From top left:
Panoramic view of Goris
Goris gate • Zangezur Mountains around Goris
Goris skyline • Stone-pyramids of Old Kores
Surp Hripsimé Basilica • Saint Gregory Cathedral
|• Mayor||Vachagan Adunts|
|• Total||8 km2 (3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,250-1,520 m (−3,740 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||GMT +4|
Goris (Armenian: Գորիս), is a town in the southern Syunik Province of Armenia. Located in the valley of river Goris (or Vararak), it is 254 km away from the Armenian capital Yerevan and 67 km from the provincial center Kapan. Goris is an urban community and the second largest city in Syunik. In the 2011 census its population was 20,591, down from 23,261 reported at the 2001 census. Goris was formerly known as Kores and Gorayk.
There are different explanations of the name. It is supposed that the name comes from the Indo-European prelanguage words "gor" (rock), "es" (to be), i.e. Goris "Kores" means a rocky place. There was a dwelling in the ancient times in the same area of the town. The humankind settled here since the Stone Age. Goris was first mentioned in the history by the Urartian period. King Rusa I (8th century B.C.) left a cuneiform, where he mentioned that among the 23 countries conquered by him, "Goristsa" country was one of them. The scientists suppose that it is the same Goris.
During the Middle Ages, the town-settlement was situated in the eastern part of the present Goris, on the left bank of Goris river. It was called old Goirs and coincided with one of the villages of Goru and Goraik mentioned by Stepanos Orbelyan (13th century).
The current spelling of the name was first mentioned in 1624, in a handwriting by Barsegh Yerets. In 17-18th centuries princes Melik Husenyans ruled Goris. In the beginning of the 19th century, on 13 October 1813 according to the "Gyulistan agreement", Goris fell under the domination of Emperial Russia. In 1870, the modern-day town of Goris was founded to become the centre of Zangezour province within the Russian Empire. In 1876, the new town of Goris was founded near the Old Goris with the initiative of the head of "Starastky province" and recommendation of Prince Manuchar-Bek Melik Husenyan and the plan was designed by a German architect. At the end of the 19th century the economical and cultural life of the town was rather improved.
After the fall of the First Republic of Armenia in 1920, the 2nd Pan-Zangezurian congress held in Tatev on 26 April 1921, announced the independence of the self-governing regions of Daralakyaz (Vayots Dzor), Zangezur, and Mountainous Artsakh, under the name of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Lernahaystani Hanrapetutyun), with Goris as a de facto capital city.
The stone-pyramids of Old Kores located to the east of the modern town, is one of the most attractive sites in Goris. The old town is home to the 4th-century basilica of Surp Hripsimé. The basilica has been renovated during the 16th century. However it was closed during the Soviet period until its major renovation in 2010. Finally, it was reopened for the public in October 2013.
Geography and climate
Goris is situated in the valley of Goris River, also known as Vararak River. The valley is surrounded with the Zangezur mountains. The town has an average elevation of 1,385 metres above sea level. The surrounding mountains are famous for their medieval cave-dwellings carved out of the soft rock in the southern and eastern parts of the town. The Goris Wildlife Sanctuary is situated at the southeast of the town at a height ranging between 1400 and 2800 meters above seal level, covering an area of 18.5 km². Caucasian grouse, roe deer and brown bear are among the notable animals in the sanctuary.
Located in an alpine climate zone, the weather of Goris is characterized with mild snowy winters and hot summers. The average temperature in January is –1.3 °C and +19 °C in July. The annual precipitation level is between 500 and 600 mm.
|Climate data for Goris|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||31
Currently, the residents of Goris are entirely Armenians. However, the population suffered gradual decline since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator in Goris is the seat of the diocese of Syunik of the Armenian Apostolic Church. It was constructed between 1897 and 1904. After being consecrated by Catholicos Mkrtich Khrimian in 1903, the church was officially opened in 1904. In February 1921, the Saint Gregory Cathedral of Goris was the location where Garegin Nzhdeh was announced as the Sparapet (commander) of the Armenian forces of the forthcoming Republic of Mountainous Armenia in a solemn ceremony.
Goris is a prominent cultural centre in Syunik. It has cultural palace, a public library and a dram theatre.
The archaeological museum of Goris opened in 1948 is dedicated to the rich history of the Syunik region. The house-museum of Axel Bakunts is operating in the town since 1970, while the Goris art gallery is operating since 2001. Other museums in the town include the geological museum of Goris.
Goris has a rich heritage in the music of Armenia and is a major centre for traditional music instruments. It is the birthplace of famous musician Gusan Ashot.
Goris is home to the annual Mulberry festival taking place in August every year.
The M-2 Motorway that connects the capital Yerevan with southern Armenian passes through Goris. The M-12 Motorway connecting Yerevan with the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic also passes through the town.
The Goris Airport, also known as Shinuyar Airport or Shinuhayr Airport, is located to the south of Goris, near the village of Shinuhayr. It has been closed since the collapse of the USSR in 1991. However, the Armenian government plans on reconstructing the airport and opening it to public and private service by 2016. According to the central government, it is envisaged to operate starting from 2016. The airport will allow tourists to visit the Syunik region and Zangezur Mountains as well as the Tatev monastery and other summer resorts around the town.
Being home to many food-processing plants, the economy of Goris is mainly based on light industry. The home-made fruit vodkas are particularly good and famous in Goris. The town is also home to a large electronic devices and electric motors manufacturing plant.
However, the town is one of the major providers of electrical supply in Armenia through the Vorotan Hydropower Plant.
Goris is an important educational centre in Syunik. It has 7 secondary schools, 2 intermediate colleges, 7 kindergartens, 2 sports, 2 musical and 1 art schools.
The Goris State University is operating in the town since 1967. Branches of the State Engineering University of Armenia and Yerevan State Institute of Theatre and Cinematography are also operating in the town.
Goris is also home to the Goris Kh. Yeritsyan State Agricultural College.
Zangezour football club had represented the town in professional competitions between 1982 and 1997 when they were forced to quit due to financial difficulties. They used to play their home games at the Goris City Stadium.
- Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
- Syunik.am - Goris
- Armtown.com - ԼԵՌՆԱՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ 85-ԱՄՅԱԿԸ ՆՇԵՑԻՆ ՄԻԱՅՆ ՍՅՈՒՆԻՔԻ ՄԱՐԶԿԵՆՏՐՈՆՈՒՄ
- Surp Hripsime of Old Kores
- The reopening of Surp Hripsimé Basilica of Goris
- "armeniaguide: Goris, Armenia". plusninety.
- "Հայաստանի Հանրապետության բնակավայրերի բառարան" (PDF). Armenian State Cadaste. 2008. p. 63.
- Goris press: House-museum of Axel Bakunts
- Goris mulberry festival
- Waiting rooms and cafes to be constructed at stations of Tatev aerial tramway
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