List of subcamps of Neuengamme

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Image of Neuengamme camp taken by an RAF surveillance aircraft on 16 April 1945

Below is an incomplete list of SS subcamps of Neuengamme camp system operating from 1938 until 1945. The Neuengamme concentration camp established by the SS in Hamburg, Germany, became a massive Nazi concentration camp complex using prisoner forced labour for production purposes in World War II. Some 99 SS subcamps were part of the Neuengamme camp system,[1] with up to 106,000 inmates.[2] The number of prisoners per location ranged from more than 5,000 to only a dozen at a work site. Beginning in 1942, inmates of Neuengamme were also transported to the camp Arbeitsdorf. "Toward the ends of the war three times more prisoners were in satellite camps than in the main camp" wrote Dr. Garbe of the Neuengamme Memorial Museum.[3] Several of the subcamps have memorials or plaques installed, but as of 2000, there was nothing at 28 locations.[3]

The inmates were forced to work under grueling conditions in various locations across northern Germany; often transported between subcamps and specific job sites. Due to subsequent demolition of the Neuengamme camp system by the SS in 1945 including its records, the historical work is difficult and still incomplete.[4] For example, in 1967, the German Federal Ministry of Justice suggested that the camp operated from 1 September 1938 until 5 May 1945 and became part of the Sachsenhausen in June 1940.[5] The Neuengamme Memorial organization (German: KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme), an establishment of the Hamburg Ministry of Culture, Sports and Media, stated in 2008 that the empty camp was explored by British forces on 2 May 1945 and the last inmates were liberated in Flensburg on 10 May 1945.[6] According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the camp was established on 13 December 1938 and liberated on 4 May 1945.[2] Throughout World War II, millions of prisoners died in Nazi labour camps through mistreatment, disease, starvation and overwork, or were executed as unfit for labour. At Neuengamme, 1,700 people died each month in winter of 1944-1945, more than 50,000 in total.[2]

At the main camp[edit]

  1. Canalize of the Dove Elbe, a branch of the Elbe river: Elbekommando
  2. Klinkerwerk (brick factory) of the DEST
  3. Lagergärtnerei (camp plant nursery)
  4. Tongruben (clay cavities)
  5. Manufacturing plant of the Walther-Werke
  6. Armament factories of Messap and Jastram

In Hamburg[edit]

Subcamps and working locations in Hamburg proper sorted by name.

Camp Name Location Type Dates of use Est. prisoners[7] Est. deaths[7] No.[8]
Blohm + Voss Hamburg-Steinwerder 1 July 1944 – 21 April 1945 550
Bullenhuser Damm Men 1 October 1944 – 21 April 1945 1,000 552
Hamburg-Geilenberg
Dessauer Ufer
Hamburg-Veddel Men
– 22 April 1945 557
Hamburg-Geilenberg
Dessauer Ufer
Hamburg-Veddel Women
20 June 1944 – 30 September 1944 556
Eidelstedt 1 March 1944 – 1 May 1945 553
Finkenwerder,
Deutsche Werft
– 30 April 1945 554
Fuhlsbüttel Am Hasenberge 26 Prison 1 January 1943 – 8 May 1945 556
Howaldtswerke,
Hamburg
558
Langenhorn 12 September 1944 – 4 April 1945 ca 750 > 9 559
Neugraben Women 13 September 1944 – 8 February 1945 500 560
Poppenbüttel Working location for Sasel 1161
Sasel Women 1 August 1944 – 4 May 1945 500 > 36 561
Spaldingstraße Hammerbrook 1 September 1944 – 22 April 1945 562
Stülckenwerft Steinwerder – 15 April 1945 563
Hamburg-Tiefstack Women 8 February 1945 – 5 April 1945 500 564
Wandsbek 2 May 1944 – 3 May 1945 565
Wilhelmsburg
Jung-Ölindustrie
566
Hamburg, Bombensuchkommando Men, brigade to search bombs 1 December 1940 – 551

Outside of Hamburg[edit]

Subcamps of Neuengamme in alphabetical order. Using the political division of Germany of the year 2000, there were at least 34 subcamps in Lower Saxony, 9 in Bremen, 9 in Schleswig-Holstein, 6 in North Rhine-Westphalia, 5 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 3 in Saxony-Anhalt, and 1 in Brandenburg.[3] Also, four subcamps were located in Alderney, occupied Channel Islands, British Commonwealth.

Camp Name Location Type Dates of use[8] Est. # of prisoners[7] Est. # of deaths[7] Related subject No.[8] Source[9]
Alderney concentration camps or Camp Alderney See SS–Baubrigade I Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney & Lager Sylt Jan 1942 - Jun 1944 6,000 700 6a ,[10][11]
Alt Garge[7]
Alt-Garge a.d.Elbe[8]
Near Bleckede Later used as Alt-Garge UNRRA displaced persons camp,
a camp for Latvian displaced persons
24 August 1944 – 15 February 1945 15
Aurich
District Aurich
21 October 1944 – 23 December 1944 2,000 188 51
Bad Sassendorf SS–Eisenbahnbaubrigade 11
Barkhausen a part of Porta Westfalica 18 March 1944 – 1 April 1945 77
Blumenthal See Bremen-Blumenthal 142
Boizenburg
(District Hagenow, Bezirk Schwerin (old))
– 30 April 1945 150
Braunschweig,
Camp Büssing-Schillstrasse
(Brunswiek) Büssing–NAG 17 August 1944 – 26 March 1945 800 > 380 165 [1]
Braunschweig,
SS–Reitschule
Brunswiek,
SS – Riding school
167
Braunschweig,
Stahlwerke
Brunswiek
Steel factory
See Watenstedt 168
Braunschweig,
Truppenwirtschaft
Brunswiek
Military depot
169
Bremen-Blumenthal
Deschimag
1 September 1944 – 20 April 1945 176
Bremen, Behelfswohnbau Temporary housebuilding – 26 April 1945 175
Bremen, Borgwardwerke Borgward factory – 12 October 1944 176
Bremen, Deschimag,
Camp Schützenhof
– 11 April 1945 178
Bremen-Farge 1 July 1943 – 8 April 1945 179 [2] [3]
Bremen-Neuenland 16 Aug 1944 – 28 Nov 1944 181
Bremen-Obernheide  Women 26 Sep 1944 – 4 Apr 1945 800  1085 [12]
Bremen-Osterort 28 Nov 1944 – 1,000 183
Bremen-Vegesack – 30 Sep 1944 184
Darß - Wieck January 1941 – end-February 1941[7] 50
Darß - Zingst, Germany
Dalum
District Meppen
Command from Meppen-Versen[7] – 25 March 1945 260
Drütte
Municipality Watenstedt-Salzgitter
1 September 1942 – 8 April 1945 3,100 316 [4]
Düssin / Mecklenburg Men / agricultural work 15 September 1944[7] – 1 March 1945 80 1 328
Eisleben
Command from Helmstedt-Beendorf
Men 346a
Fallersleben
Women camp
Volkswagen[7] Aug 1944[7] – 8 April 1945 650 387
Fallersleben-Laagberg
(also Laagberg)
Volkswagen[7] 31 May 1944[7] – 8 April 1945 800 794
Glasau
District Segeberg
29 March 1945 – 2 May 1945 466
Goslar SS–Bauleitung Goslar (Not Goslar subcamp to Buchenwald) 20 October 1944 – 25 March 1945 15 1 484
Gross-Hesepe
District Meppen
Command from Meppen-Versen[7] – 25 March 1945 504
Hannover-Ahlem 30 November 1944 – 11 April 1945 568
Hannover-Limmer – 7 April 1945 570
Hannover-Linden (Mülhenberg-Hannover) – 7 April 1945 571
Hannover-Misburg Men 26 June 1944[7] – 7 April 1945 1,000 572
Hannover-Stöcken
Accumulatorenwerk
19 July 1943 – 8 April 1945 573
Hannover-Stöcken
Continental-Werke
7 September 1944 – 30 November 1944 574
Hausberge an der Porta a part of Porta Westfalica 1 February 1945 – 1 April 1945 585
HelmstedtBeendorf women
underground armaments industry
– 10 April 1945 2,500 596 [5]
Hildesheim – 6 April 1945 608
Hohwacht See Lütjenburg[7]
Horneburg Philips-Valvo-Röhrenwerke[7] a) Mid-October 1944 – mid-February 1945[7]
b) 24 February 1945 – 8 April 1945[7]
– 31 March 1945
a) 250
b) 300
636
Husum-Schwesing 25 September 1944 – 22 December 1944 643 [6]
Kaltenkirchen Building a "Fliegerhorst" (Military airport)[7] August 1944[7] – 17 April 1945 500 > 214 693 [7]
Kiel Clearing up work[7] July 1944 – September 1944[7] 50 727
Ladelund Near Flensburg – 16 December 1944 2,000 > 298 796 [8]
Langenhagen
Province Hanover
2 October 1944 – 15 April 1945 808
Lengerich
District Tecklenburg
– 1 April 1945 200 > 7 838
Lerbeck a part of Porta Westfalica 1 October 1944 – 1 April 1945 843
Lübberstedt
District Wesermünde
Women August 1944[7] – 30 April 1945 500 883
Lütjenburg Men – 30 March 1945 197 893
Ludwigslust See Wöbbelin
Meppen-Versen – 1 April 1945 927
Misburg See Hannover-Misburg 942
Mölln - Breitenfelde 1 December 1944 – 30 April 1945 20 953
Neesen
District Minden
Working location for Porta Westfalica 1024
Neuhof [13][14]
Neustadt in Holstein December 1944 – 1 May 1945[7] 15 1049
Nutzen [13][14]
Porta Westfalica
near Barkhausen-Lerbeck
See Barkhausen and see Lerbeck 1164
Salzgitter-Bad 1 August 1943 – 500 1278 [9]
Salzwedel
Province Saxony
Women 10 July 1944 – 15 April 1945 1,250 1282
Sandbostel 15 April 1945 – Stalag X-B 1285 [10]
Schandelah
District Braunschweig
Now Cremlingen 8 May 1944 – 12 April 1945 800 200 1292
Schwesing See Husum-Schwesing
Uelzen Men End 1944 – 17 April 1945 500 1491
Vechelde, Braunschweig Command from Braunschweig, Camp Büssing-Schillstrasse September 1944 – March/April 1945[7] 400 1509
Verden 8 October 1945 – April 1945 8 1515
Warberg
District Helmstedt
(from Braunschweig, Truppenwirtschaft) 5 June 1944 – 8 January 1945[7] 8
Watenstedt
Salzgitter Watenstedt Leinde
Stahlwerke Braunschweig
Hermann-Göring-Werke
Men – 30 April 1945 (May 1944 – 7 April 1945[7]) 2,000[15] Salzgitter#History 1540 [11]
Watenstedt
Watenstedt Leinde
Stahlwerke Braunschweig
Hermann-Göring-Werke
Women 7 July 1944 – 30 April 1945 (– 7 April 1945[7]) 800 Salzgitter#History 1540 [12]
Wedel (Women) 13 September 1944 – 27 November 1944 500 1541
Wedel (Men) 17 October 1944 – 20 November 1944 500 > 27 1541
Wilhelmshaven
Alten Banter Weg
(Not SS–Baubrigade II) 17 September 1944 – 5 April 1945 1,200 234 1582
Wittenberge
(Old: District Wittenberge)
15 August 1942 (28 August 1942)[7] – 17 February 1945 500 119 1587
Wöbbelin
District Ludwigslust
(Also referred to as Ludwigslust) 12 February 1945 – 2 May 1945 Wöbbelin concentration camp 1591
Wolfsburg See Fallersleben Arbeitsdorf (working village) 1595

Construction labor brigades[edit]

Inmates of concentration camps were centralized in construction labor brigades (German:Baubrigaden), organized by the SS, to clean up after air raids, remove unexploded ordnance devices and bombs, or recover corpses. Some of the brigades worked also at the Friesenwall — part of the Atlantic Wall at the German North Sea coast — and fortifications in German cities e.g. antitank obstacles. Other brigades were placing or repairing rails or railway stations.

Brigade[7] Locations[7] Dates of use[7] Est. prisoners[7] Est. deaths[7] Webpage
SS-Baubrigade I Alderney Building the Lager Sylt 12 March 1943 – 1,000 100 [13]
SS-Baubrigade II Bremen Clearing up after air raids 12 October 1942 – 15 April 1944 750
SS-Baubrigade II Osnabrück Clearing up after air raids 17 October 1942 – May 1943 250 86
SS-Baubrigade II Wilhelmshaven Clearing up after air raids Spring 1943 – November 1943 175
SS-Baubrigade II Hamburg-Hammerbrook Clearing up after air raids 7 August 1943 – April 1944 930
SS-Baubrigade II Lüneburg-Kaland Diging anti-tank obstacles 12 August 1943 – 13 November 1943 155
SS-Eisenbahnbaubrigade 11
(Railway building unit)
Bad Sassendorf near Soest Building rail tracks after air raids 15 February 1945 – 4/5 April 1945

Further names[edit]

Names found in some lists, probably mistake in writing or double-listings:

Name See No.[8] Found
Altgarge
Altgarga
Probably mistake in writing See Alt Garge [13][14]
Arbeitsdorf Autonomous concentration camp Volkswagen[7] 29
Aumund Probably double-listing See Bremen-Vegesack[7] No ref [13][14]
SS-Baubrigade 1
SS-Baubrigade 2
Probably double-listing:
Roman number I = 1, II = 2
See SS-Baubrigade I or II
Baubrigade V - West No ref
Barskamp No ref [13][14]
Bergstedt No ref [13][14]
Borkum Probably meaning Lager Borkum Nazi name for a camp on Alderney (see there)
Osterort Probably double-listing See Bremen-Osterort
Bremen-Weser No ref [13][14]
Brink-Hannover No ref [13][14]
Ebensee
(subcamp to Mauthausen)
Some prisoners from SS-Eisenbahn-Baubrigade 11 were deported to[7] 334
Engerhafe Double-listing See Aurich[7]
Fidelstedt Probably mistake in writing
See Hamburg-Eidelstedt No ref [13][14]
Fliegerhorst Translation for military airport Probably Kaltenkirchen No ref
Fludwigslust Probably mistake in writing
probably double-listing
See Ludwigslust see: Wöbbelin No ref [13][14]
Glassau bei Sarau Probably mistake in writing See Glasau [13][14]
Gross-Fullen (Village to Meppen) No ref [13][14]
Helgoland Probably meaning Lager Helgoland Nazi name for a camp on Alderney (see there)
Ibbenbüren No ref
Laasberg Probably mistake in writing See Fallersleben-Laagberg No ref [13][14]
Norderney Probably meaning Lager Norderney Nazi name for a camp on Alderney (see there)
Minden Maybe Neesen, district Minden No ref [13][14]
Ohldorf Maybe Cemetery Ohlsdorf in Hamburg
working location for SS-Baubrigade II
No ref [13][14]
Peenemünde or Karlshagen Subcamp to Ravensbrück 699
Schützenhof or
Schützenhof-Bremen
See Bremen, Deschimag, Camp Schützenhof [13][14]
Sollstadt [13][14]
Stöcken-Hannover See Hannover-Stöcken 1409
Steinwerder (Quarter of Hamburg) 2 camps, see above [13][14]
Stuklenwert Probably mistake in writing See Stülckenwerft in Hamburg No ref [13][14]
Sylt Probably meaning Lager Sylt Nazi name for a camp on Alderney (see there)
Veerssen Probably mistake in writing See Meppen-Versen [13][14]
Veleen [13][14]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Overview (2013). "Satellite camps and memorials". KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  2. ^ a b c "Neuengamme 1938 - 1945 (timeline)". USHMM. Retrieved 2008-10-12. 
  3. ^ a b c Höhler, Hans-Joachim (2000), Gedenkstätten für die Opfer des KZ Neuengamme und seiner Außenlager, Neuengamme: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Neuengamme and KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme  (German) (English) (French) (Russian)
  4. ^ Staff, Etappen der Lagerräumung (in German), KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme, retrieved 2008-09-26 
  5. ^ Staff (1967-02-23), Verzeichnis der Konzentrationslager und ihrer Außenkommandos gemäß § 42 Abs. 2 BEG (in German), Bundesministerium der Justiz, retrieved 2008-09-26 
  6. ^ Staff, Zeittafel (in German), KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme, retrieved 2008-09-26 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Memorial Neuengamme (German)
  8. ^ a b c d e Refers to the official German list Verzeichnis der Konzentrationslager und ihrer Außenkommandos gemäß § 42 Abs. 2 BEG (German)
  9. ^ The websites of the memorials are mostly in German.
  10. ^ "SiteName: Lager Sylt Concentration Camp". February 2003. pp. Subterranea Britannica. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  11. ^ Bonnard, Brian. "Military History: A very brief history of Alderney". Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  12. ^ Overview (2013). "Bremen-Obernheide". Satellite camps. KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Holocaust Revealed
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Concentration Camp Listing
  15. ^ Later 5,000 men (Ref: Memorial Neuengamme)

External links[edit]