Nikethamide

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Nikethamide
Nikethamide.svg
Nikethamide molecule ball.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 0.5 h
Identifiers
Synonyms Nicotinic acid diethylamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.380
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H14N2O
Molar mass 178.231
3D model (Jmol)
  (verify)

Nikethamide is a stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle. Widely known by its former trade name of Coramine, it was used in the mid-twentieth century as a medical countermeasure against tranquilizer overdoses, before the advent of endotracheal intubation and positive-pressure lung expansion. It is no longer commonly considered to be of value for such purposes.

In alternate terminology, it is known as nicotinic acid diethylamide, which meaningfully emphasizes its laboratory origins, and of which its common name is derived as a blend.

Former and current medical use[edit]

Coramine was used by suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams when treating patient Gertrude Hullett, whom he was suspected of murdering.[1] However, the toxicity of nikethamide is quite low (LD50 rabbits 650 mg/kg oral, LD50 rats 240 mg/kg subcutaneous).

Theodor Morell, Adolf Hitler's personal physician, would inject the German ruler with Coramine when Hitler was unduly sedated with barbiturates. In addition, Morell would use Coramine as part of an all-purpose "tonic" for Hitler.[2]

It is available as a short-acting over-the-counter drug in several South American and European countries, combined with glucose in form of lozenges. It is especially useful for mountain climbers to increase endurance at high altitudes. Contraindications include hypertension, cardiovascular pathologies and epilepsy.[3]

Use in sports[edit]

In some sports, nikethamide is listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a banned substance. Croatian tennis player Marin Čilić was suspended from competition for nine months after he tested positive for nikethamide in April 2013.[4] This ban was later reduced to four months after Cilic appealed and claimed he had unintentionally ingested it in a glucose tablet bought at a pharmacy.[5] Polish kart driver Igor Walilko was given a two-year ban, later reduced to eighteen months, from competition in 2010 due to testing positive for nikethamide after a win in Germany in July, 2010.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cullen, Pamela V., "A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams", London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  2. ^ Doyle D (February 2005). "Adolf Hitler's medical care" (PDF). J. R. Coll. Physicians Edinb. 35 (1): 75–82. ISSN 1478-2715. OCLC 49953788. PMID 15825245. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  3. ^ Nikethamid, III-3.3, Toxcenter
  4. ^ "Marin Cilic: Croatian banned for nine months". BBC News. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Cilic cleared to play again after suspension reduced". Tennis. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "FIA ANTI‐DOPING DISCIPLINARY COMMITTEE; Mr Igor WALILKO; Decision of the Court of Arbitration for Sport" (PDF). 22 September 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 

External links[edit]