Nadine Labaki

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Nadine Labaki
نادين لبكي
Nadine Labaki by Matteo Chinellato (cropped).jpg
Labaki in 2012
Born
Nadine Antoine Labaki

(1974-02-18) February 18, 1974 (age 46)
OccupationActress, director
Years active1997–present
Spouse(s)Khaled Mouzanar
Children2
Websitewww.nadinelabaki.com

Nadine Labaki (Arabic: نادين لبكيNādīn Labikī; born February 18, 1974) is a Lebanese actress, director and activist. Labaki first came into the spotlight as an actress in the early 2000s.[2] Her film-making career began in 2007 after the release of her debut film, Caramel, which premiered at the Cannes 2007 Film Festival.[3] She is known for demonstrating everyday aspects of Lebanese life and covering a range of political issues such as war, poverty, and feminism.[4] She is the first female Arab director to be nominated for an Oscar in the category for Best Foreign Language Film.[5]

Early life[edit]

Labaki was born in Baabdat, Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, in a Maronite family to Antoine and Antoinette Labaki. Her father is an engineer while her mother is a homemaker.[6] She spent the first seventeen years of her life living in a war-torn environment, until 1991 when the civil war in Lebanon had ended.[7] Early in life she learned the art of story telling from her uncle, who was the family hakawati (story teller).[3] Her grandfather also owned a small theatre in Lebanon where she found her love for film.[5] She began her career with Studio El Fan, a Lebanese talent show, in 1990. The show aired during the 1970s, which continued through to the early 2000s. At the talent show, Labaki won a prize for directing various music video productions.[8]

Labaki obtained a degree in audiovisual studies at Saint Joseph University in Beirut. In 1997, she directed her graduation film, 11 Rue Pasteur, which won the Best Short Film Award at the Biennale of Arab Cinema at the Arab World Institute in Paris. Labaki is unique among her fellow Lebanese and Arab Film Makers in that she was not educated or trained abroad.[7]

In 1998, she attended a workshop in acting at the Cours Florent in Paris. With her sister Caroline Labaki as executive producer,[9] she went on to direct advertisements and music videos for renowned Middle Eastern singers, for which she won several awards. Striving to project the contemporary Lebanese woman, she "created examples of Lebanese women who were very at ease in their bodies."[9]

Career[edit]

Labaki in 2007

Director[edit]

In 2003, Labaki's name began to become more popular within the Arab media. 2003 was also the year when she began directing music videos for singer Nancy Ajram. The song, "Akhasmak ah" (I'll taunt you), sparked controversy due to the nudity presented and its sexually explicit dancing.[8] Ajram's female character, who serves as a waitress to male customers, was seen as inappropriate and too evocative[10] Labaki defended her script, stating that Ajram was actually portraying an "assertive and powerful female figure".[10] Labaki and Ajram worked to redefine the image of the current Arab woman as feminine, alluring and in control.[11] Ajram continued to collaborate with Labaki on her music videos, "Ya Salam," "Lawn Ouyounak" and "Inta Eih."[10] The three videos were awarded with best music video honors.[10]

In 2005, Labaki took part in the Cannes Film Festival Residence for six months, during that time, she wrote Caramel, her first feature film. In 2006, she directed and played one of the leading roles in Caramel, which showcases a Beirut that most people are not familiar with. Rather than tackle political issues that have plagued Lebanon, she presents a comedy that deals with five Lebanese women in Beirut who gather at a beauty salon and deal with issues related to love, sexuality, tradition, disappointment, and everyday ups and downs. The film premiered at the Directors' Fortnight at the Cannes Film Festival in 2007, which was a commercial success in the summer of that same year. It sold worldwide and collected important prizes at many festivals around the world, garnering Labaki much acclaim both as a director and actress. It also put her on Variety's 10 Directors to Watch list at the Sundance Film Festival. In 2008 the French Ministry of Culture and Communication gave her the Insignia of Chevalier in the Order of Arts and Letters.

In 2010, Labaki directed and starred in her second feature film, Where Do We Go Now? The film humorously tackles a delicate subject about a war ravaged Middle Eastern village in which Muslim and Christian women try to keep their men from starting a religious war.[12] The idea for this film first came about when Labaki was pregnant with her son in 2008.[13] At that time, Lebanon was at the brink of its most violent turmoil in decades. Interreligious conflict led to outbursts in the streets of Beirut. Labaki speaks of friends becoming enemies due to religious differences.[14] Preparing for motherhood, she began to ponder what extreme lengths mothers would go to prevent their sons from obtaining arms and taking to the streets to fight.[13] This one idea sparked the narrative of this film, in which an entire town of women begin a mission to prevent the men from brutally killing each other.[13] The story takes place in Lebanon, although never explicitly stated. Labaki's reasoning for this was that "the film is universal... this conflict does not only happen in Lebanon. I see it everywhere . . . We are scared of each other as human beings."[13] Similarly to Caramel, her second feature casts non-professional actors.[14] In effort to heighten the reality, Labaki states that "normal people deserve to be on the big screen."[14]

The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in the Un Certain Regard category in 2011. The film won the Cadillac people's choice award at the Toronto International Film Festival. It also collected many other awards in festivals around the world, like Cannes Film Festival, San Sebastián International Film Festival, Stockholm Film Festival, Doha Tribeca Film Festival. The film was also nominated for best foreign film at the Critics Choice Awards in Los Angeles. During its opening weekend, the film hit the largest ever admissions total for an Arabic-speaking film in Lebanon, amounting 21,475 admissions for a total of $153,358.[15]

In late 2013, Nadine Labaki started work on her third feature film called Capernaum which was selected to compete for the Palme d'Or at 2018 Cannes Film Festival.[16] The film tells the story of a 12-year-old boy living in the slums of Beirut. He strives to sue his parents for bringing him into a world of suffering and negligence of children.[17] Labaki wrote the screenplay along with Jihad Hojeily, Michelle Kesrouani, Georges Khabbaz and her husband, Khaled Mouzanar.[17] Mouzanar further produced the film and composed the music.[17] The title Capernaum, means 'chaos'.[18]

For three years prior to writing, Labaki extensively researched the city's children to gather accounts of their experiences, stories and pasts.[18] She used mostly non-professional actors for this film, including lead child actor Zain Al Rafeea, who was found in one of the slums playing with friends, a Syrian refugee himself.[18] Although a rather anti-classical style of filmmaking, Labaki deems her system as "very organic."[18] She strived to provide these "forgotten children" with a voice and use her cinematic tools to ignite a lasting change.[18]

Labaki's style of cinematography uses cinematic conventions, such as illuminations, atmosphere lighting, and silence to help convey the meaning in her films. Despite the often dangerous political situations Labaki continues to write and direct films that do not focus on conflict.

Capernaum won the Jury Prize at Cannes,[19] and Labaki won Best Directing at the 12th Asia Pacific Screen Awards.[20]

She was selected to be on the jury for the Un Certain Regard section of the 2015 Cannes Film Festival.[21]

Following the success Capernaum, Creative Artists Agency (CAA) signed Labaki in all areas, but she continues to be represented in France by Art Media Agency.[22]

Her movie Capernaum was nominated in the foreign-language Oscars category, which was a first for a female director in 2019. She is the first female Arab director to ever be nominated for an Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film.[23]

In collaboration with the UNHCR and UNICEF, Zain Al Rafeea and his family have been resettled in Norway. He and his siblings are attending school for the first time in their lives with a hope of regaining their childhoods. This, says Labaki, is the greatest reward.[18]

Actress[edit]

Nadine Labaki started acting in short films during the early 2000s.[24] She starred in Zeina Durra's The Seventh Dog. The work won the audience award at the Circuito Off Venice International Short Film Festival in 2006.[25]

In 2006, Labaki starred in "Bosta," a Lebanese musical comedy.[26] The film was a box office success, outgrossing "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire."[26]

In the same year, Labaki acted in her first feature film, Caramel.

Labaki starred in Stray Bullet, directed by Georges Hachem in 2010.

She appears in the Moroccan production Rock The Casbah, directed by Laila Marrakchi, alongside actors Hiam Abbas and Lubna Azabal.[27]

She has also performed in her films Where Do We Go Now? and Capernaum.[5]

Labaki often casts herself in her movies. She feels, "When I act with the people I cast, they feel more comfortable. I like to improvise a lot, and when I am in the film, it's like directing the scene from the inside."[14]

Themes and directing style[edit]

Themes[edit]

Growing up during the Lebanese Civil War, Labaki's films are informed by her experiences of political unrest in her home country, often exploring themes of violence and trauma.[3]

Labaki's films challenge apathy towards important issues, such as the refugee crisis and poverty. Though themes of war and tragedy are prevalent in Labaki's works, so is humour.[4] Her films cover the Lebanese Civil War and the lasting impacts it had on the country. Her experiences impacted Labaki personally as well as how it shaped her filmmaking. Labaki has stated that she feels that as a director she has to do something good for her country.[5] She then decided that talking about problems such as poverty and the refugee crisis is important. FF2 Media covered a Q&A with Labaki in 2018 about her movie Capernaum, which received an Oscar nomination for Best Foreign Language Film of the Year (as well as 34 other wins and 46 other nominations). She stated that while trying to brainstorm concepts for the script, her team came up with ideas that she wanted to include, such as "child labor, migrant labor rights, children's rights, the absurdity of having to have the papers to prove that you exist, the absurdity of borders, and early marriage".[28] She believes that “Cinema can be a way to [create] change.” She has stated that she believes that politics and art are intertwined and that her films are her own “way of revolt”.[5] According to Labaki, "sometimes, a line in a film, or a scene can make you think about yourself, about your decisions. By touching your hearts films can offer hope more than politics".[4] Labaki's films have no solutions for the issues Lebanon faces, but she hopes that her films will "simply shake audiences out of their chronic lethargy".[29] She has stated that for her, filmmaking and activism are one and the same, believing that cinema can effect social change.[30]

Another common theme in her work is feminism and the female narrative. She does this by focusing on the everyday lives of women in the middle East in her films.[31]

Through her films, Nadine Labaki connects themes from the Arab world and the Western world. Her transnational feminism highlights ordinary women affected by complex realities deeply rooted in decades of political turmoil.

Style[edit]

Labaki's films are often cast with non-professional actors.[29] She often finds men, women, and children who live in the real neighborhoods shown on screen where they re-enact scenes from their own experiences, often in some of Beirut's grittiest slums.[29] Labaki does this to make the film as realistic as possible.[29] Labaki is also known for spending long periods of time to research and pick the cast for her films. She immerses herself in the lives of her subjects and spent four years researching her subject and the mistreated children in Beirut.[5] For her film Capernaum, she gave her actors minimal direction and used hand-held cameras to capture life in the streets of Lebanon.[29] For her film Caramel, she spent almost a year searching for women who resembled her characters.[29] She purposely did not want professional actors, she explained, and the spontaneity of each authenticates the plot of women supporting each other as they cope with their problems.[3] The filmmaker amassed months of raw footage, which she later edited down to just over two hours.[29]

Labaki states that she was inspired by the photo of a 3-year-old Syrian refugee whose lifeless body sparked outrage around the world.[32] Stating, "I remember thinking if this child could talk, what would he say, and how would he address the adults that killed him?" she says. "I wanted to become their voice, their vehicle for them to express themselves."[32]

In a 2012 interview with Jan Lisa Huttner from FF2 Media, Labaki said: "I have a problem with injustice. I have a problem with seeing the wrong things around me and just not saying anything about them". She likes to address relevant issues and portray them through her art, be it acting, directing, or even dance. Her movie Where Do We Go Now? heavily incorporates dance, and in the same interview with FF2 Media, she mentioned that she has a background of being a dancer.[33]

Personal life[edit]

Labaki is multilingual, fluent in Arabic, French, English and Italian. In 2007, she married musician and composer Khaled Mouzanar. In 2009, Nadine Labaki gave birth to her first boy, Walid. In 2016, Labaki gave birth to a daughter, Mayroun.[34]

In 2016, Labaki received an honorary degree from the American University of Beirut and was the speaker at the 150th Commencement Ceremony.

Politics[edit]

Nadine Labaki was a candidate on the list of the new political movement Beirut Madinati for the capital's May 2016 local election.[35] Beirut Madinati focuses on social justice and the good of the public utilizing a diverse group of citizens as representatives.[36]

Despite achieving about 40% of the popular vote, the movement lost against its opponent, the 'Beirutis' list' supported by Saad Hariri, in all 6 out of 12 wards, but did not gain a single seat under the election's one-district First-past-the-post system.

Filmography[edit]

As a director[edit]

As an actress[edit]

Year Award Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.
2020 Bodil Awards Best Non-American Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2020 Danish Film Awards (Robert) Best Non-English Language Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2020 Guldbagge Awards Best Foreign Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Academy Awards Best Foreign Language Film of the Year Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Golden Globes Best Motion Picture – Foreign Language Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 BAFTA Awards Best Film Not in the English Language Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Alliance of Women Film Journalists Best Non-English Language Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Alliance of Women Film Journalists Best Woman Director Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Amanda Awards, Norway Best Foreign Feature Film Capernaum Won [40]
2019 Awards Circuit Community Awards Best Foreign Language Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 César Awards, France Best Foreign Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 FEST International Film Festival Best Director Capernaum Won [40]
2019 Globes de Cristal Awards, France Best Foreign Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Latino Entertainment Journalists Association Film Awards Best Foreign Language Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Palm Springs International Film Festival Best Foreign Language Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Rotterdam International Film Festival IFFR Audience Award Capernaum Won [40]
2019 The Lebanese Movie Awards Best Lebanese Director – Motion Picture Capernaum Won [40]
2019 The Lebanese Movie Awards Best Ensemble Cast In A Lebanese Motion Picture Capernaum Won [40]
2019 The Lebanese Movie Awards Best Writing In A Lebanese Motion Picture Capernaum Nominated [40]
2019 Vilnius International Film Festival Best Feature Film Capernaum Won [40]
2019 Young Artist Awards Humanitarian Award Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Adelaide Film Festival Best Feature Capernaum Nominated [40]
2018 Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival Best Film – Youth Jury Film Prize Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival Best Film – Golden Orange Capernaum Nominated [40]
2018 Asia Pacific Screen Awards Achievement in Directing Capernaum Won [40]
2018 British Independent Film Awards Best International Independent Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2018 Calgary International Film Festival US/International Narrative Feature Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Calgary International Film Festival Fan Favourite Award Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Cannes Film Festival Jury Prize Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Cannes Film Festival Prize of the Ecumenical Jury Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Cannes Film Festival Prix de la citoyenneté Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or Capernaum Nominated [40]
2018 Festival international du cinema francophone en Acadie Best Feature Film Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Festival international du cinema francophone en Acadie Public Choice Award Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Ghent International Film Festival North Sea Port Audience Award Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Melbourne International Film Festival Best Narrative Feature Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Mill Valley Film Festival World Cinema Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Montréal Festival of New Cinema Peace Award Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Norwegian International Film Festival Best Film Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Sarajevo Film Festival Best Feature Film Capernaum Won [40]
2018 St. Louis International Film Festival TV5MONDE Award for Best International Film Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Stockholm Film Festival Best Screenplay Capernaum Won [40]
2018 Stockholm Film Festival Best Film Capernaum Nominated [40]
2018 São Paulo International Film Festival Best Feature Film Capernaum Won [40]
2018 São Paulo International Film Festival Best Foreign Fiction Capernaum Won [40]
2017 Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Language Fiction Capernaum Nominated [40]
2012 Murex D'Or Best Lebanese Film Award Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Cannes Film Festival Prize of the Ecumenical Jury – Special Mention Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Cannes Film Festival François Chalais Award Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Cannes Film Festival Un Certain Regard Award Where Do We Go Now? Nominated [40]
2011 Oslo Films from the South Festival Audience Award Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Oslo Films from the South Festival Silver Mirror Award Where Do We Go Now? Nominated [40]
2011 San Sebastián International Film Festival Best European Film Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Stockholm Film Festival Best Script Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2011 Stockholm Film Festival Best Film Where Do We Go Now? Nominated [40]
2011 Toronto International Film Festival People's Choice Award Where Do We Go Now? Won [40]
2009 Argentinean Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film, Not in the Spanish Language Caramel Nominated [40]
2008 Dublin Film Critics Circle Awards Best Actress Caramel Nominated [40]
2008 Dublin Film Critics Circle Awards Breakthrough Artist Caramel Nominated [40]
2007 Asia Pacific Screen Awards Achievement in Directing Caramel Nominated [40]
2007 Asia Pacific Screen Awards Best Performance by an Actress Caramel Nominated [40]
2007 Cannes Film Festival Golden Camera Caramel Nominated [40]
2007 Cannes Film Festival C.I.C.A.E. Award Caramel Nominated [40]
2007 Oslo Films from the South Festival Best Feature Caramel Won [40]
2007 San Sebastián International Film Festival Audience Award Caramel Won [40]
2007 San Sebastián International Film Festival Youth Jury Award Caramel Won [40]
2007 San Sebastián International Film Festival Sebastiane Award Caramel Won [40]
2007 Stockholm Film Festival FIPRESCI Prize Caramel Won [40]
2007 Paris Biennal of Arab Cinema Best Short Film – Fiction 11 Rue Pasteur Won [40]

Other work[edit]

In 2014, Labaki was the goodwill ambassador for the bilingual and multimedia campaign produced by The Brave Heart Fund (BHF). Based out of the Children's Heart Center at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, the BHF creates awareness and helps to fund operations and procedures for underprivileged children with Congenital Heart Disease.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ نادين لبكي مخرجة لبنانية وممثلة أوروبية
  2. ^ Stafford, Roy (January 10, 2014). The Global Film Book. Routledge. ISBN 9781136474583.
  3. ^ a b c d Pat Twair; Samir Twair (April 2008). "L.A. Welcomes Lebanese Filmmaker Nadine Labaki, Who Wrote, Stars in 'Caramel'". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. pp. 48–49. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Salem, Badar I.; Salem, Badar I. (January 14, 2012). "Lebanese helmer uses humor to battle war". Variety. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Nadine Labaki's new film, Capernaum, highlights the heroism of children in Beirut". CBC. January 11, 2019.
  6. ^ “Nadine Labaki”. American University Beirut.
  7. ^ a b Armes, Roy (January 29, 2015). New Voices in Arab Cinema. Indiana University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780253015280.
  8. ^ a b Frishkopf, Michael Aaron (2010). Music and Media in the Arab World. American Univ in Cairo Press. pp. 103, 104. ISBN 9789774162930.
  9. ^ a b Walker, Susan (February 22, 2008). "Using the camera to see beyond war". The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d Mossalli, Marriam (December 7, 2011). "Nadine Labaki: Intropia Woman of Mideast". Arab News. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  11. ^ Jaafar, Ali (October 3, 2007). "Labaki aims to please and conquer". Variety. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  12. ^ Simon, Alissa (May 18, 2011). "Where Do We Go Now". Variety. 423. p. 22 – via ProQuest.
  13. ^ a b c d Hornday, Ann (May 11, 2012). "Nadine Labaki on 'Where Do We Go Now?' and the absurdity of war". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d Turan, Kenneth (May 19, 2011). "Cannes 2011: A personal project for Nadine Labaki". Los Angeles Times. pp. D.1 – via ProQuest.
  15. ^ Sandwell, Ian (September 28, 2011). "Record breaking opening weekend for Where Do We Go Now?". Screen International. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  16. ^ Keslassy, Elsa (May 17, 2016). "Lebanese Director Nadine Labaki Preps 'Cafarnaúm' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  17. ^ a b c Keslassy, Elsa (May 10, 2018). "Sony Pictures Classics Nabs Nadine Labaki's Palme d'Or Contender 'Capernaum'". Variety. pp. 1, 58.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Baughan, Nikki (February 13, 2019). "Nadine Labaki on how Oscar contender 'Capernaum' can "ignite some kind of change"". Screen International. London – via ProQuest.
  19. ^ Steve, Pond (May 19, 2018). "'Shoplifters' Wins Palme d'Or at 2018 Cannes Film Festival". SF Gate. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  20. ^ Frater, Patrick (October 29, 2018). "'Shoplifters' Takes Top Prize at Asia Pacific Screen Awards". Variety. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  21. ^ "Un Certain Regard Jury 2015". Cannes Film Festival. May 7, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
  22. ^ "'Capernaum' Director Nadine Labaki Signs With CAA".
  23. ^ "Nadine Labaki is the first Lebanese female filmmaker to ever be nominated for an Oscar". The National. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  24. ^ Stafford, Roy (January 10, 2014). The Global Film Book. Routledge. ISBN 9781136474583.
  25. ^ Aftab, Kaleem (December 26, 2009). "Talent 2010: The film-maker, Zeina Durra". Independent Magazine – via ProQuest.
  26. ^ a b Jaafar, Ali (October 2, 2007). "Labaki aims to please and conquer". Variety. 408. pp. B2.
  27. ^ "Rock the Casbah: Toronto Review | Hollywood Reporter". www.hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  28. ^ "Film Forum hosts Q&A with 'Capernaum' filmmaker Nadine Labaki | Interviews". ff2media.com. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Qureshi, Bilal (January 4, 2019). "Broke in Beirut". Foreign Policy. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  30. ^ Cooke, Rachel (February 16, 2019). "Nadine Labaki: 'I really believe cinema can effect social change'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  31. ^ "Lebanon's star filmmaker makes Oscars history with her nom | Entertainment & Showbiz from CTV News". www.ctvnews.ca. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  32. ^ a b Alex Ritman (January 6, 2019). "'Capernaum' Director Wants Her Immigration Drama to Spark Debate". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  33. ^ https://ff2media.com
  34. ^ "نادين لبكي تنجب وتختار اسماً فريداً لطفلتها.. هل تعرفون معناه؟". lahamag (in Arabic). February 2, 2016.
  35. ^ Our Candidates Archived 2016-11-27 at the Wayback Machine. Beirut Madinati website, retrieved 27 Nov 2016.
  36. ^ "Beirut Madinati". beirutmadinati.com. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  37. ^ "'Rio, I Love You' Omnibus Unveils Directors, Cast and First Images". The Film State. November 12, 2013.
  38. ^ https://www.festival-cannes.com/en/films/capharnaum
  39. ^ Capernaum, retrieved March 22, 2019
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br "Nadine Labaki". IMDb. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  41. ^ "This Is Not a Film". Brave Heart Fund. February 27, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2018.

External links[edit]