New Zealand DC class locomotive

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New Zealand DC class
DCP 4801 and DC 4346 approaching Templeton with a shunt bound for Lyttelton in December 2016.jpg
DCP 4801 and DC 4346 with a mainline shunt south of Christchurch.
Type and origin
Power type Diesel-electric
Builder General Motors Canada (original builder)
Clyde Engineering, Australia (re-builder, 80 units)
NZR Hutt Workshops, Lower Hutt, New Zealand (re-builder, 5 units)
Build date 1961 – 1967 (as DA class)
1978 – 1981 (rebuilt as DC class)
 • UIC A1A-A1A
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
Wheel diameter 1.25 metres (4 ft 1 in)
Length 14.10 metres (46 ft 3 in)
Width 2.72 metres (8 ft 11 in)
Height 3.76 metres (12 ft 4 in)
Adhesive weight 60.0 tonnes (59.1 long tons; 66.1 short tons)
Loco weight 82.0 tonnes (80.7 long tons; 90.4 short tons)
Fuel type Diesel
Prime mover EMD 12-645C or EMD 12-645E
RPM range 900 rpm
Engine type V12 Diesel engine
Aspiration Normally aspirated (Roots blower)
Cylinders 12
Cylinder size ? x ?
Performance figures
Maximum speed 100 km/h (62 mph)
Power output 1,062 kW (1,424 hp) (645C)
1,230 kW (1,650 hp) (645E)
Tractive effort 140 kN (31,000 lbf)
Number in class 85
Numbers DC 4006 – 4951 (TMS)
DC 1551 – 1599 (original)
First run 1978
Disposition 30 in service
41 withdrawn
14 scrapped including 1 sold to TasRail

The New Zealand DC class is a class of diesel-electric mainline locomotive on the New Zealand rail network, operated by KiwiRail on freight trains, and formerly on long-distance KiwiRail Scenic passenger trains. The class was rebuilt from the DA class in the late 1970s and early 1980s, mainly in Australia. After the DA class they were the most numerous class of diesel locomotive on New Zealand's railway network, and remained numerically dominant until the mid-2010s when withdrawals began.


The TranzAlpine, hauled by two DC class locomotives skirting the Waimakariri River

The locomotives started life as DA class, built by General Motors Canada between 1955 and 1967. Between 1978 and 1983, 85 of the later-build DAs were rebuilt as EMD model G22AR, designated as the DC class, with upgraded engines, new cabs and low short hoods of a style similar to the DX class introduced earlier in the 1970s and the DF class being introduced at the time. Five were rebuilt at the Hutt Workshops near Wellington and the other 80 at Clyde Engineering in Australia.

Technical details[edit]

Each locomotive has a General Motors 12-645C or 12-645E V12 diesel engine (the same as originally fitted to the DF class) and four traction motors, with an authorised maximum speed of 100 km/h. They are 14 metres long, has a height of 3756 mm (12 ft 4in) and weighs 82 tonnes. They can be readily identified as they are considerably shorter than the DF and DX classes and have their paired headlights arranged horizontally, rather than vertically on the DFs.

The five 49-series Hutt-built DCs originally retained the 12-567 engine, before later receiving the 12-645.

In service[edit]


The class was initially employed in the North Island, mainly on freight trains but also hauling either carriage trains or depowered 88-seater railcars.

Changes came during the 1980s; the deregulation of land transport saw rail freight volumes decline and the opening of the NIMT electrification saw the locomotive fleet reallocated. These factors saw the withdrawal between 1985 and 1989 of the DJ class and remaining DA class, with the DC class also seeing regular service in the lower South Island as a result.

Auckland Transport service[edit]

DC 4254 in service for ARTA (now Auckland Transport) at Papakura in 2006.

For several years the class were employed on suburban carriage trains in Auckland. Since 2003 the operation has been run under a service contract by Transdev Auckland and its predecessors, through firstly the former Auckland Regional Transport Authority (ARTA) and now through the Auckland Council subsidiary Auckland Transport.

Until July 2015 up to 20 DC/DCP locomotives – along with three DFB/T units – were leased to Auckland Transport, operating in push-pull mode with Auckland Transport's ex-BR Mark 2 SA/SD cars. Originally the DC units were configured with a set of 3 SA cars and a SD driving car, but with an increase in rail patronage some longer trains were provided on the Southern and Eastern lines with the addition of a fourth SA car.[1] 17 DC locomotives were painted in MAXX blue livery, with four other units that saw regular service with AT – DC 4104, DC 4260, DC 4346 and DCP 4818 – in KiwiRail livery, along with DC 4594 which was Toll-livered at the time. All locomotives in service with Auckland Transport were fitted with controls for the carriage doors, and later received Electronic Train Protection (ETP) equipment. One of the MAXX painted locomotives, DC 4732, was heavily damaged when it derailed at Westfield as an empty service on 2 March 2014.

Following the availability of sufficient numbers of the AM class EMUs to operate the Auckland network the majority of the diesel locomotives have been returned to KiwiRail, with a number of them being stored at Hutt Workshops.


The class continues to be a major workhorse, operating either as single units or in multiple with other DC units or locomotives from the DBR, DFT, DX or the new DL classes.

The class is occasionally used on KiwiRail Scenics South Island Coastal Pacific, and was used on the North Islands Northern Explorer until being replaced by a DFB/T, DXB or occasionally a DXC unit and on the South Islands on the TranzAlpine until being replaced by two DXC units. A pair of units are also occasionally employed to haul the Capital Connection service.

The Northern Explorer's predecessor, the Overlander, was usually hauled on the northern and southern sections of the North Island Main Trunk by a DC locomotive, and was often used across the central section as well if an EF locomotive was unavailable.

Tranz Metro[edit]

The DC class previously hauled Wairarapa Connection services between Masterton and Wellington. The locomotives were allocated on a daily basis, rather than being permanently assigned as is the case in Auckland. In July 2015, the DFB class replaced the DC class hauling the service.[2]


Initially the class was numbered sequentially from DC 1551 (the DA class having ended at 1545, the DF class started at 1651). In 1980 the computerised Traffic Management System (TMS) was introduced and the class was renumbered with a four-digit number commencing with '4', with the last digit a check number. The 49 Clyde-built units were renumbered in sequence with DC 1551 becoming DC 4006 and DC 1599 becoming DC 4536, though only the first 31 (up to DC 1581) had entered service by that time. The remaining Clyde builds received TMS numbers through to 4876 as they entered the rebuilding, while DC 1582–1589 entered service with their original 15xx series numbers on the headlight number boards and the later 40xx TMS numbers on the long hood.[3]

Initially the Hutt-built units retained their DA-sequence TMS numbers, as the Railways considered them to be DA locomotives as they retained the 12-567 engine. Eventually this decision was changed and they became DC 4916-DC 4951, with 4882 and 4899 not used to keep them in a separate number sub-series.


DCs 4876 and 4726 approaching Waipara with a freight train in April 2016.

The class were delivered in the International Orange or "Fruit Salad" livery – orange/red, grey, and yellow with large white numbers on the long hood – which was the standard livery for NZ Railways until the late 1980s. The class has since collectively worn almost every other single livery introduced since then, although some examples still wear the original Fruit Salad livery in service today. Liveries worn by the class are:

  • International Orange (Fruit Salad) - The livery as introduced. DC 4409 is notable as having received a large touch-up of its paint job in this scheme in 2012.
  • Flying Tomato - A variation of Fruit Salad, where orange was substituted for the grey. Some locomotives which received this paint scheme were later painted back in Fruit Salad. No DCs still wear this livery.
  • NZ Rail Blue - The DC class were the first to debut this livery in 1991, with the orange replaced by a mid-blue and either "NZ Rail" or "New Zealand Rail" on the long hood with numbers painted on the cab sides. Later in the Tranz Rail era, some locomotives received Cato Blue sticker patches over the long hood lettering with the Tranz Rail logo attached.
  • Cato Blue - A variation of NZ Rail Blue upon the launch of "Tranz Rail" in late 1995, where a sky-blue colour (Cato Blue) replaced the mid-blue and the Tranz Rail "winged" logo was placed on the long hood. Later the rights to Cato Blue were sold to Tranz Scenic 2001, and a number of their DCPs received repaints in the livery but with the Tranz Scenic logo in place of the Tranz Rail logo.
  • Bumble Bee - DC 4323 was the first locomotive to wear this livery, which consisted of the long hood being black, with the hood end, short hood and cab painted yellow. The first two DCs wore the Tranz Rail winged logo on the long hood Later locomotives instead had block "TR" letters in yellow on the long hood.
  • MAXX Blue - A variation of Bumble Bee with dark blue on the long hood (with MAXX logo displayed), although with black long hood top and without the extended yellow rear area on the long hood. DC 4444 had a variation where large numerals similar to the Fruit Salad livery were displayed on the long hood in the place of the MAXX logo, and nothing on the cab sides. The livery was for locomotives leased to ARTA to operate suburban services in Auckland.
  • Toll Green (Corncob) - A variation of Bumble Bee where Toll Green was substituted for the black, a lemon yellow replaced the former yellow colour used and the Toll Logo displayed on the long hood in addition to Toll logos on each end of the loco with three green whisker stripes. Later after Toll sold their stake in the railways in 2008, KiwiRail patch stickers were placed over the Toll logos.
  • KiwiRail Phase 1 (KiwiFruit) - The first introduced KiwiRail livery, with DC 4260 being the only example to receive it.
  • KiwiRail Phase 2 (KiwiRail Bold) - The revised livery, which is now the most common livery on the class.

In addition, DC 4093 wore a special one-off "Kiwi Lager" livery to go with the Kiwi Lager Ski train, and DC 4346 was one of two locomotives to wear a brown with yellow ends "Tasman Forestry" livery.

DCP subclass[edit]

The DCP sub-class was established in 2002 to differentiate locomotives owned by Tranz Scenic 2001 Ltd from those owned by Tranz Rail Ltd. The DCP classification was retained on these locomotives after the purchase of Tranz Scenic 2001 by Toll NZ, and continues to be used by KiwiRail. Further units since received the classification, though it then referred to those DC locomotives that were fitted with bogie retention wire ropes to stop the bogies falling off in derailments, rather than locomotives dedicated to passenger workings. The practice of reclassifying has now been abandoned by KiwiRail, though most DCs, including all those used on Auckland commuter services, have received the bogie ropes.


DC Micro[edit]

In May, 1988, trials were carried out using GE's BrightStar control system on DC 4588 and DC 4939, which were unsuccessful. In November 1988, DC 4588 was fitted with the Canadian ZTR wheelslip system. The system substantially enhanced traction on the bogies, maximising traction potential. DC 4628 followed in December 1988 and was also a success. Over the next 10 years, 64 DC locomotives had ZTR fitted.

Locolog and Tranzlog[edit]

Locolog was an event recorder system similar to a black box on aircraft. It was trialed successfully in 1986 on DC 4070 and DC 4778 before being fitted to all other main-line locomotives. It has since been supplanted by the locally produced Tranzlog system, with both systems having provided significant material to assist in accident investigations.

Fire suppression[edit]

In 2014, six of the class were fitted with fire suppression to run passenger services through the 8.8-kilometre (5.5 mi) Rimutaka Tunnel on the Wairarapa Line due to a change in requirements resulting from the Commission of Inquiry in the Pike River Mine disaster. This was removed from these locomotives in mid-2015 and reinstalled into the DFB class locomotives which took over the haulage of these services.[4] However, since it several (and others) have had the fire suppression refitted in order to provide locomotives for passenger charter services.


As of May 2017, 55 units have been withdrawn from service. Ten units were withdrawn as a result of accidents, while a further 37 units were withdrawn on account of being surplus to requirements or poor mechanical condition. One unit, DC 4496, was taken out of service for an experimental rebuild that was later cancelled.

39 of the withdrawn units are in outside storage, with the remainder scrapped. The final withdrawn locomotive, DC 4588, was shipped to Tasmania (along with QR class locomotives) in December 1998 for use on TasRail, then part-owned by Tranz Rail and its parent Wisconsin Central through the Australian Transport Network. The locomotive was purchased outright by TasRail after an initial period used lease, but was placed into storage in October 2002 after suffering an engine problem. In 2005 rebuilding commenced for reinstatement, but the rebuild fell through and the loco was sold for scrap in 2011 at East Tamar Workshops.[5]


In February 2015 KiwiRail issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) via the Government Electronic Tendering Service (GETS).[6] The RFQ requests pricing for the disposal of a tranche of DC class locomotives, with further tranches of locomotives being released from the fleet over the next two years.

In July 2015 KiwiRail confirmed it had reached agreement with Progress Rail for the disposal of 12 DC locomotives - DCs 4029, 4070, 4133, 4225, 4231, 4352, 4398, 4507, 4542, 4640, 4732, and 4784 - with usable parts likely to be salvaged and the hulks scrapped.

Class register[edit]

Key: In service On lease Out of service Preserved Overhaul/Repair Scrapped
TMS number Original number[n 1] Rebuilt from (DA) Introduced[n 2] Withdrawn Current livery Allocated Notes
DC 4006 Dc 1551 Da 1525 March 1978 August 1999 Withdrawn and scrapped after accident at Westmere (north of Wanganui).[7] Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in March 2003.
DC 4012 Dc 1552 Da 1532 March 1978 KiwiRail South Island Appeared in Railfreight television commercial as DC 1552
DC 4029 DC 1553 DA 1533 April 1978 February 2014 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4035 DC 1554 DA 1501 April 1978 July 2015 MAXX Blue Named Jo. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4041 DC 1555 DA 1507 May 1978 KiwiRail Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4058 DC 1556 DA 1504 July 1978 KiwiRail North Island
DC 4064 DC 1557 DA 1512 July 1978 October 2014 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4070 DC 1558 DA 1514 August 1978 August 2014 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4087 DC 1559 DA 1515 August 1978 July 1992 Derailed at Ngaruawahia in June 1992. Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in March 2003.[7]
DC 4093 DC 1560 DA 1523 September 1978 July 2015 MAXX Blue Former KiwiLager livery 1987 – 1992. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4104 DC 1561 DA 1520 October 1978 March 2016 KiwiRail Second DC to receive KiwiRail livery. First to receive Phase 2. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4110 DC 1562 DA 1509 September 1978 April 2015 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4127 DC 1563 DA 1521 December 1978 November 1999 Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in February 2008.[7]
DC 4133 DC 1564 DA 1519 October 1978 June 2014 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4156 DC 1565 DA 1513 October 1978 KiwiRail North Island
DC 4162 DC 1566 DA 1478 November 1978 May 2001 Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in February 2008.
DC 4179 DC 1567 DA 1511 December 1978 March 2003 Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in March 2003.
DC 4185 DC 1568 DA 1500 December 1978 June 2016 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4191 DC 1569 DA 1508 December 1978 May 2016 KiwiRail Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4202 DC 1570 DA 1535 April 1979 November 1999 Written off after head-on collision at Waipahi, Otago on 20 October 1999. Withdrawn, November 1999. Scrapped on site a few days later.[7]
DC 4219 DC 1571 DA 1527 February 1979 April 2016 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4225 DC 1572 DA 1506 February 1979 May 2014 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.[7]
DC 4231 DC 1573 DA 1529 April 1979 February 2014 Tranz Rail Blue Nicknamed Chop Suey. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4248 DC 1574 DA 1502 March 1979 November 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4254 DC 1575 DA 1455 February 1979 October 2016 MAXX Blue Named Elena. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4260 DC 1576 DA 1531 May 1979 KiwiRail Phase 1 North island First DC to receive KiwiRail livery. Only DC to receive Phase 1.
DCP 4277 DC 1577 DA 1483 May 1979 May 2015 International Orange Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4283 DC 1578 DA 1493 May 1979 December 2014 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4300 DC 1579 DA 1518 June 1979 September 2016 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4317 DC 1580 DA 1470 July 1979 August 2015 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4323 DC 1581 DA 1490 May 1979 KiwiRail North Island First DC to receive Black ("Bumble-Bee") livery.
DC 4346 DC 1582 DA 1536 September 1979 KiwiRail South Island Tasman Forestry livery 1991 – 1994.
DC 4352 DC 1583 DA 1528 August 1979 June 2014 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4369 DC 1584 DA 1510 October 1979 July 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4375 DC 1585 DA 1540 September 1979 July 2015 MAXX Blue Named Catherine. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4381 DC 1586 DA 1544 August 1979 April 2015 MAXX Blue Named The Fat Girl. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4398 DC 1587 DA 1542 October 1979 July 2014 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4409 DC 1588 DA 1543 September 1979 International Orange South Island
DC 4415 DC 1589 DA 1530 September 1979 July 2015 MAXX Blue Named Gwendoline. Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4421 DC 1590 DA 1441 October 1979 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") South Island Has a KiwiRail sticker on the nose and tail, and a different font for cabside numbers
DC 4438 DC 1591 DA 1503 November 1979 July 2015 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hillside Workshops.
DC 4444 DC 1592 DA 1526 November 1979 KiwiRail North Island Former technology test train, Named Elena T. Repainted in the KiwiRail phase 2 livery from non-standard livery.[n 3]
DCP 4450 DC 1593 DA 1458 December 1979 October 2015 KiwiRail Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4467 DC 1594 DA 1541 December 1979 KiwiRail North Island
DC 4473 DC 1595 DA 1497 March 1980 October 2015 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hillside Workshops.
DC 4496 DC 1596 DA 1534 March 1980 November 1999 Under-frame was scrapped at Hutt Workshops in April 2007.
DC 4507 DC 1597 DA 1545 April 1980 January 2013 Tranz Rail Blue Damaged in level crossing accident at Woodville in November 2012.[7] Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DCP 4513 DC 1598 DA 1446 April 1980 KiwiRail South Island
DC 4536 DC 1599 DA 1505 July 1980 June 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4542 DA 1537 July 1980 October 2013 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DCP 4559 DA 1539 May 1980 KiwiRail South Island
DC 4565 DA 1464 July 1980 February 2017 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4571 DA 1522 July 1980 KiwiRail North Island
DC 4588 DA 1489 August 1980 November 1998 Shipped to Tasmania in December 1998, later sold to AN Tasrail. Scrapped at East Tamar Workshops in 2011.[5]
DC 4594 DA 1538 September 1980 KiwiRail North Island
DCP 4605 DA 1524 September 1980 KiwiRail North Island
DCP 4611 DA 1498 September 1980 February 2017 KiwiRail Stored at Westfield Yard.
DCP 4628 DA 1491 November 1980 KiwiRail South Island
DCP 4634 DA 1474 December 1980 KiwiRail North Island
DC 4640 DA 1466 December 1980 August 2013 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4657 DA 1477 December 1980 July 2002 Scrapped a few days after following heavy damage sustained in fatal derailment at Te Wera in July 2002.[7]
DCP 4663 DA 1488 December 1980 MAXX Blue North Island
DC 4686 DA 1465 December 1980 January 2002 Scrapped in November 2006 after derailing into the Rangitata River due to a washout on 4 January 2002.[7]
DC 4692 DA 1480 March 1981 KiwiRail North Island Named Dora. First locomotive to haul the Northern Explorer Scenic train.
DC 4703 DA 1472 February 1981 March 1992 Withdrawn after derailment at Hornby in March 1992. Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in December 1997.[7]
DC 4726 DA 1494 April 1981 KiwiRail South Island
DC 4732 DA 1499 March 1981 February 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops[6] following a derailment at Westfield on 2 March 2014.[8][not in citation given]
DC 4749 DA 1495 March 1981 July 2000 Derailed at Edgecumbe on 2 March 1987 by an earthquake. Derailed at Te Maunga in July 2000 due to train control error, resulting in the train entering junction turn at excessive speed.[7][9] Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in April 2003.
DCP 4755 DA 1496 February 1981 Tranz Rail Blue South Island Undergoing major repairs at Hillside Workshops.
DCP 4761 DA 1469 November 1981 KiwiRail South Island
DC 4778 DA 1487 November 1982 March 1992 Withdrawn after derailment at Hornby in March 1992. Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in December 1997.[7]
DC 4784 DA 1476 December 1982 June 2014 Tranz Rail Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DCP 4790 DA 1482 February 1983 KiwiRail North Island Named Yogi Bear. Appeared in the Movie Yogi Bear in Fruit Salad Livery.
DCP 4801 DA 1484 March 1983 KiwiRail South Island
DCP 4818 DA 1481 April 1983 July 2015 KiwiRail Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4824 DA 1486 June 1983 January 2001 Written-off after level crossing collision while hauling the Southerner 8 January 2001. Scrapped at Hutt Workshops in March 2003.[7]
DCP 4830 DA 1516 July 1983 February 2015 Toll Rail ("Corn Cob") Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4847 DA 1475 August 1983 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") South Island
DC 4853 DA 1485 September 1983 Tranz Rail Black ("Bumble-Bee") South Island
DC 4876 DA 1492 November 1983 January 2017 International Orange Stored at Hillside Workshops.
DC 4916 DA 1453 August 1980 MAXX Blue
DC 4922 DA 1479 December 1980 August 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4939 DA 1457 March 1981 MAXX Blue North Island
DCP 4945 DA 1456 August 1981 November 2015 MAXX Blue Stored at Hutt Workshops.
DC 4951 DA 1459 December 1981 MAXX Blue North Island
  1. ^ 1582 to 1599 were allocated to these units but not displayed on the locomotives, which were delivered to New Zealand with new TMS numbers already applied.
  2. ^ Introduction dates are from when the locomotive first ran as a DC class locomotive, not New Zealand DA class locomotive.
  3. ^ Locomotive number displayed on long hood in place of MAXX, instead of on the cab.

In popular culture[edit]

  • In the 1981 film Goodbye Pork Pie, DC 1582 (later DC 4346) hauls a down (westbound) Midland Line freight train including the box wagon in which Gerry, John, and the yellow Mini were hiding.
  • In the penulimate scene of the 1982 film Smash Palace, DC 4202 hauls an up (northbound) North Island Main Trunk freight train, which appears to be about to crash into a Model T Ford containing Al Shaw and policeman Ray Foley, but at the last second the train enters the crossing loop, missing them.
  • DC 4790 made two appearances in Yogi Bear: The Movie.


  1. ^ "Media Release: Bus and Train Upgrades Announced". Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  2. ^ Norman, Emily (2 July 2015). "Faster locos mean timely rides - council". Wairarapa Times-Age. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  3. ^ New Zealand Railfan magazine, September 2003
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b "Rail Tasmania – DC class". Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "KiwiRail DC Locomotive Disposal RFQ". 5 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Withdrawn locomotives -- Official Information Act request to KiwiRail". 29 July 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Rail Reports". TAIC. 8 December 2011. 

External links[edit]