Nyasvizh

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Nesvizh
Нясвіж (Belarusian)
Не́свиж (Russian)
City
Belarus-Niasvizh-Panorama.jpg
Flag of Nesvizh
Coat of arms of Nesvizh
Nesvizh is located in Belarus
Nesvizh
Nesvizh
Location of Nesvizh, shown within the Minsk Region
Coordinates: 53°13′N 26°40′E / 53.217°N 26.667°E / 53.217; 26.667
Country
Region
District
 Belarus
Minsk Region
  Nyasvizh District
First mentioned1223
Town rights1586
Population
 (2009)
 • Total14,300 people
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Postal code
222603, 222620
Area code+375 1770
Website[1]

Nesvizh, Niasviž (Belarusian: Нясві́ж [nʲaˈsʲvʲiʐ]; Lithuanian: Nesvyžius; Polish: Nieśwież; Russian: Не́свиж; Yiddish: ניעסוויז; Latin: Nesvisium) is a city in Belarus. It is the administrative centre of the Nyasvizh District (rajon) of Minsk Region and site of Niasviž Castle, a World Heritage Site. Its 2009 population is 14,300.[1]

History[edit]

Historical affiliations of Nyasvizh
(including occupations during world wars)

Grand Duchy of Lithuania 13th c.–1793
 Russian Empire 1793–1918
Lithuanian Provisional Governing Commission 1812
Ober Ost 1918 (occupation)
Second Polish Republic, Belarusian Democratic Republic,  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and LitBel (later  Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic), contested during 1918–1920
Second Polish Republic 1920–1939
 Soviet Union/ Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic 1939–1941
 Nazi Germany 1941–1944 (occupation)
 Soviet Union 1944–1991
 Belarus 1991–

Nesvizh was first documented in 1223. It was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1793, but the Grand Duchy was part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth since 1569. In the 15th century, while still a minor town, it belonged to the Kiszka family and later to the Radziwiłł family, and remained the family's seat until 1813.

17th-century view of the town

In 1561 or 1562 Maciej Kawęczyński founded the print works of the Polish Brethren.[2] The first Belarusian language book printed in Latin script, a catechism by Symon Budny, was published in Nesvizh in 1562.[3] The Nieśwież Bible (Biblia nieświeska), one of the oldest Polish translations of the Bible, also by Budny, was completed there in 1571 and published in 1572.

Nesvizh Castle was erected in 1583, and between 1584 and 1598 the Benedictines and Jesuit religious orders founded monasteries and a college.[4] At the request of Mikołaj "the Orphan" Radziwiłł Nieśwież was granted Magdeburg town rights by King Stephen Báthory in 1586.[5] Two epidemics affected the city early in the 17th century which led to the establishment of a pharmacy in 1627.

During the Great Northern War of 1700–21, the city was significantly damaged by Swedish troops. It was rebuilt in the 1720s by Michał "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł. In the aftermath of the war, in 1740s and 1750s he founded a Pas slucki factory which was later moved to Sluck. He introduced a military school, several textile factories and restored the Corpus Christi Church and opened a print works. Michał's wife, Franciszka Urszula Radziwiłłowa, founded the Nieśwież Radziwiłł Theatre, including a choir and a ballet school.

19th-century view of the town

Between 1764 and 1768 the city was occupied by Russian troops, and in 1772, at the First Partition of Lithuania-Poland, the library, which comprised circa 10,000 volumes, along with paintings and other art objects, was seized and transferred to St. Petersburg. Some books from the library were passed to the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Nesvizh Castle in interwar Poland

After the Second partition of Lithuania-Poland in 1793, Nieśwież was annexed by Russia, and renamed Nesvizh. In 1906, the Polish Society "Oświata" ("Education") in Nesvizh was established, but its activities were hampered by the Russian administration, before banning it at the start of 1910.[5] In 1912 the Russian authorities also liquidated the Roman Catholic Charity Society in Nesvizh.

After the fall of tsarist Russia, fighting broke out for control over the city and surrounding region. The city came under Soviet rule in early 1919 (Polish–Soviet War), the unsuccessful Nieśwież uprising by Polish residents took place during March 14–19, 1919.[5] Nevertheless, Nieśwież was captured by the Poles on April 19, 1919 and was integrated into the reestablished Polish state. It was became a powiat in the Nowogródek Voivodeship until the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939.[5] During World War II it was part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1939 to 1941, but was occupied from 1941 to 1944 by the Germans in accordance with Operation Barbarossa. The town was liberated during Operation Bagration in 1944. Nyasvizh’s status as part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was solidified in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement.

The Jews of Nesvizh[edit]

The Jewish population in 1900 stood at 4,687, and approx. 4,500 on the eve of the German invasion, Operation Barbarossa.[6] With the occupation from June 27, 1941, a Judenrat was established. On October 30, 4,000 of the town's Jews were murdered and the rest confined to a ghetto. On July 20, 1942, the ghetto was surrounded by Belorussian police and the German commander announced that the ghetto's population would be liquidated with the exception of 30 essential skilled workers. The ghetto's underground organization, based on a Soviet-era Zionist group, called an uprising armed only with one machine gun, small arms but mostly knives. Most of the Jews were killed. A few escaped to nearby forests and joined partisan units, such as the Zhukov Jewish partisan unit.[7]

Demography[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18978,400—    
19317,357−12.4%
19596,700−8.9%
19709,008+34.4%
YearPop.±%
197911,979+33.0%
198914,039+17.2%
200613,883−1.1%
201815,808+13.9%
Source: [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Main sights[edit]

International relations[edit]

Nyasvizh is twinned with:[15]

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Region information on the official website of the Nesvizh Regional Executive Committee (in Russian)". Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  2. ^ Józef Łukaszewicz, Dzieje kościołów wyznania helweckiego w Litwie, t. 2, Poznań 1822, p. 180-181
  3. ^ "Minsk celebrates 440th anniversary of first Belarusian book printed in Cyrillic alphabet". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 2009-06-16.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Г. П. Пашкоў, ed. (2006). "Нясвіж". Энцыклапедыя "Вялікае княства Літоўскае" (том 2). Мінск: Беларуская Энцыклапедыя. pp. 368–369.
  5. ^ a b c d Maciej Rysiewicz. "Powstanie w Nieświeżu – z cyklu "Droga do niepodległości"". Kurier Ostrowski (in Polish). Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Jewish Gen Town Locator". Archived from the original on 2012-02-29. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
  7. ^ Shalom Cholawski, Nesvizh in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 3, pp.1043-1044
  8. ^ Drugi Powszechny Spis Ludności z dnia 9 grudnia 1931 r: alfabetyczny wykaz miast w Polsce w granicach administracyjnych z dn. 1.V.1933 r: wyniki tymczasowe Archived 2020-09-18 at the Wayback Machine. — Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny, 1933. — S. 1-5.
  9. ^ Беларуская Савецкая Энцыклапедыя: у 12 т. / гал. рэд. П. У. Броўка. — Т. 12: БССР. — Мн.: Беларуская Савецкая Энцыклапедыя, 1975. — С. 697.
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик (кроме РСФСР), их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу". Демоскоп Weekly. Archived from the original on 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  11. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик (кроме РСФСР), их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу". Демоскоп Weekly. Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  12. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик, их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу". Демоскоп Weekly. Archived from the original on 2006-10-21. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  13. ^ Статистический ежегодник Минской области. — Мінск: Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь, 2018. — С. 45-48.
  14. ^ Статистический ежегодник Минской области. — Мінск: Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь, 2013. — С. 44-48.
  15. ^ "Города-партнёры". nesvizh.gov.by (in Russian). Nyasvizh. Retrieved 2020-01-14.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°13′N 26°40′E / 53.217°N 26.667°E / 53.217; 26.667