2020 Summer Olympics

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Games of the XXXII Olympiad
An O-like shape, decorated with a complex checkered design and featuring a 12-pointed star in the center negative space, sits atop the words "Tokyo 2020". The Olympic rings are placed underneath.
Host city Tokyo, Japan
Motto Discover Tomorrow
未来をつかもう (みらいをつかもう) ('mirai o tsukamō')[1]
Nations participating 206 (Expected)
Events 324 in 33 sports
Opening ceremony 24 July
Closing ceremony 9 August
Stadium National Olympic Stadium

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad[2] and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a major international multi-sport event due to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The games are planned to be held from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo. The city was announced as the host at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013.[3] Tokyo previously hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, and in 2020 will become the fifth city (and the first in Asia) to host the Summer Olympic Games more than once. Tokyo will also be hosting the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Bidding[edit]

Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku and Doha were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Vote[edit]

48 votes needed for selection in opening round & runoff; 49 in final round.

Main article: 125th IOC Session

The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36.

2020 Summer Olympics host city election[4]
City NOC name Round 1 Runoff Round 2
Tokyo  Japan 42 60
Istanbul  Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid  Spain 26 45

Development and preparation[edit]

The Tokyo metropolitan government set aside a fund of ¥400 billion Japanese yen (over $3 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost ¥400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors. But East JR is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport.[5] Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area.[6] There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.[7]

The Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori.[8] Olympic and Paralympic Minister Toshiaki Endo is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.[9]

Sports[edit]

Following the 2012 Games, the IOC assessed the 26 sports held in London, with the remit of selecting 25 'core' sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. In effect, this would involve the dropping of one sport from the 2016 Games program. This would leave a single vacancy in the 2020 Games program, which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports and the removed sport. Events such as modern pentathlon, taekwondo and badminton were among those considered vulnerable.

On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the Olympic program, a surprise decision that removed one of the oldest Olympic sports from the 2020 Games. Wrestling, which combines freestyle and Greco-Roman events, goes back to the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens in 1896,[10] and even further to the Ancient Olympic Games. The decision to drop wrestling was opposed in many countries and by their NOCs.[11][12][13][14] Wrestling therefore joined other sports in a short list applying for inclusion in the 2020 Games.

On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports made the final shortlist; squash, baseball/softball, and wrestling.[15] Five other sports (karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu) were excluded from consideration at this point.[16] On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic program for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball secured 24 votes and squash got 22 votes.[17]

Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest.[18] As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports were unveiled on 22 June 2015; baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu.[19] On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted its shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding. A final decision on the proposed sports will be announced in August 2016.[20]

Sports[edit]

The 2020 Summer Olympic program is scheduled to feature 28 sports and a total of 41 disciplines and 306 events.

Calendar[edit]

All dates are Tokyo Time (UTC+9)

This calendar is adapted from the candidature file.[21]

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medals CC Closing ceremony
July / August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Gold medals
Ceremonies OC CC
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Athletics 2 2 4 6 6 5 6 7 8 1 47
Badminton 1 2 2 5
Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing 3 5 5 13
Canoeing 1 1 2 4 4 4 16
Cycling 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 18
Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Field hockey 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Golf 1 1 2
Gymnastics 1 1 1 1 5 5 18
Handball 1 1 2
Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing 3 3 4 4 14
Rugby sevens 2 2
Sailing 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 10
Shooting 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 15
Swimming 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis 2 3 5
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis 2 3 4
Triathlon 1 1 2
Volleyball 1 1 1 1 4
Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Wrestling 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 18
Total gold medals 0 0 0 11 16 16 21 19 19 23 21 25 20 19 15 23 17 30 11 306
Cumulative total 0 0 0 11 27 43 64 83 102 125 146 171 191 210 225 248 265 295 306
July / August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Gold medals


Venues[edit]

The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower would be used as the International Broadcast Center & Party Venue.
View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park
The Wakasu Olympic Marina, where Sailing will be held

It was confirmed in February 2012 that the National Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would receive a $1 billion upgrade and full–scale reconstruction for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics.[22] As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000.[23] However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the new National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity between 60,000-80,000 depending by event [24]

28 of the 33 competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres (5 miles) of the Olympic Village. 11 new venues are to be constructed.[25]

Heritage Zone[edit]

Nine venues will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.

Tokyo Dome - Baseball

Tokyo Bay Zone[edit]

20 venues will be located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake, Odaiba and the surrounding artificial islands.

Sites farther than 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the Olympic Village[edit]

Football venues[edit]

The Sapporo Dome in Sapporo

Non-competition venues[edit]

Marketing[edit]

Emblem[edit]

The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokoro, who won a nationwide design contest,[33] it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan".[34] The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of a Belgium theatre.[35]

Media[edit]

Sponsors[edit]

As of 2015 total sponsorship for the 2020 Games reached approximately $1.3 billion, setting an Olympics record (the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing attracted $1.2 billion).[36]

Sponsors of the 2020 Summer Olympics
Worldwide Olympic Partners
Gold Partners
Official Partners

Concerns and controversies[edit]

IAAF bribery claims[edit]

In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team.[67] A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF".[67] The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit.[67]

In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering.[68] Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the All-Russia Athletic Federation.[68][69][70]

Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee.[68][70] The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation.[71]

Logo plagiarism[edit]

The original emblem design for the 2020 Summer Olympics was pulled after it was found that it plagiarized the logo of Théâtre de Liège.

The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T"; a red circle in the top-right corner represented a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other", and a black column in the centre represented diversity.[72]

Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use.[73][74] Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo.[35]

The emblem's designer, Kenjiro Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo.[35] However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yoichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design.[35]

On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.[33][75][76] On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll, was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval.[75]

Broadcasting[edit]

In the United States, the 2020 Summer Olympics will be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics.[77]

In Europe, these will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Discovery Communications, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games, and Russia. Discovery will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are fully owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Discovery holds exclusive pay television rights to these Games.[78][79][80][81]

Below are the confirmed television right holders:

^1 – Rights in 22 countries in Asia, to be resold to local broadcasters.
^2 – Except in France and Russia.
^3 – Rights in Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu.

See also[edit]

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  106. ^ "BBC & Discovery Communications Sign Long-Term Olympic Games Partnership". Discovery Communications (corporate.discovery.com). 3 February 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  107. ^ "IOC awards US broadcast rights for 2014, 2016, 2018 and 2020 Olympic Games to NBCUniversal". Olympic.org. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Rio de Janeiro
Summer Olympic Games
Tokyo

XXXII Olympiad (2020)
Succeeded by
TBA