|Nicotiana tabacum L.
Nicotiana (/, , , , /) is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific. Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. N. tabacum is grown worldwide for production of tobacco leaf for cigarettes and other tobacco products.
- Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – Manyflower Tobacco
- Nicotiana africana Merxm.
- Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – Winged Tobacco, Jasmine Tobacco, Tanbaku (Persian)
- Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – Coyote Tobacco
- Nicotiana benthamiana Domin
- Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray
- Nicotiana exigua H.-M. Wheeler
- Nicotiana glauca Graham – Tree Tobacco, Brazilian Tree Tobacco, Shrub Tobacco, Mustard Tree
- Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.
- Nicotiana longiflora Cav.
- Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler
- Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – Desert Tobacco, Punche, "Tabaquillo"
- Nicotiana otophora Griseb.
- Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh
- Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec Tobacco, Mapacho
- Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian Tobacco
- Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American Tobacco, Woodland Tobacco
- Nicotiana tabacum L. – Commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.
- Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.
- Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum
- Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum
- Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana
Formerly placed here
Despite containing enough nicotine and/or other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly Tree Tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive species in some places.
In the nineteenth century, young tobacco plantings came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris and/or Epitrix pubescens), causing destruction of half the United States tobacco crop in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880, it was discovered that replacing the branches with a frame covered by thin fabric would effectively protect plants from the beetle. This practice spread until it became ubiquitous in the 1890s.
- Dark Sword-grass or Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon
- Turnip Moth, Agrotis segetum
- Mouse Moth, Amphipyra tragopoginis
- The Nutmeg, Discestra trifolii
- Endoclita excrescens
- Blackburn's Sphinx Moth, Manduca blackburni
- Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta
- Tomato Hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata
- Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae
- Angle Shades, Phlogophora meticulosa
- Setaceous Hebrew Character, Xestia c-nigrum
Several species of Nicotiana, such as N. sylvestris, N. alata 'Lime Green' and N. langsdorffii are grown as ornamental plants, often under the name of Flowering Tobacco. They are popular vespertines (evening bloomers), their sweet-smelling flowers opening in the evening to be visited by hawkmoths and other pollinators. In temperate climates they behave as annuals (Hardiness 9a-11). The hybrid cultivars Domino Series  and 'Lime Green' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
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- The Plant List
- Knapp et al. (2004) Nomenclatural changes and a new sectional classification in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) Taxon. 53(1):73-82.
- Bot, Ann (2003). Molecular Systematics, GISH and the Origin of Hybrid Taxa in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) 92. pp. 107–127. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg087.
- Clausen, R.E. (1928) Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. VII. The cytology of hybrids of the synthetic species, digluta, with its parents, glutinosa and tabacum. Univ. Cal. Pub. Botany. 11(10):177-211.
- "GRIN Species Records of Nicotiana". Oxford Journals (United States Department of Agriculture). Retrieved 2010-11-30.
- Austin, Gregory. "Chronology of Psychoactive Substance Use". Teachers College Columbia University. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
- Panter, KE; Keeler, RF; Bunch, TD; Callan, RJ (1990). Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species. PubMed 28. pp. 1377–1385. PMID 2089736.
- RHS: Nicotiniana sylvestris
- Fine Gardening: Nicotiana alata
- "Nicotiana 'Lime Green'". RHS Gardening. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- The National Garden Bureau
- Dave's Garden
- "Nicotiana Domino Series". RHS Gardening. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (1999): Nicotiana. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Panter, K.E.; Keeler, R.F.; Bunch, T.D. & Callan, R.J. (1990): Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species. Toxicon 28 (12): 1377-1385. PMID 2089736 (HTML abstract)
- Ren, Nan & Timko, Michael P. (2001): AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species. Genome 44(4): 559-571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559 PDF fulltext
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