Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire
Hallgate during the annual Cottingham Day
|Cottingham shown within the East Riding of Yorkshire|
|Population||17,164 (2011 census)|
|OS grid reference|
|• London||155 mi (249 km) S|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||Yorkshire and the Humber|
Cottingham is a large village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England with average affluence. It lies just to the north-west of the city of Kingston upon Hull, and 4.5 miles from the city centre. With a parish population of over 17,000 in 2011, Cottingham is one of the villages claiming to be the largest village in England.
According to one etymology, "Cottingham" is thought to derive from both British and Saxon root words: "Cot" from Ket, relating to the deity Ceridwen; ing a water meadow; and ham meaning home; the name corresponding to "habitation in the water meadows of Ket". The name has also been suggested to derive from a man's name "Cotta" plus -inga- (OE belonging to/named after) and ham; corresponding to "habitation of cotta's people". Archaic spellings include Cotingeham (Domesday, 1086), and Cotingham (Charter, 1156; John Leland, 1770).
The pre-conquest owner of Cottingham was Gamel, the son of Osbert, during the reign of Edward the Confessor in the 11th century. After the Norman conquest the land was in the possession of Hugh FitzBaldrick. At this time, the Domesday Book (1086) shows the Cottingham manor included a mill, five fisheries, woodland and farm land. In 1089 the manor was given to Robert Front de Boeuf, founder of the de Stuteville family line.
In 1201 a licence to fortify was obtained by William de Stuteville; the beginnings of Baynard Castle.[map 1] The ownership of the manor passed to the de Wake family through de Stuteville's granddaughter Joan, who married Hugh de Wake. In 1327 further licence to crenelate the castle was given to Thomas Wake. According to legend, the manor house at the castle was destroyed by its owner, in 1541, on account of a proposed visit by Henry VIII; the owner, fearing the monarch's intentions towards his wife, sought to prevent the King's visit by ordering the arson of his own home.
To the northwest of the village there was a deer park, first recorded in the 13th century. The park was 4 leagues in circumference and located in the area now known as Cottingham Park, including Crowle Park and Burn Park; it is thought to have fallen out of use and been let for pasture by the 16th century.[map 2]
In 1319, Thomas de Wake received a charter allowing Cottingham to have two annual fairs and a weekly market; he also founded an Augustinian priory, licensed in 1320, and built by 1322. Due to potential disputes over the land it was built on, the priory moved to Newton south of Cottingham in 1325, becoming known as Haltemprice Priory.[map 3]
By 1352 the lordship of Cottingham had passed from the de Wake family through Thomas Wake's sister Margaret Wake, who married Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (1301–1330) to John, 3rd Earl of Kent (1330–1352). On John's death, the manor passed to Margaret's daughter Joan of Kent, from whom the estate passed to Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, her eldest son. In 1407, with the Holland family line lacking a male heir, Cottingham was divided into three separate manors, known as Cottingham Richmond, Cottingham Westmoreland, and Cottingham Powis – each incorporated into the estates of the Duke of Richmond; the Earl of Westmoreland and Lord Powis through their marriages to Thomas Holland's daughters.
Cottingham parish church, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, was built between 1272 and 1370; it is a large cruciform stone-built church in a mixture of the decorated and perpendicular Gothic styles. The tower was built in the 15th century.[map 4] Nicholas de Luda (d. 1382), a capuchin friar, who built or re-built the chancel, is commemorated by a brass in the church. The church was designated a Grade I listed building in 1967.
After 1376 dikes were made to supply water to Kingston upon Hull with fresh water from a source between Cottingham and Anlaby; in 1392, some inhabitants of Cottingham and Anlaby rioted, and about 1,000 people laid siege to Kingston upon Hull, threatening to raze it to the ground. The siege was ultimately unsuccessful with some of the ringleaders hanged at York; their complaint was the extraction of water which they said had deprived them of water, as well the dike having damaged their fields. After 1402 the water supply of Hull was further improved, bringing more hostility from the surrounding area; the construction of the channel was sabotaged, and the builders attacked; later salt water was let into the Hull supply, and the water was tainted with the carcasses of dead animals. Disputes over the matter continued until resort was made to the Pope (Alexander V), whose successor issued an admonitory letter (20 July 1413), urging them to desist for their own spiritual well being, after which the nuisance ceased.
By 1661 the manor house of Southwood Hall had been built to the south-east of the village and is now designated a Grade II* listed building.[map 5] A schoolhouse was established in the village by John Wardle in around 1666, near to the churchyard. Wardle also established an almshouse adjacent to it, but died in 1668 before it was completed. In 1712 Mark Kirby left an endowment of land to support the school, renaming the school the Mark Kirby Free School. The church of Saint Mary had pinnacles added to the tower in the 18th century, which may have been strengthened in the same period, other additions included monuments to Ralph Burton (d.1768) and William Burton of Hotham (d.1764). A workhouse, now known as the 'Church House' adjacent to the church grounds was built in 1729 (later modified).
A Georgian villa, later known as 'Kingtree house' was built on King Street around 1750 by Hull merchant Samuel Watson. The gardens were noted by Arthur Young on his tour of northern England (c. 1770).[map 6]
"At this place Mr. Watson has a pleasure-ground, which is very well worth seeing; it consists of shrubberies with winding walks, and the imitation of a meandering river through the whole..."
Snuff was manufactured in the south of the village in the 18th century; towards the end of the century a large mill owned by Quaker William Travis was producing 15 hundredweight of snuff per week. William Travis had a three storied house built in 1750 next to the mill.[map 7]
The road from Cottingham to Hull connected with the Hull to Beverley Road (turnpiked by Act of 1744) at Newland toll bar; it was turnpiked as an extension of the Hull to Beverley Road in 1764. A road from Beverley to Hessle, connecting with the Cottingham to Newlands turnpike received a turnpiking act in 1769.
William Travis also acquired land on Thwaite Street in the 1770s and by 1795 had built Cottingham Hall, one of the largest dwellings in the village;[map 8] it joined other substantial houses including Cottingham House (built pre 1744);[map 9] Newgate House (built circa 1784);[map 10] Eastgate House (begun 1776);[map 11] Westfield (1778);[note 1][map 12] 'Green Wickets' (formerly 'Sycamores', built c. 1780s);[map 13] and Northgate House (later Northfields House, built 1780, extended in 1820).[map 14] By the beginning of the 19th century it was noted as:
".. a favourite place of residence for the more opulent portion of the merchants of Hull, ... [with] ..many handsome country houses, gardens and pleasure-grounds."
The population of the village in 1792 was 1178 in 284 houses; in addition to being noted as a desirable place to live, the village was also noted as a centre of market gardening, supplying Hull. Other employment activities included two breweries, and a carpet factory (1811).
Several notable houses and halls were constructed in and around Cottingham at around the turn of the 19th century: to the north-west of the village; Cottingham Grange (built 1801);[map 15] and the nearby Harland Rise (built c. 1800).; south-east of the village, on the road to Hull, Springfield House, (early 19th or last decade of the 18th century);[map 16] within the village: Beech House on Northgate;[map 17] and Thwaite House (built between 1803 and 1807).[map 18]
In 1814–6, Thomas Thompson (1754–1828) had a large Gothic house built on high ground about 1 mile (2 km) west of Cottingham, having acquired 54 acres (22 ha) of land in 1800; the house became known as Cottingham Castle.[map 19] The house burnt down in 1861, although a folly tower is still extant.[map 20] Thompson also paid for the reconstruction and expansion of a Wesleyan chapel in 1814, (original building built 1803) and was instrumental in the establishment of land set aside for poor families; in 1819 the parish officers reserved 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land, previously used to fund repairs for the church, for the use of twenty families. Originally named Pauper Village, it was renamed "New Village" in 1829.[map 21]
A chapel for the Independents (Zion Chapel) was established in 1819, replacing a pre-1800 Presbyterian building.[map 22] The Chapel is now designated a Grade II* listed building and an adjoining 1802 minister's house is Grade II listed. A Primitive Methodist chapel was constructed in 1828.[map 23] A new Methodist church was built in 1878/9.[map 24]
Elmtree House was built in the early 1800s for John Hebblewhite, Hull draper.[note 2]
By 1837 the population of Cottingham was nearly 2,500, with over 500 houses. The interior and exteriors of the Church of Saint Mary were restored and renovated in 1845 and 1892 respectively. Monuments to Thomas Thompson (died 1828), and Thomas Perronet Thompson were added in the 19th century. The current (2012) Arlington Hall and Mark Kirby school buildings adjacent to the church were built in the mid 19th century.
The rail network reached Cottingham in October 1846, with the opening of Cottingham railway station and the Hull and Bridlington Railway extension of the Hull and Selby Railway. Cottingham station was built close to and east of the village centre.[map 26] After the arrival of the railway housing development began for the middle classes of Hull; resulting in the construction of terraced and semi-detached villas.
1850 to present
By the 1850s Cottingham was a substantial village, with housing along its main streets of Northgate, Hallgate, King Street, Newgate Street, South Street, and Thwaite Street. The Provincial Gaslight and Coke Company was established in the 1850s, building a gas works in the village, north of the railway station, at a cost of £3,258.[map 27] During the 20th century the gas works site was used for a cloth mill, "Station Mills", owned by Paley & Donkin who produced oil press cloths.[note 3] Additional industry developed on the site northwest of the station, including a saw mill. As of 2012 the mill building are still extant, and in industrial/commercial use.
In 1875, Charles Wilson acquired Thwaite House and extended it, converting it into a substantial mansion. General housing development between the 1850s and 1890 was limited, a terrace of houses was built on the eastern part of Hallgate, close to the railway station. By 1910, additional terraces had been built to the north and east of the village close to the railway, on New Village lane and east of Millhouse Woods lane.
By the 1870s the expansion of Hull was predicted to be such that additional water supply would be needed, and plans for extraction were made for two sites near Cottingham. In 1890 a pumping station ('Mill Dam pumping station') was opened north of the village centre, near Mill Dam stream; built to supply Kingston upon Hull with water from the aquifer via three boreholes.[note 4][map 28] West of the village at Keldgate a reservoir was constructed in 1909 with a capacity of about 10,000,000 imp gal (45,000 m3); representing a day's usage. The reservoir was expanded in the 1930s, with the construction of a second "No.2 reservoir" with a capacity of about 8,000,000 imp gal (36,000 m3).[map 29]
In around 1890, a cemetery separate to the churchyard was established, on Eppleworth Road;[map 30] the earliest recorded interment dates to 1889. In 1913–6 the development of Castle Hill Hospital began,[map 19] on the site of the former Cottingham Castle house. the initial buildings were a tuberculosis sanitorium, the hospital was extended westwards between 1921 and 1939 with the addition of an infectious diseases hospital.
The large houses Northfields House,[map 14] and Thwaite House,[map 18] were acquired by the nascent Hull University in 1928, converted to halls of residence, and renamed Needler Hall and Thwaite Hall respectively. Both Halls were substantially extended in the period after acquisition for university accommodation use. In 1951 the University created another hall of residence, 'Cleminson Hall' on grounds south of Thwaite Hall, the site was expanded for student accommodation in the 1960s.[note 5] Cleminson Hall was closed in 2003/4, and the site sold, the site was redeveloped into a housing estate between 2009 and 2012.
During the Second World War, a temporary camp (Harland Way Camp) was constructed near Cottingham Grange. Initially, it housed refugees, and it later became an army transit camp; the grange itself was used as officers quarters. The house was demolished by the 1950s and the site split between the new Cottingham Secondary school and Hull University. Hull University built the neo-Georgian block of Ferens Hall in 1956/7 on the army camp site, and in 1963 construction of a large modernist pale-brown brick halls of residence, designed by Gillespie, Kidd & Coia known as The Lawns began on the east side of the same site.[map 32] Cottingham Secondary School (as of 2012 Cottingham High School) opened in 1955, with extension opened in the 1975/8, on the western side of the former Cottingham Grange site.[map 15]
The village became increasingly urbanised in the first half of the 20th century, particularly by terraced housing. Additionally the road to Hull was developed, with housing near continuous along it by the 1950s. During the interwar period the boundaries of Hull were expanded, taking in part of Cottingham; the North Hull Estate was constructed on the north-west fringe of the city in the 1930s, and by mid-century, only a narrow strip of green space separated Hull from Cottingham on its eastern boundary near 'New Village'.
In the post-Second World War period, extensive urban development and expansion took place, in particular to the south of the village. In this period most of the development was of detached and semi-detached dwellings, often with front and rear gardens. By the mid-1950s Southwood hall was surrounded by houses. Expansion continued in the later part of the 20th century: there was further housing built to the north of Northgate, as well as a large amount of housing expansion westwards towards Castle Hill Hospital. The development reached an effective maximum extent by the 1970s: in the decades following (up to 2010), a limited amount of extra housing stock was built, mostly infill developments within the urban limit of the 1970s.
The caravan manufacturing company Swift (see Swift Leisure) moved from Hull to a factory north-east of Cottingham in 1970, the company expanded its facilities in the early 2000s, investing £6.8 million in a new factory.[map 33] A new connection to the A1079 road 'Beverley Bypass' was built for the upgraded factory development. In 2015 Swift began a 116,250 square feet (10,800 m2) expansion of their factory, with a further 72,656 square feet (6,750.0 m2) of covered storage.
Castle Hill Hospital was extended by the addition of an oncology and hematology unit in 2009, The Queen's Centre for Oncology and Haematology, a cardiac unit and additional cancer centre for teenage patients in 2011.
In 1999, the reservoirs at Keldgate were added to with the installation of a water treatment works adjacent to the west;[map 29] the plant had a capacity of 90 ML/d and was supplied with water from the main four local extraction boreholes (Springhead, Keldgate, Cottingham, Dunswell). Treatment facilities included ultrafiltration, mofification of plumbosolvency, disinfection and chlorination. The works were designed with an architectural style intended to mimic a local brick and pantile built building. Due to rising levels of nitrate contamination of the groundwater an ion-exchange nitrate removal plant was added in 2009 with a capacity of 33 ML/d; the plant used a rotating schedule of 20 de-nitrating reactors (14 online, 6 in stages of regeneration) with the ion exchange media regeneration phased including an initial backwash fluidisation stage, followed by countercurrent ion-exchange resin recharge.
In the late 2000s, a large 20-acre (8 ha), 13,000 interment capacity cemetery named Priory Woods Cemetery was built on Priory Road, on the southern fringes of the village for the use of Hull City Council.[map 34] The cemetery was opposed by East Riding of Yorkshire Council, and by some local residents but was allowed on an appeal, and formally opened in May 2010.
In 2014 planning permission was granted for up to 125 houses to the west of the village, south of Castle Road, at a site formerly used by Twinacre Nurseries; the first houses were completed by late 2015. An adjacent site was also sought to be developed in the same period – an initial plan for up to 600 houses as part of a mixed use development (2013) was submitted by Hull and East Yorkshire NHS Trust but rejected; an amended and reduced plan for up to 180 dwellings between Willerby Low Road and Castle Road was submitted in 2014 and accepted.
The approximate boundaries of the modern civil parish of Cottingham are the A164 Beverley to Humber Bridge bypass to the west and Kingston upon Hull to the east, in particular the edges of Orchard Park estate and North Hull Estate. The southern boundary is in fields between the village and Willerby and Hull. The southern half of the parish consists mostly of the town of Cottingham, as well as Castle Hill Hospital. The northern half of the parish is primarily agricultural, including glasshouse horticulture, but also includes the Hull University halls of residence "The Lawns", and a travellers ('gypsy') site, on Wood Hill Way. The only significant non-agricultural industry is the caravan manufacturing site in the north-east of the parish (as of 2012 "Swift Caravans"), with over 607,000 sq ft (56,400 m2) of buildings on a 87-acre (35 ha) site.[map 33]
A golf course and leisure club on Wood Hill Way, and a major (400/275kV AC) electricity substation "Creyke Beck",[map 35] lie just outside the formal boundaries of the parish, within Skidby civil parish.
Historically, Cottingham was noted for its springs: ones to the north of the town formed a north to south riverlet through the town, that drove Snuff Mill; whilst a large and vigorous gypsey existed at Keldgate. Unsustainable levels of water extraction in the area since the 1930s are though to have reduced water table levels and to have caused the disappearance of springs in the area. There is water supply infrastructure at Keldgate (reservoir, potable water treatment.[note 6]),[map 29] and a potable water pumping stations: at Cottingham Pumping Station (68.2 ML/d extraction limit 2004.);[note 4][map 28] and at Keldgate Spring (15.9 Ml d−1 extraction limit 2004.[map 36]). As of 2004 the extraction from the Cottingham and Keldgate bores, together with extraction at the nearby Springhead Pumping Station and at Dunswell (45.5 Ml d−1 each.) supplies nearly half of Kingston upon Hull's water supply.
According to the 2011 UK census, Cottingham parish had a population of 17,164, a reduction on the 2001 UK census figure of 17,263. Apart from the two Traveller's sites (Woodhill Way and Eppleworth Road) and a small number of farms, there are no habitation centres in the parish outside the main village.
The eastern part of the parish is less than 16-foot (5 m) above sea level, it rises steadily to over 135-foot (41 m) above sea level on the western edge of the parish, which is at the edge of the Yorkshire Wolds hills.
The modern village has two main shopping streets, Hallgate and King Street which cross each other: Hallgate runs east-west from the medieval church to triangular West Green, near the location of the former Baynard Castle; King Street runs north-south from Northgate to Newgate, Market Green (now a car park) is on the southern half of King Street, on the west side, and is the location of the council offices, library and civic hall. A market is held on Market Green on Thursday. The area including Hallgate and King Street, plus areas around and east of the railway station including Hull Road are part of a conservation Area as defined by the planning act of 1990.
Cottingham is used by the University of Hull as the site of several of its accommodation campuses: The Lawns to the north-west of the village;[map 32] and Thwaite Hall,[map 18] and Needler's Hall,[map 14] both built on the grounds of late 18th century merchant's houses, and extending the original residences.[note 7] There are several other large halls and houses of distinction within and on the periphery of the village, mostly dating from the late 18th and early 19th century, including Southwood Hall (17th century), Newgate House, Eastgate House, Westfield House, The Green Wickets, Springfield House, Beech House, Elmtree House, 'The Bungalow', and Snuff Mill House.[note 7] Within the historic village boundary there are some humbler buildings dating from the 18th century and earlier, which are now listed,[note 8] The remainder of Cottingham's housing includes post-railway Victorian terraces, as well as a large amount of interwar period and post Second World War housing.[note 7]
There are several public houses in Cottingham; including the Black Prince on The Parkway, The Blue Bell and The Fair Maid (formerly Westfield House) on West Green, The Duke of Cumberland on the market square, the Cross Keys on Northgate, The Railway on Thwaite Street, and The King Billy (King William IV), and Hallgate Tavern on Hallgate, and The Tiger on King Street.
Cottingham has churches serving Church of England, Methodist, Roman Catholic, and United Reformed Church Christian denominations, as well as having a Community Church. There is a Kingdom Hall of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Cottingham Churches Together organises joint acts of worship and charity events throughout the year.
Cottingham has two cemeteries; one is located on the southern fringe of the village and is used by Hull City Council; the other is located on Eppleworth Road, and contains the grave of poet Phillip Larkin, and a Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorial to casualties of the First and Second World Wars.
Cottingham is served by Cottingham railway station that provides an intermediate stop between Hull and Beverley on the Yorkshire Coast Line to Scarborough. Bus services are provided by Stagecoach Hull and East Yorkshire Motor Services.
Sport and outdoor activities
The village has a Scout group consisting of two Beavers groups, two Cubs packs, one Scout troop and one Explorer unit. There are also three Guide Units (one based in nearby Skidby), two Rainbow Units, three Brownie Packs and one Ranger (Senior Section) Unit based in the village. Further groups belong to the Cottingham Guiding District in Skidby (Rainbows), and Little Weighton (Brownies).
To the north of the village is King George V playing fields.
Hull City A.F.C.'s training ground is located on Millhouse Woods Lane on facilities previously owned by Northern Foods. The local football club, Cottingham Rangers AFC, was established in 1972 and consists of seventeen teams playing in the Hull & District Youth Football League and the East Riding Girls Football League. The club is affiliated to the East Riding County Football Association and is an FA Charter Standard Club.
- Originally Westfield House, built 1778, and extended in the 19th century, later Westfield Country Club, as of 2012 Fair Maid public house.
- Elmtree House,[map 25] built 1820/1834, acquired by Cottingham Memorial Club in 1949.
- Paley & Donkin original established at Snuff Mill House in 1892 before moving to Station Mills. The oil press cloth business ended in the 1950s; the company diversified into worsted yarn and carpet manufacture. Manufacturing ended 1979.
- In 1884 an act of parliament was passed allowing water extraction at Mill Dam stream near Cottingham. Three boreholes were sunk, operated by three compound pumping engines. Triple expansion engines supplied by Worthington-Simpson, Ltd were installed in 1932-4. The pumping station was connected to the rail network by a short spur off the Hull to Bridlington railway line until the second half of the 20th century. By 1999 the works had two pumping shafts in operation, with about 0.6 miles (1 km) of adits, and was licensed to extract over 68,000 cubic metres per day. See also: adit image: in Gale et al. 2006, "Plate 3 Converging adits in the Cottingham shaft and adit source", p. 49
- The original house, known as 'The Bungalow',[map 31] was built by shipowner Charles Wilson, 1st Baron Nunburnholme, around the beginning of the 20th century for his son Charles Wilson, 2nd Baron Nunburnholme.
- The water treatment works lies outside the (2006) formal boundary of the parish, within the civil parish of Skidby, the rest of the water infrastructure at Keldgate is within the civil parish of Cottingham
- See entries in history section for details
- In particular the 18th century buildings: numbers 24,26, and 28 Beck Bank; 188, King Street; Sarum House, Northgate; White House, Hallgate; and 100 and 102 Thwaite Street are listed buildings, as are the late 17/ early 18th century single storey cottages at 7, 8, and 9 Market Green. See search results for "East Riding of Yorkshire, Cottingham (Unitary Authority=East Riding of Yorkshire)" at list.historicengland.org.uk
- "Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics: Area: Cottingham CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "Mapped: the best places to live". The Telegraph. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Sheahan & Whellan 1856, p. 536.
- Mills, Anthony David (2003). A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Oxford University Press. "Cottingham".
- Historic England. "Cottingham (922610)". PastScape. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Leland, John (1770). Joannis Lelandi Antiquarii de rebus britannicis collectanea: Cum Thomæ Hearnii Præfatione Notis et Indice ad Editonem primam (in Latin). 1. Gul. & Jo. Richardson. Pag. 361. & Pag. 360 : Anno D. 1200 (pp. 293–4).
- Historic England. "Baynard Castle (1019823)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 4 December 2012. "The Domesday Book records that Cottingham passed from Gamel son of Osbert to Hugh FitzBaldric after the Norman Conquest, but shortly after 1089 FitzBaldric's Yorkshire lands were forfeited and passed to Robert Front de Boeuf who founded the de Stuteville line"
- "Bulmer's History and Directory of East Yorkshire". www.genuki.org.uk. 1892. Retrieved 20 February 2007.
- Oliver 1829, pp. 459–61
- "The comprehensive gazetteer of the medieval fortifications and castles of England and Wales". Philip Davis. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Oliver 1829, pp. 464–5.
- Historic England. "Deer park, Cottingham (910889)". PastScape. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Oliver 1829, pp. 461–3.
- "Nicholas de Luda (1383)". effigiesandbrasses.com. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Overton 1861, Nicholas de Luda, pp. 44–47.
- Overton 1861, pp. 23–27
- Finden, William; Finden, Edward Francis; Bartlett, William Henry; Beattie, William (1842). The ports, harbours, watering-places, and coast scenery of Great Britain. 1. George Virtue. p. 90.
- Sheahan & Whellan 1856, p. 25
- Sheahan, James Joseph (1864). General and concise history and description of the town and port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. pp. 539–542.
- Thomas, Gent (1869) . History of Hull (Annales Regioduni Hullini). pp. 90–94, quote:  "In the Spring Time, near a thousand Persons, belonging to Cottingham, Woolferton, Anlaby and other neighbouring Towns, being offended, that the Inhabitants of Hull, had, by cutting the Earth, drawn some fresh Water from them; they bound themselves, with a terrible Oath, to stand by one another whilst they were able shed their last Drops of Blood. Then, having ordain'd the most rustical Leaders, they appear'd in the like Sort of Arms, ransacking Houses, and abusing such Owners, who would not as madly confederate with them. Soon did they lay Siege to Hull, vowing the utter Destruction of it. Being strangely poetically given too, they made such insipid Rhimes, to encourage the Seditious, as indeed would dishonour the Flights of Antiquity, should such ridiculous Stuff be publickly set forth. The Canals, which had been made at vast Expence, they quickly fill'd up, almost as they had been before. But tho' by these Means they had spitefully deprived the Town of fresh flowing Streams, and stopt Provisions that were sent to the valiant Inhabitants; yet these ill-advised Wretches found themselves too much much deluded, and withal too impotent, to prevail against them. Upon which, withdrawing to Cottingham; and afterwards, through Fear, dispersing; some fled quite away; others, taken, and sent to York, were executed; and about 30 obtain'd Pardon, upon their Penitence, and faithful Promise, never to attempt the like again.";
pp. 96–97, quote:  "Such was the inveterate Rancour of the Inhabitants of the aforesaid Towns, by letting salt Water, and throwing stinking Carrion, into the Canals, which now were finish'd; that stimulated the Magistrates of Hull, this Year, to beseech Alexander V. Bishop of Rome, to thunder out his Excommunication against them: But the Pontiff recommending the Case to FRANCIS, Cardinal of the Holy Cross at Jerusalem; ANTHONY, of Sufanna; and JOHN of St. Peter ad Vincula; these merciful Fathers, instead of denouncing Curses, sent (after long and due Consideration) an exhortatory Writing, sealed and signed by Pope JOHN XXI. in the first Year of his Pontificate, dated at Rome, the 20th of July. In it was represented, The Account every one must make at the tremendous Day of Judgment; and consequently what miserable Sinners those malicious Persons must appear, who, by the Suggestions of Satan, should endeavour to ruin the Inhabitants of so large a Town: That there was yet a Time for Repentance, which might be accepted, upon the Forbearance of the Guilty from such detestable Crimes, so directly opposite to the Will of Heaven, which would dispense its Blessings to all Mankind: To follow such divine Philanthropy, every Person should rather contribute to a general Advantage, tho' perhaps some way discordant to their Interest, than prevent those desired fresh flowing Streams, to their necessitous Neighbours: And therefore, the past Offenders, by using their Endeavours, for redressing those Grievances, which themelves had occasion'd; and others, who generously contributed to promote the Publick Welfare and Happiness; should not only obtain Pardon for their various Sins and Offences; but also be entitled to the Protection of St. PETER, St. PAUL, with all the Host of Heaven, both here, and hereafter.".
- Historic England. "Southwood Hall (1310021)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Whirehouse, J. (1980). Mark Kirby and Cottingham Free School. Cottingham Local History Society.
- De la Pryme, Abraham; De la Pryme, Charles (1869). "Volume the Second : 1700". In Jackson, Charles. The diary of Abraham De la Pryme, the Yorkshire antiquary. Publications of the Surtees Society. 64. pp. 232–3.
- Lewis, Samuel, ed. (1848). "Cottingham". A Topographical Dictionary of England, 7th Ed. reprinted via British History Online : University of London, History of Parliament Trust.
- Historic England. "Church House (1347017)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Pevsner & Neave 1995, p. 389
- Young, Arthur (1771). "Letter IV". A six months tour through the north of England, containing, an account of the present state of agriculture, manufactures and population, in several counties of this kingdom. 1 (2 ed.). W. Strahan, W. Nicholl. Mr. Matson's Shrubbery at Cottingham, pp. 152–5.
At this place Mr. Watson has a pleasure-ground, which is very well worth seeing; it consists of shrubberies with winding walks, and the imitation of a meandering river through the whole. The grass plot in front of the house surrounded with ever-greens and shrubs, with a Gothic bench on one side, is very pretty, and the clumps to the water's edge well disposed : From thence, passing by a bridge, you follow the water through a pasture ground, with walks and benches around it; the banks closely shaven, the bends of them natural, and quite in the stile of a real river. About the middle of the field it divides and forms a small island, which contains two or three clumps of shrubs, and is a very great ornament to the place; the walk after-wards leads to the other winding ones around the field, which is certainly laid out in general in a good taste. There are, however, one or two circumstances, that cannot fail of striking every spectator, which, if they were a little altered, would be a great improvement. Directly across the whole runs a common foot-way, which, though walled in, cuts the grounds too much; a broad arch or two thrown over it, well covered with earth and planted with shrubs, would take off the ill effect of crossing this path. In the water is the imitation of a rock, every kind of which is totally unconsonant with the pleasing and agreeable emotions of the gently-winding stream, and smoothly-shaven banks; besides, any rock worth seeing would swallow up this water. In the next place here are some urns, an ornament, when properly disposed, of great efficacy; but close, shaded and sequestered spots, whereon the eye falls by accident, as it were, are the places for urns, and not open lawns, full in view, and to be walked around. It is surprising, that the ideas of imitating nature, in rejecting a strait line for the water, and giving its banks the wave of a real stream, should not be extended to hiding the conclusion, by winding it among the wood where it could not be followed; and it would have been a great improvement, to have given the stream in one place a much greater wave, so as to have enlarged it to four times its present width; this would have added much to the variety of the scene. Lastly, I might remark, that the circular bason near the end of the river has a very bad effect; any water so very artificial, should not be seen with the same eye that views the imitation of a real stream.
- "A topographical description of Cottingham near Hull". The gentleman's magazine, and historical chronicle. 67 (2). December 1797. pp. 1001–1004.
- Sheahan, James Joseph (1864). General and concise history and description of the town and port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. p. 303.
- Historic England. "Snuff mill house and railings (1103397)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- Macmahon, K. A. (1964). "Roads and Turnpike Trusts in Eastern Yorkshire" (PDF). E.Y. Local History Series. East Yorkshire Local History Society. pp. 19–20, 22, 30. Retrieved 28 February 2013.}
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- Allison 1981, p. 14.
- Pevsner & Neave 1995, pp. 389 & 392
- Baines, Edward (1823). "Cottingham". History, directory & gazetteer, of the county of York: with select lists of the merchants & traders of London, and the principal commercial and manufacturing towns of England; and a variety of other commercial information: also a copious list of the seats of the nobility and gentry of Yorkshire. 2. Edward Baines. pp. 188–190.
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- Pevsner & Neave 1995, p. 387
- 'Remarkable' spirit of a community, quote: In 1949, the Cottingham Memorial Club purchased Elm Tree House
- "Cottingham Memorial Club". Cottingham Memorial Club. Retrieved 19 June 2012., see history
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- Sources: see Cottingham railway station
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- Ordnance Survey. 1855, 1:10560, sheets 225 & 226
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- Ordnance Survey, 1:2500, 1910
- Board of Trade Journal. HMSO. 98–99: 39,551. 1917. Missing or empty
- FBI Register of British Manufacturers. Federation of British Industries. 1924. p. 358.
- Board of Trade Journal. HMSO. 98–99: 39,551. 1917. Missing or empty
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..[estimates that] in a few years' time the Hull Corporation will have to provide 75% more water than they do at present. The first scheme has reference to the "Dam Springs" and would cost £41,000. The site for the second scheme is situated near Keldgate, about two and a-quarter miles north-west of Springhead. In this scheme there are fields of such elevation that they might be converted into reservoirs
- "In Parliament : Session 1884. Kingston-upon-Hull Corporation Water, &c. (Extension of Limits of Water Supply ...)" (PDF). The London Gazette: 6193. 30 November 1883., also p. 6194
- The Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer. 26. 1904. p. 7.
Three cast-iron lined pumping shafts were sunk to a depth of 80 ft. and connected by 450 ft. of adits, 6 ft. 6 in by 4 ft. 6 in., to three wells 75 ft. deep, from the bottom of which were sunk three artesian bores 200 ft. deep. The three engines which were erected at Mill Dam are direct-acting, compound and surface condensing. They are of the inverted-cylinder marine type, and the steam-cylinders (which are unjacketed) are respectively 27 in. and 49 in. diameter, with 5 ft. stroke. Each engine works two plunger pumps 21 in. diameter...
- Allison, K. J., ed. (1969). "Public services : Water Supply". A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 1: The City of Kingston upon Hull. www.british-history.ac.uk. pp. 371–386.
An Act of 1884 gave authority for works to be built on Mill Dam stream, at Cottingham, and these were opened in 1890
- Historic England. "Cottingham pumping station (79153)". PastScape. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Water and water engineering". 51. Fuel & Metallurgical Journals Ltd. February 1948: 56.
Mill Dam has three sets of triple expansion steam engines and pumps supplied by Messrs. Worthington-Simpson, Ltd., erected in 1932 to 1934
- Ordnance survey. 1:2500. 1910, 1927–8, 1954–63
- Zhang, BeiYan; Lerner, David N.; Hoehn, E. "An integrated groundwater, pipe and open-channel flow model for simulation of aquifer-adit systems". In Stauffer, F.; Kinzelbach, W.; Kovar, K. Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Coping with Uncertainty. Proceedings of the ModelCARE'99 conference held in Zurich, Switzerland, 20–23 September 1999. Proceedings of the ModelCARE'99 conference held in Zurich, Switzerland, September 1999, IAHS Publication No. 265, 2000. pp. 67–73. ISBN 1-901502-36-8.
- The Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer. 31. 1907. p. 125.
The waterworks department has commenced the construction of a covered concrete service reservoir, at Keldgate, near Skidby. The reservoir will contain about 10000000 gallons, or one day's supply
- "Opening of Hull's new reservoir, Keldgate". Hull Times: 7. 3 July 1909.
- The builder. 1909. Hull City Waterworks, p. 78.
..the opening has just taken place of the reservoir at Keldgate, near Cottingham, which has been constructed at a cost of 43,0000L
- Jones, Tony (2009). "Keldgate Service Reservoir" (PDF). www.waterprojectsonline.com. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
Keldgate Critical Service Reservoir (CSR) is a large service reservoir near Hull. It stores about 48 ML of treated water for distribution to East Yorkshire and was built in the early 1900's. The reservoir was built in mass concrete with a barrel vaulted concrete roof, covered by an average depth of 850mm of earth
- "In Parliament.—Session 1929–30. KINGSTON UPON HULL CORPORATION" (PDF). London Gazette: 7714. 26 November 1929.
NOTICE is hereby given that application is intended to be made to Parliament in the session 1929–30 ... an enlargement of the Keldgate service reservoir in the urban district of Cottingham
- "Waterworks". Civil Engineering. Morgan-Grampian. 28. p. 76; also pp. 120, 355. 1933.
- "American Water Works Association (Journal)". 1948: 477.
- Ordnance survey. 1:2500: 1890; 1910; 1927; 1963. 1:10560: 1938–52
- The Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer. 31. 1907. p. 125.
- Ordnance Survey, 1:2500; 1890
- "Cottingham Cemetery Plans (photocopies)". National Archives. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
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- Ordnance Survey. 1:2500. 1927–8, 1952–3
- Pevsner & Neave 1995, p. 390
- Gillett, Edward; MacMahon, Kenneth A. A History of Hull. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 0-19-713436-X.
- "Alumn Pinboard : Cleminson Hall" (PDF). Gradlink. The University of Hull: 4. Autumn 2004.
The University Council has decided that, because of changing student accommodation preferences and the need to increase income, Cleminson Hall will close at the end of the 2003/04 session and will be sold
- "Cottingham: 'Eyesore' Student Digs Will Be Made Into 45 Homes". Hull Daily Mail. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2014 – via vlex.
- "Welcome to Cleminson Halls". www.millerhomes.co.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- "Luxury Miller Homes unveiled for first time in Cottingham". www.easier.com. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- Bamford, T. W. (1978). The University of Hull : The First Fifty Years. Oxford University Press. pp. 137–143. ISBN 0-19-713432-7.
- Clarke, Richard. "Cottingham High School History". www.school-portal.co.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Ordnance survey. 1:2500. 1954–63, 1963, 1971
- "The Lawns by Gillespie Kidd and Coia". www.gillespiekiddandcoia.com. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
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- Neave, David; Neave, Susan (2010). Hull. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. pp. 25–6. ISBN 978-0-300-14172-6.
- Ordnance survey. 1:10560. 1956
- Ordnance survey. 1:10560: 1956; 1968–9. 1:10000: 1973–7; 1992–4; 2006
- "Plans Unveiled for Multi Million Pound Scheme to Safeguard Jobs and Ease Traffic Problems". www.hull.co.uk. 15 June 2005.
- 'Remarkable' spirit of a community, quote: ..Cottingham’s own caravan maker, the Swift Group, based at Dunswell Road. The story of Swift Caravans is a rags-to-riches affair, since a company that in 2007 had sales of £191.3 million, began life in 1964 as a small operation located in a garage on Hedon Road, Hull. The company moved to Cottingham in 1970, and since then, has expanded its facilities there with a training centre and a new factory complex
- "Caravan firm expansion approved". This is Hull and East Riding. 3 April 2008.
- King, Dave; King, Liz (30 October 2007). "Down the line". www.outandaboutlive.co.uk.
- "Boundary Business Park" (PDF). Met Engineers Ltd. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Burton, James (9 September 2015). "Swift Caravans announces multimillion pound expansion project at Cottingham factory". Hull Daily Mail. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- 'Remarkable' spirit of a community
- "Queen visit: Hospital staff greet Her Majesty". This is Hull and East Riding. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "Hull's Castle Hill Hospital unveils cancer centre". BBC News. BBC. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "First-class cardiac care in region". This is Hull and East Riding. 28 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "RIBA gold award for SMBCE-funded hospital". www.smbcgroup.com. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "HLM swept the board at the RIBA White Rose Awards". www.hlmarchitects.com. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- Knops, F. N. M.; Franklin, B. (2000). "Ultrafiltration for 90 MLD Cryptosporidium- and Giardia- free Drinking Water, A Case Study of the Yorkshire Water Keldgate Plant". In Hillis, Peter. Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 49–56. ISBN 0-85404-800-6.
- Corrigan, Peter. "Keldgate WTW nitrates removal scheme" (PDF). waterprojectsonline.com. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- ACWA Services Ltd. (2009). "Keldgate WTW – innovative ACWA NITREAT plant future proofs water treatment works against anticipated increase in nitrate levels" (PDF). waterprojectsonline.com. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- "Change of use of agricultural land to cemetery together with erection of waiting room and maintenance area and service buildings – Proposed Cemetery Snuff Mill Lane Path Cottingham East Riding Of Yorkshire (Ref. No. 04/03391/STPLF)". East Riding Council planning application. 13 April 2004. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "New Priory Woods Cemetery in west Hull officially opened by the Lord Mayor of Hull". Hull Daily Mail. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "City happy with £1.9m cemetery after six burials in three months". Yorkshire Post. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "(14/02054/STPLF) Erection of 125 no. dwellings and associated access infrastructure, landscaping and works, including provision of drainage infrastructure following demolition of 59 and 79 Castle Road and existing building, Twinacre Nurseries Limited Castle Road Cottingham" (planning application). East Riding of Yorkshire Council. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Kitching, Sophie (8 October 2015). "First homes go on sale at Merchants Gate Cottingham from £310,000". Hull Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "(13/00379/STOUTE) Outline – Erection of mixed use development comprising residential (Use Class C3) (maximum 600 units including key worker housing); food and non-food retail (A1); food and drink (A3 & A4); residential care home (C2); healthcare (D1), landscaping, play spaces, sports pitches and changing facilities and surface water attenuation, and incorporating associated new access to include provision of a roundabout and re-alignment of Castle Road, widening of Willerby Low Road and creation of two access points" (planning application). East Riding of Yorkshire Council. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Young, Angus (9 November 2013). "NHS plan to build 600 new homes next to Castle Hill Hospital on edge of Cottingham rejected". Hull Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
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- "(16/00912/STPLF) Erection of 320 dwellings with associated access, parking, play space, water attenuation basin and infrastructure" (planning application). East Riding of Yorkshire Council. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Young, Angus (22 August 2016). "320 homes to be built in Harland Way, Cottingham". Hull Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "2001 Census: Key Statistics: Parish Headcounts: Area: Cottingham CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- Ordnance survey. 1:25000. 2006
- "Gypsy and traveller sites". East Riding of Yorkshire Council. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "Haltemprice and Howden". UK Polling Report. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- "Cottingham Parks, golf and leisure club, East Yorkshire, UK". www.cottinghamparks.co.uk. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "Skidby Lakes Golf Club". www.skidbylakes.co.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Hiorns, Andrew (7 December 2010). "Infrastructure for, and integration of, renewable energy into electricity networks" (PDF). www.supergen-networks.org.uk. National Grid. pp. 5,6; see map diagrams. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015.
- Aldrick, R. J.; Rivett, M. O.; Hepburn, S. L. (1999). "Urban groundwater and environmental management: Hull, East Yorkshire". In Chilton, John. Groundwater in the Urban Environment: Selected City Profiles. International Contributions to Hydrology. 21. Taylor & Francis. 3. Groundwater Resources, p. 93, also in Volume 2 of Proceedings of the XXVII IAH Congress of Groundwater in the Urban Environment, Nottingham, UK, 21–27 September 1997.
- Smedley, P. L.; Neumann, I.; Farrell, R.; Hargreaves, R.; Milne, C. J.; Chadha, D.; Morton, M. (2004). Baseline Report Series: 10. The Chalk Aquifer of Yorkshire and North Humberside (PDF). publications.environment-agency.gov.uk. Environment Agency. 3.4 Hydrology, p. 9. ISBN 978-1-84432-635-8.
As a result of heavy groundwater abstraction, particularly from Cottingham pumping station, most springs between Beverley and Hull have dried up over the last century (Chadha, 1986)
- Gale et al. 2006, 3.3.5 Groundwater level fluctuations, p. 26, quote: "These artesian groundwater conditions are subject to decline through major groundwater abstraction. A decline of groundwater levels was suggested by Younger et al. (1997) who observed that most of the springs between Beverley and Hull have dried up over the last century, mainly since sustained groundwater abstraction started at Cottingham in the 1930s."
- Gale et al. 2006
- Gale et al. 2006, 5.2.3 "Source protection", p. 55, quote: "The four major sources; Springhead, Keldgate, Cottingham and Dunswell are located in the outskirts of the city, to the west and north-west, and provide just under half of the demand for water, the balance coming from the River Hull."
- "Cottingham market". www.cottinghammarket.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- 'Remarkable' spirit of a community, quote: The modern-day Thursday market, held on Market Green at the heart of the village (established 1985) is a revival (after a gap of more than 100 years) of this relationship between sellers and buyers
- Cottingham Parish Council, website, section Cottingham Conservation Areas. Retrieved 19 June 2012
- "Cottingham Churches Website". www.cottingham-churches.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- Cottingham Parish Council, website, section Churches
- Cottingham Parish Council, website, section Schools
- "Cottingham Cemetery Users’ Handbook". 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Philip Larkin". www.poetsgraves.co.uk. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- "Cottingham Cemetery". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
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- "National Fairground Archive: Barbara Buttrick Collection". University of Sheffield. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
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- Oliver, George (1829). "Part IV. Historical Account of the adjacent Villages: 1. Cottingham". The history and antiquities of the town and minster of Beverley, in the county of York, from the most early period: with historical and descriptive sketches of the abbeys of Watton and Meaux, the convent of Haltemprise, the villages of Cottingham, Leckonfield, Bishop and Cherry Burton, Walkington, Risby, Scorburgh, and the hamlets comprised within the liberties of Beverley. M. Turner. pp. 458–471.
- Overton, Charles (1861). The history of Cottingham. J.W. Leng.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus; Neave, David (1995). "Cottingham". Yorkshire: York And the East Riding, Second Edition. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Yale University Press. pp. 385–392. ISBN 0 300 09593 7.
- Sheahan, J. J.; Whellan, T. (1856). "Cottingham". History and topography of the city of York; the Ainsty wapentake; and the East riding of Yorkshire. 2. pp. 535–541.
- "Cottingham Parish Council". Cottingham Parish Council. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- Gazetteer — A–Z of Towns Villages and Hamlets. East Riding of Yorkshire Council. 2006. p. 4.
- "Remarkable spirit of a community". This is Hull and East Riding. Northcliffe Media. 13 July 2009.
- , Site of Baynard Castle
- , former Deer park
- , Cottingham priory
- , St Mary's church
- 1660, surrounded by 20th century urban development, Southwood Hall, c.
- , Kingtree House, demolished 1960s.
- , Snuff Mill House
- , Cottingham Hall (demolished, mid 20th century)
- , Cottingham House (demolished, second half 20th century)
- , Newgate House
- , Eastgate house
- , Westfield House, later Westfield Country Club, later Fair Maid public house.
- , The Green Wickets, formerly Sycamores
- , Northfield or Northgate House, after 1928 part of Hull University, renamed Needler Hall and extended
- , Cottingham High School, former site of Cottingham Grange
- , Springfield House
- , Beech House, Northgate
- , Thwaite House and associated gardens, later Thwaite Hall, Hull University residence
- , Cottingham Castle, later Castle Hill Hospital
- , Prospect Tower, Cottingham Castle folly
- , (Pauper village), New Village
- , Zion Chapel, Hallgate
- , ex-Primitive Methodist chapel, King Street
- , Methodist church, 1878/9, Hallgate
- , Elmtree House (since 1949 Cottingham Memorial Club)
- , Cottingham railway station
- , Gas Works, site later used for a cloth mill, "Station Mills"
- , Cottingham water pumping station, also known as Mill Dam pumping station
- , Keldgate water works, covered reservoirs adjacent east.
- , Eppleworth Road cemetery
- , "The Bungalow", later part of Cleminson Hall, now part of 'Cleminson Halls' housing estate
- , The Lawns (Hull University accommodation)
- , Swift caravan factory, post 2006 development location
- , Priory Woods cemetery
- , Creyke Beck electricity substation
- , Keldgate borehole, Keldgate springs are about 110 yards (100 m) east
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cottingham.|
- Website of the parish of St Mary the Virgin Cottingham
- The ancient parish of Cottingham: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI.
- Cottingham Village Website
- Images of 1930s pumping engines at Cottingham pumping station