and Implications (PDF). Stractegic Studies Institute. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-58487-491-1. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  44. ^ a b Barabanov, M.S.; Lavrov, A.V.; Tseluiko, V.A. (2010). The Tanks of August (PDF). Moscow: Centre of Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. pp. 20, 81. ISBN 978-5-9902320-1-3. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  45. ^ Axe, David (26 February 2019). "Nuclear Nightmare: Are India and Pakistan on the Brink of War?". The National Interest. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  46. ^ ANI (26 February 2019). "Israeli Spyder used to shoot down Pakistani drone in Gujarat". Business Standard India. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  47. ^ "IAF probe confirms 27 February Budgam chopper crash was caused by friendly fire". The Print (India). 23 August 2019.
  48. ^ "Five IAF officers found guilty in Mi-17 V5 chopper crash in Srinagar on February 27". Times Now News. 23 August 2019.
  49. ^ "IAF chopper in Budgam crashed on Feb 27 after hit by Indian missile: Probe report". Indian Express. 23 August 2019.
  50. ^ "Azerbaijan Buys the M-346 as Caucasus Stand-off Continues". AIN Online News. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  51. ^ Yaakov Lappin (27 September 2020). "Czech MoD selects Rafael's SPYDER air defence system". Janes.com. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  52. ^ Gross, Judah Ari. "Czech Republic inks deal with Israel to buy air defense system". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  53. ^ Eyal Boguslavsky (30 September 2021). "Czech Republic to purchase four Rafael 'Spyder' air defense batteries". Israel Defense. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  54. ^ "Israel to deliver four Rafael-produced air defence systems to Czech MoD". www.airforce-technology.com. 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  55. ^ "Concerns mount in Egypt as Israel boosts ties with Ethiopia". Arab Weekly. 20 July 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  56. ^ "Which Israeli firms are arming the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam?". Africa Intelligence. 5 July 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  57. ^ "Friction with Cairo over the Israel air defense system for Ethiopia's Great Nile dam". Debkafile. 8 July 2019.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  58. ^ a b c d "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  59. ^ a b c "India Buys Israeli "SPYDER" Mobile Air Defense System". Defense Industry Daily. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  60. ^ Pandit, Rajat (18 August 2008). "IAF to add teeth with Israeli missile system". The Times Of India. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  61. ^ "IAF orders Israeli Spyder Missile". India Strategic. September 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  62. ^ "Army acquires anti-aircraft missiles". The Times of India. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  63. ^ Katz, Yaakov (23 August 2009). "India to buy Rafael's Spyder missile systems in $1 billion deal". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  64. ^ Adamowski, Jaroslaw (19 March 2012). "Rafael, Bumar, Northrop Win $140M Peru Contract". Defense News. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  65. ^ "Peru upgrades air defense with $140M plan". United Press International. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  66. ^ "Peru's Next-Generation Air Defenses". Defense Industry Daily. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  67. ^ "Yearender: AFP ends 2022 with anti-air missile capability". Philippine News Agency. 30 December 2022.
  68. ^ "Philippines receives first 2 batteries of SPYDER-MR air defense missile system, 2nd C-295W aircraft". Asia Pacific Defense Journal. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  69. ^ "Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project of the Philippine Air Force". Philippine Defense Resource. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  70. ^ Tat, Ong Hong (17 June 2011). "No escape from the SPYDER". MINDEF. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  71. ^ Dominguez, Gabriel (9 July 2018). "RSAF's SPYDER air defence system attains full operational capability". Jane's Information Group. The Republic of Singapore Air Force's (RSAF's) SPYDER ground-based air defence system has achieved full operational capability (FOC), the Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) announced in a 4 July statement.
  72. ^ "Vietnam has selected Israeli Rafael Spyder as new short-range air defense missile system". Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  73. ^ "Trade Registers". armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  74. ^ Cornwell, Alexander; Irish, John (23 September 2022). "Exclusive: Israel to sell air defence system to United Arab Emirates". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.

External links[edit]