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Flensborg (Low German)
|Coordinates: 54°46′55″N 09°26′12″E / 54.78194°N 9.43667°ECoordinates: 54°46′55″N 09°26′12″E / 54.78194°N 9.43667°E|
|• Lord mayor||Simone Lange (SPD)|
|• Total||56.38 km2 (21.77 sq mi)|
|Elevation||12 m (39 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
Flensburg (German: [ˈflɛnsbʊʁk] (listen); Danish and Low Saxon: Flensborg; South Jutlandic: Flensborre; North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Flensburg is the north of the region of Schleswig. After Kiel and Lübeck, it is the third largest town in Schleswig-Holstein.
The nearest larger towns are Kiel (86 kilometres (53 miles) south) and Odense in Denmark (92 km (57 mi) northeast). Flensburg's city centre lies about 7 km (4 mi) from the Danish border.
In Germany, Flensburg is known for:
- the Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (roughly: National Driver and Vehicle Register) with its Verkehrssünderkartei (literally: "traffic sinner card file"), where details of traffic offences are stored
- its beer Flensburger Pilsener, also called "Flens"
- the centre of the Danish national minority in Germany
- the greeting Moin Moin
- the large erotic mail-order companies Beate Uhse and Orion
- its handball team SG Flensburg-Handewitt
- the Naval Academy at Mürwik
- being the final seat of the Third Reich from 1 May 1945 following the death of Adolf Hitler, until the final, formal dissolution of the Third Reich in early June of that year.
Flensburg is situated in the north of the German state Schleswig-Holstein, very close to the German-Danish border. After Westerland on the island of Sylt it is Germany's northernmost town. Flensburg lies at the innermost tip of the Flensburg Firth, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Flensburg's eastern shore is part of the Anglia peninsula.
Clockwise from the northeast, beginning at the German shore of the Flensburg Firth, the following communities in Schleswig-Flensburg district and Denmark's Southern Denmark Region all border on Flensburg:
Glücksburg (Amt-free town), Wees (Amt Langballig), Maasbüll, Hürup, Tastrup and Freienwill (all in Amt Hürup), Jarplund-Weding, Handewitt (Amt Handewitt), Harrislee (Amt-free community) and Aabenraa Municipality on the Danish shore of the Flensburg Firth.
The town of Flensburg is divided into 13 communities, which themselves are further divided into 38 statistical areas. Constituent communities have a two-digit number and the statistical areas a three-digit number.
The communities with their statistical areas:
- 01 Altstadt (Old Town) Lies somewhat down towards the sea rather than right downtown.
- 011 St. Nikolai (Danish: Skt. Nikolaj)
- 012 St. Marien
- 013 Nordertor (Danish: Nørreport)
- 02 Neustadt (Danish: Nystaden)
- 021 Duburg (Danish: Duborg)
- 022 Neustadt Nord
- 03 Nordstadt (Danish: Nordstaden)
- 031 Kreuz (Danish: Kors)
- 032 Galwik (Danish: Galvig)
- 033 Klues (Danish: Klus)
- 04 Westliche Höhe
- 041 Stadtpark (Danish: Byparken)
- 042 Marienhölzung (Danish: Frueskov)
- 043 St. Gertrud
- 044 Friedhof
- 05 Friesischer Berg (Danish: Friserbjerg)
- 051 Exe (Danish: Exe or Eksercerløkke)
- 052 Museumsberg
- 053 Friedenshügel (Danish: Fredshøj)
- 06 Weiche (Danish: Sporskifte)
- 061 Sophienhof (Danish: Sophiegård)
- 062 Schäferhaus (Danish: Skæferhus)
- 07 Südstadt
- 071 Martinsberg (Danish: Martinsbjerg)
- 072 Rude (Danish: Ryde)
- 073 Peelwatt (Danish: Pælevad)
- 08 Sandberg (Danish: Sandbjerg)
- 081 Achter de Möhl (Danish: Fiskergaarden)
- 082 Adelbylund
- 083 Sünderup (Danish: Synderup)
- 09 Jürgensby (Danish: Jørgensby)
- 091 St. Johannis (Danish: Sankt Hans)
- 092 St. Jürgen (Danish: Sankt Jørgen)
- 093 Jürgensgaard (Danish: Jørgensgaard)
- 094 Sender Flensburg-Jürgensby
- 10 Fruerlund
- 101 Blasberg (Danish: Blæsbjerg)
- 102 Bohlberg (Danish: Bolsbjerg)
- 103 Fruerlund Hof
- 11 Mürwik (Danish: Mørvig)
- 111 Stützpunkt
- 112 Osbek (Danish: Osbæk)
- 113 Wasserloos (Danish: Vandløs)
- 114 Friedheim
- 115 Solitüde (Danish: Solitude)
- 12 Engelsby
- 121 Engelsby Süd
- 122 Vogelsang (Danish: Fuglsang)
- 13 Tarup
- 130 Tarup
Flensburg was founded at the latest by 1200 at the innermost end of the Flensburg Firth by Danish settlers, who were soon joined by German merchants. In 1284, its town rights were confirmed and the town quickly rose to become one of the most important in the Duchy of Schleswig. Unlike Holstein, however, Schleswig did not belong to the German Holy Roman Empire. Therefore, Flensburg was not a member of the Hanseatic League, but it did maintain contacts with this important trading network.
Historians presume that there were several reasons for choosing this spot for settlement:
- Shelter from heavy winds
- Trade route between Holstein and North Jutland (namely the Hærvejen or Ochsenweg, a name for a series of roads between Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland, possibly dating from the Bronze Age)
- The Angelnway: Trade route between North Frisia and Angeln
- A good herring fishery
Herrings, especially kippered, were what brought about the blossoming of the town's trade in the Middle Ages. They were sent inland and to almost every European country.
On 28 October 1412, Queen Margaret I of Denmark died of the Plague aboard a ship in Flensburg Harbour.
From time to time plagues such as bubonic plague, caused mainly by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis, a parasite found on brown rats), "red" dysentery and other scourges killed a great deal of Flensburg's population. Lepers were strictly isolated, namely at the St.-Jürgen-Hospital (Helligåndshospital, built before 1290), which lay far outside the town's gates, where the St. Jürgen Church is nowadays. About 1500, syphilis also appeared. The church hospital "Zum Heiligen Geist" ("To the Holy Ghost") stood in Große Straße, now Flensburg's pedestrian precinct.
A Flensburger's everyday life was very hard, and the old roads and paths were bad. The main streets were neither paved nor lit at night. When the streets became really bad, the citizens had to make the dung-filled streets passable with wooden pathways. Only the few upper-class houses had windows. In 1485, a great fire struck Flensburg. Storm tides also beset the town occasionally. Every household in the town kept livestock in the house and the yard. Townsfolk furthermore had their own cowherds and a swineherd.
Early modern times
After the fall of the Hanseatic League in the 16th century, Flensburg was said to be one of the most important trading towns in the Scandinavian area. Flensburg merchants were active as far away as the Mediterranean, Greenland and the Caribbean. The most important commodities, after herring, were sugar and whale oil, the latter from whaling off Greenland. However, the Thirty Years' War put an end to this boom time. The town was becoming Protestant and thereby ever more German culturally and linguistically, while the neighbouring countryside remained decidedly Danish.
In the 18th century, thanks to the rum trade, Flensburg had yet another boom. Cane sugar was imported from the Danish West Indies (now the US Virgin Islands) and refined in Flensburg. Only in the 19th century, as a result of industrialization, was the town at last outstripped by the competition from cities such as Copenhagen and Hamburg.
The rum produced in Flensburg then became re-integrated into West Indian trade routes, which as of 1864 moved away from the Danish West Indies to the British colony of Jamaica instead. It was imported from there, blended, and sold all over Europe. There is nowadays only one active rum distillery in Flensburg, "A. H. Johannsen".
History as a German town
Between 1460 and 1864, Flensburg was, after Copenhagen, the second biggest port in the Kingdom of Denmark, but it passed to the Kingdom of Prussia after the Second Schleswig War in 1864. The Battle of Flensburg was on February 6, 1864: near the city a small Hungarian mounted regiment chased a Danish infantry and Dragoon regiment. There is still a considerable Danish community in the town today. Some estimates put the percentage of Flensburgers who belong to it as high as 25%; other estimates put that percentage much lower. The SSW political party representing the minority usually gains 20–25% of the votes in local elections, but by no means are all of its voters Danes. Before 1864, more than 50% belonged to what is now the minority, witnessed even today by the great number of Danish surnames in the Flensburg telephone directory (Asmussen, Claussen, Jacobsen, Jensen, Petersen, etc.). The upper classes and the learned at that time, however, were German, and since 1864, the German language has prevailed in the town.
On 1 April 1889, Flensburg became an independent city (kreisfreie Stadt) within the Province of Schleswig-Holstein, and at the same time still kept its status as seat of the Flensburg district. In 1920, the League of Nations decided that the matter of the German-Danish border would be settled by a vote. As a result of the plebiscite, and the way the voting zones were laid out, some of Flensburg's northern neighbourhoods were ceded to Denmark, whereas Flensburg as a whole voted with a great majority to stay in Germany.
In return for this great pro-German majority, the town of Flensburg was given a large hall, the "Deutsches Haus", which was endowed by the government as "thanks for German loyalty".
During the Second World War, the town was left almost unscathed by the air raids that devastated other German cities. However, in 1943, 20 children died when their nursery school was bombed, and shortly after the war ended, an explosion at a local munitions storage site claimed many victims.
In 1945, Admiral Karl Dönitz, who was briefly President (Reichspräsident) of Nazi Germany once Adolf Hitler had appointed him his successor and then killed himself, fled to Flensburg with what was left of his government. The so-called Flensburg government, led by Karl Dönitz, was in power from 1 May, the announcement of Hitler's death, for one week, until German troops surrendered and the town was occupied by Allied troops. The regime was effectively dissolved on 23 May when the British Army arrested Dönitz and his ministers in Mürwik and detained them in the Navy School in Mürwik (German: Marineschule Mürwik). The dissolution was formalized by the Berlin Declaration which was promulgated on 5 June. Flensburg was therefore, for a few weeks, the seat of the last Third Reich government.
Since the Second World War
After the Second World War, the town's population broke the 100,000 mark for a short time, thereby making Flensburg a city (Großstadt) under one traditional definition. The population later sank below that mark, however.
In the years after the Second World War, there was in South Schleswig, particularly in Flensburg, a strong pro-Danish movement connected with the idea of the "Eider Politics". Its goal was for the town and all or most of Schleswig, the whole area north of the Eider River, to be united with Denmark. After 1945, Flensburg's town council was for years dominated by Danish parties, and the town had a Danish mayor.
The town profited from the planned location of military installations. Since the German Reunification, the number of soldiers has dropped to about 8,000. Since Denmark's entry into the European Economic Community (now the European Union), border trade has played an important role in Flensburg's economic life. Some Danish businesses, such as Danfoss, have set up shop just south of the border for tax reasons.
In 1970, the Flensburg district was expanded to include the municipalities in the Amt of Medelby, formerly in the Südtondern district, and in 1974 it was united with the Schleswig district to form the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, whose district seat was the town of Schleswig. Flensburg thereby lost its function as a district seat, but it remained an independent (district-free) town.
Until the middle of the 19th century Flensburg's municipal area comprised a total area of 2 639 ha. Beginning in 1874, however, the following communities or rural areas (Gemarkungen) were annexed to the town of Flensburg:
|Year||Place(s)||Area added in ha|
|1874||Süder- and Norder-St. Jürgen||36|
|27 July 1875||Duburg||10.5|
|1877||Hohlwege and Bredeberg||5.5|
|1 December 1900||Jürgensgaarde||205|
|1 April 1909||Klues||19|
|1 April 1910||Twedt, Twedterholz/Fruerlund and Engelsby||1458|
|1916||part of Klues Forest (incl. open waters)||146.5|
|26 April 1970||Adelbylund||132|
|10 February 1971||demerger of Wassersleben Beach||-147.5|
|22 March 1974||Sünderup and Tarup||?|
Population figures are for respective municipal areas through time. Until 1870, figures are mostly estimates, and thereafter census results (¹) or official projections from either statistical offices or the town administration itself.
|1 December 1875 ¹||26,474|
|1 December 1890 ¹||36,894|
|1 December 1900 ¹||48,937|
|1 December 1910 ¹||60,922|
|16 June 1925 ¹||63,139|
|16 June 1933 ¹||66,580|
|17 May 1939 ¹||70,871|
|13 September 1950 ¹||102,832|
|6 June 1961 ¹||98,464|
|27 May 1970 ¹||95,400|
|30 June 1975||93,900|
|30 June 1980||88,200|
|30 June 1985||86,900|
|27 May 1987 ¹||86,554|
|30 June 1997||86,100|
|31 December 2003||85,300|
|31 December 2012||89,375|
¹ Census results
The Danish minority in Flensburg and the surrounding towns run their own schools, libraries and Lutheran churches from which the German majority is not excluded. The co-existence of these two groups is considered a sound and healthy symbiosis. There is a form of mixed Danish–German used on the ferries, Petuh.
There is also a Danish Consulate-General in Flensburg.
In Denmark, Flensburg seems to be mainly known for its "border shops" where, among other things, spirits, beer and candy can be purchased at cheaper prices than in Denmark. The prices are lower because the value-added tax is lower and excise taxes are either lower (e.g. on alcohol) or do not exist (on e.g. sugar). Currently the border shops are able to sell canned beer to persons resident in Scandinavia without paying deposits as long as the beverage is not consumed in Germany.
|Significant minority groups|
The town council was led for centuries by two mayors, one for the north town (St. Marien) and the other for the south town (St. Nikolai and St. Johannis). The council members and the mayors were chosen by the council itself, that is, retiring officials had their successors named by the remaining councillors in such a way that both halves of the town had as many members. These councillors usually bore the title "Senator".
This "town government" lasted until 1742 when the "northern mayor" was made the "directing mayor" by the Danish King. From this position came what was later known as the First Mayor. The second mayor simply bore the title "mayor" ("Bürgermeister"). After the town had been ceded to Prussia, the mayors were elected by the townsfolk as of 1870, and the First Mayor was given the title Oberbürgermeister, still the usual title in German towns and cities. During the Third Reich, the town head was appointed by those who held power locally at the time.
In 1945, after the Second World War, a twofold leadership based on a British model was introduced. Heading the town stood foremost the Oberbürgermeister, who was chosen by the town council and whose job was as chairman of council and the municipality. Next to him was an Oberstadtdirektor ("Higher Town Director") who was leader of administration. In 1950, when Schleswig-Holstein brought its new laws for municipalities into force, the title Oberbürgermeister was transferred (once again) to this latter official. At first, and for a while, he was chosen by the council. Since that time, the former official has been called the Stadtpräsident ("Town President"), and is likewise chosen by the council after each municipal election. However, since 1999, the Oberbürgermeister has been chosen directly by the voters as once before.
The first directly elected Oberbürgermeister Hermann Stell died on 4 May 2004 of a stroke. On 14 November of the same year, the independent candidate suggested by the CDU Klaus Tscheuschner was elected to replace Stell with 59% of the vote. In the municipal election in 2003, Hans Hermann Laturnus was elected Stadtpräsident.
In the municipal election of 2008, the local list WiF (Wir in Flensburg) was elected largest group in the Council Assembly of Flensburg, with its 10 city councillors out of 43, closely followed by the South Schleswig Voter Federation (Südschleswigscher Wählerverband) (9 councillors) and the CDU (9 councillors). Also elected was the SPD (seven councillors), the Greens (3 councillors), the Left (3 councillors) and the FDP (2 councillors). Nevertheless, since the WiF-group was divided into two different caucuses, the SSW-group has been the largest group in the Council Assembly. The current City President is Dr. Christian Dewanger (WiF).
In the mayoral election of 2010, Simon Faber (SSW) was elected Lord Mayor of the town in a run-off election with 54.8% of the vote. He was the first person from the Danish Minority to occupy this office since the end of World War II.
The current Mayor of Flensburg is Simone Lange of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), who was elected in 2016. She took office on 15 January 2017.
The most recent mayoral election was held on 5 June 2016, and the results were as follows:
|Simone Lange||Social Democratic Party||12,103||51.4|
|Simon Faber||South Schleswig Voters' Association||5,363||22.8|
|Kay Richert||Free Democratic Party||4,156||17.6|
|Source: City of Flensburg|
The Flensburg city council governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 6 May 2018, and the results were as follows:
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||5,233||19.4||2.7||8||2|
|Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)||5,088||18.8||6.3||8||3|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||4,930||18.2||2.5||8||1|
|South Schleswig Voters' Association (SSW)||4,756||17.6||1.4||8||±0|
|We in Flensburg (WiF)||2,320||8.6||6.4||4||2|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||2,087||7.7||3.6||3||1|
|The Left (Die Linke)||2,021||7.5||3.8||3||1|
|Flensburg Votes! (FLW)||599||2.2||0.7||1||±0|
|Source: City of Flensburg|
Coat of arms
Flensburg's coat of arms shows in gold above blue and silver waves rising to the left a six-sided red tower with a blue pointed roof breaking out of which, one above the other are the two lions of Schleswig and Denmark; above is a red shield with the silver Holsatian nettle leaf on it. The town's flag is blue, overlaid with the coat of arms in colour.
The lions symbolize Schleswig, and the nettle leaf Holstein, thus expressing the town's unity with these two historic lands. The tower recalls Flensburg's old town rights and the old castle that was the town's namesake (Burg means "castle" in German). The waves refer to the town's position on the Flensburg Fjord.
The coat of arms was granted the town by King Wilhelm II of Prussia in 1901, and once again in modified, newly approved form on 19 January 1937 by Schleswig-Holstein's High President (Oberpräsident)
Twin towns – sister cities
- Carlisle, England, United Kingdom
- Neubrandenburg, Germany
- Słupsk, Poland
Economy and infrastructure
The town has a well established Combined Heat and Power and District Heating scheme which was installed between 1970 and 1980. It is owned by the town.
West of Flensburg runs the A 7 Autobahn, leading north to the Danish border, whence it continues as European route E45. Furthermore, Federal Highways (Bundesstraßen) B 200 and B 199 pass through the municipal area.
Also west of the town lies the Flensburg-Schäferhaus airport.
Local transport is provided by several buslines such as "Aktiv Bus GmbH" and "Allgemeinen Flensburger Autobus Gesellschaft" (AFAG) along with others. They all operate within an integrated fare system within the Flensburg transport community (Verkehrsgemeinschaft Flensburg). They also all subscribe to the Schleswig-Holstein tariff system whereby anyone travelling from anywhere in Schleswig-Holstein or Hamburg may use Flensburg buses free to connect with their final destinations. It works both ways, of course, and a rider boarding any bus in Flensburg need only name his destination anywhere in Schleswig-Holstein or Hamburg, pay his fare, and travel all the way to that destination on the one ticket.
The current Flensburg station was opened in 1927 south of the Old Town. From there, trains run on the main line to Neumünster and on to Hamburg and to Fredericia, among them some InterCity connections as well as trains serving the line running to Eckernförde and Kiel. Another stop for regional trains to Neumünster is to be found in Flensburg-Weiche. The stretch of line to Niebüll has been out of service since 1981, efforts to open it again notwithstanding. The secondary line to Husum and the lesser lines to Kappeln and Satrup no longer exist. Even the tramway, which opened in 1881 to horse-drawn trams, was electrified in 1906 and at one point ran four lines was replaced with buses in 1973.
In Flensburg, the Flensburger Tageblatt, from the Schleswig-Holsteinischer Zeitungsverlag (newspaper publisher) is published daily, as is the bilingual (German and Danish) Flensborg Avis. There are also two weekly advertising flyers, "MoinMoin" (named for a common regional greeting) and "Wochenschau" ("Newsreel") as well as an illustrated town paper ("Flensburg Journal"), the Flensburg "campus newspaper" and a town magazine ("Partout"). Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) runs one of its oldest studios right near the Deutsches Haus. Flensburg is the site of a number of radio transmission facilities: on the Fuchsberg in the community of Engelsby, Norddeutscher Rundfunk runs a transmission facility for VHF, television and medium wave. A cage aerial is mounted on a 215-metre-high (705 ft) guyed, earthed steel-lattice mast. This transmitter is successor to the Flensburg transmitter through which the announcement of Germany's surrender was broadcast on 8 May 1945.
The broadcasting tower on the Fuchsberg is used for the programmes of Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Danmarks Radio while the countrywide VHF radio programmes of R.SH, delta radio, Deutschlandfunk and Deutschlandradio are aired from the Flensburg-Freienwill tower.
Flensburg has no local transmitter of its own because Schleswig-Holstein's state broadcasting laws only allow transmitters that broadcast statewide. From 1993 to 1996, "Radio Flensburg" tried to establish a local Flensburg radio station by using a local transmitter just across the border in Denmark. It had to be shut down, however, owing to the Danish transmitter's own financial problems. From October 2006 Radio Flensburg broadcast as an internet radio.
The "Offener Kanal" ("Open Channel") shows programmes made by local citizens seven days a week, mostly in the evenings, and can also be seen on cable television.
Flensburg is home to the following institutions:
- Handwerkskammer Flensburg (Chamber of Skilled Crafts)
- IHK Flensburg (Chamber of Trade and Industry)
- Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (federal government office for road traffic)
- University of Flensburg with about 6,000 students (2019/20); founded in 1946 as a Pedagogical College, raised to university in 1994. Unlike the much larger University of Kiel it is not a full university – theology, medicine, law and some other programs are not offered here. The college does, however, have the right to confer doctorates.
- Fachhochschule Flensburg, a Fachhochschule with more than 3,000 students; in 1886 a royal steamship machinist school was established, out of which developed a ship's engineers' school. From this grew the Fachhochschule for Technology, which was converted into the current Fachhochschule Flensburg in 1973, at which time the economics programme was also introduced.
- Marineschule Mürwik (Naval Academy at Mürwik), main educational establishment for all German Navy officers.
- Flensburger Volkshochschule (German Folk high school)
- Voksenundervisningen (Danish)
Also on hand in Flensburg is a complete range of training and professional schools, including a number of Danish ones. Flensburg is home to Schleswig-Holstein's Central State Library, a university library, a town bookshop and the Danish Central Library for South Schleswig. The last named offers not only intensive courses in Danish, but also, with its "Slesvigsk samling" collection, a vast repository of unique material about the border area's history and culture. Flensburg has an extensive town archive. The Danish minority's archive is housed at the Danish Central Library.
Culture and sightseeing
- Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landestheater (at the Stadttheater) and Symphony Orchestra
- Niederdeutsche Bühne der Stadt Flensburg ("Low German Stage of the city of Flensburg")
- Det Lille Teater (Danish theatre)
- Theaterwerkstatt Pilkentafel (Theatre Workshop)
Archives and libraries
- Town Archive, a very comprehensive collection, at the town hall
- Dansk Centralbibliotek for Sydslesvig, with archive of the Danish minority and Schleswig book collection
- Town Library
- State Central Library and Zentrale Hochschulbibliothek (Central College Library)
- Museumsberg – Museum for artistic and cultural history.
- Schifffahrtsmuseum – Museum for shipping and shipbuilding.
- Rummuseum – History of the "Rum Town" of Flensburg.
- Naturwissenschaftliches Museum – Animal and plant worlds of northern Schleswig-Holstein.
- Museumshafen – Private initiative for maintaining old traditional working boats mainly from the Baltics (Segelschiffe).
- Museumswerft – Shipbuilding (sail) of bygone centuries. The place also has a children's boatyard.
- Fischereimuseum – Initiative of the fishery association, lies on the old fishery harbour.
- Phänomenta – For experiencing and understanding nature and technology.
- Salondampfer "Alexandra" – Passenger Steamer built 1908. The "Alexandra" regularly makes small trips in the Flensburg Förde (Bay)
- Klassische Yachten Flensburg – Classic Yacht Harbour. Private Initiative to present classic yachts typical for the Baltics.
- Gerichtshistorische Sammlung – a collection of legal history at the Flensburg State Court.
- Bergmühle – Association for maintaining the historic windmill from 1792.
- Johannesburger Heimatstube – Documents, pictures and writings from East Prussia.
Flensburg has a well preserved Old Town with many things to see from centuries gone by. Characteristic is the row along the waterfront. Three of the four old town cores are found along this north–south axis. The building boom in Imperial times led to a partial rebuilding of the Old Town, but without destroying its structure, and rather leading to notable expansion of the town. Virtually unscathed in the Second World War, Flensburg, like other places in Germany, adopted a policy of getting rid of old buildings and building anew in the style of the times. This trend was limited in Flensburg by a lack of money, but before the policy was finally stopped in the late 1970s, countless old buildings had been demolished in the north and east Old Town to be replaced by newer structures. Despite great losses, Flensburg still comes across as having a compact, well preserved Old Town in the valley with good additions to what was built in the founders' time on the surrounding heights.
- Johanniskirche (Flensburg) Johanniskirche (Johannischurch), town's oldest church in the innertown, 12th century
- Marienkirche (Flensburg) Marienkirche, High Gothic, Baroque additions, tower from 1885, well decorated
- Nikolaikirche (Flensburg) Nikolaikirche, Gothic main church, famous organ design by Hinrich Ringeringk
- Heiliggeistkirche (Flensburg) Heiliggeistkirche (Danish: Helligåndskirken), former chapel of the Hospital zum Heiligen Geist
- Franziskanerkloster Flensburg Franziskanerkloster, ruins from 1263
- Nordertor, a gate, and the town's landmark
- Kompagnietor another gate, built in 1602, shipping company and harbour gate
- Alt-Flensburger Haus, where the Eckener brothers' parents lived, Norderstraße 8
- Flensborghus, a former orphanage, today seat of the Danish minority, Norderstraße 76
- Many merchants' houses running from the main streets Holm-Große Straße-Norderstraße, the town's greatest architectural attraction
- Südermarkt 9 (market) with the town's oldest house
- Nordermarkt (market) with the Schrangen (market hall) and Neptunbrunnen (fountain)
- Rote Straße with nice craftsmen's houses
- Jürgenstraße with the Gängeviertel ("Warren Neighbourhood", i.e. with very dense building and narrow streets), former suburb.
- Oluf-Samson-Gang, picturesque lane with little half-timbered houses, Flensburg's historic red light district.
- Row of warehouses
- Ship bridge (Schiffbrücke), a long quay on the harbour
- Scanty ruins of the town wall, at the Nikolaikirche and at the Franciscan friary
- Bergmühle and Johannismühle (mills)
- Deutsches Haus, gathering and event hall in the town core
- Flensburg station (Main Railway Station), completed in 1929
- Town Hall, seventeen-floor cube from 1964, in 1997 totally renovated
- Altes Gymnasium, built in 1914, Flensburg's oldest Gymnasium, founded in 1566 as "Gymnasium trilingue" (Latin, Greek, Hebrew)
- Duborg Skolen, Flensburg's Danish Gymnasium, as well as other school buildings
- Gertrudenkirche, church in the Ramsharde (former neighbourhood where Neustadt now stands), folded after the Reformation, graveyard maintained until 1822
- Jürgen-Hospital, abandoned after the Reformation, the new St. Jürgen-Kirche stands there today
- Old Town Hall, 15th century, demolished in 1883
- Government building, appellate court and house of the estates, from 1850 to 1864 political centre of the Duchy of Schleswig, gave way to a department store in 1964
- Speicher Johannisstraße 78 (warehouse), bombed in 1945
- Town fortifications
- Flensburg Fjord
- Old Cemetery, parkland with noteworthy grave markers from the 19th century
- Christiansenspark, remnant of a very big landscape park
- Volkspark in the town's east end
- Marienhölzung (Danish Frueskov), woods in the town's west end
- May/June: Rumregatta (yearly)
- May/June: Danske Årsmøder (yearly)
- June/December: Campusfete (twice yearly)
- June: Rote-Straße-Fest (yearly)
- July: Dampf-Rundum (every two years)
- July/August: Flensburger Hofkultur (yearly summer cultural programme)
- August: Flensburger Tummelum (Old Town Festival) (every two years)
- October: Apfelfahrt des Museumshafen (yearly)
- October: "Flensburg Shortfilmfestival" (yearly)
- December: Christmas market (yearly)
The town of Flensburg has bestowed honorary citizenship upon the following persons, listed chronologically:
- 1851: Friedrich Ferdinand Tillisch, Minister for the Duchy of Schleswig
- 1857: Christian Rønnenkamp, salesman and shipowner
- 1867: Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel, Prussian King's Governor
- 1872: Karl von Wrangel, General
- 1895: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Reich Chancellor
- 1911: Friedrich Wilhelm Selck, Commercial Councillor
- 1917: Heinrich Schuldt, Town Councillor
- 1924: Dr. Hugo Eckener, Aviation pioneer
- 1930: Dr. Hermann Bendix Todsen, Oberbürgermeister
- 1999: Beate Uhse-Rotermund, aviator and businesswoman
- Isted Lion (unveiled 1862) a war monument, originally in Flensburg, then Berlin, then Copenhagen, now resident again in Flensburg
Sons and daughters of the town
- Melchior Lorck (1526/27 – after 1583), a renaissance painter, draughtsman and printmaker
- Heinrich Jansen (1625–1667), Danish Baroque painter, court painter to Frederick III of Denmark
- Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630–1700), Danish sculptor, appointed carver to the king's closet by William III of England
- Hermann Vogel (1856–1918), French painter and illustrator, from the Duchy of Schleswig
- Ludwig Dettmann (1865–1944), a German impressionist painter
- Hans Christiansen (1866–1945), artistic craftsman and Art Nouveau founder
- Elvira Madigan (1867–1889), stage name of a Danish tightrope walker and trick rider, whose illicit affair and dramatic death were the subject of the 1967 Swedish film
- Ella Heide (1871–1956), Danish painter, painted in Skagen from 1908
- Wilhelm von Brincken (1881–1946), American character actor and German spy during WW I
- Emmy Hennings (1885–1948), writer, performer, poet and dadaist
- Dieter Thomas Heck (born 1937), German television presenter, singer and actor
- Pippa Steel (1948–1992), British actress 
- Peter Lund (born 1965), a theatre director and author
- Carla Spletter (1911–1953), German operatic soprano
- Frank Dostal (born 1945), German songwriter and music producer and was a singer with the rock bands The Rattles
- Christian Broecking (born 1957), musicologist, music critic, columnist, producer and author
- Andreas Delfs (born 1959), conductor laureate of the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra
- Dorothea Röschmann (born 1967), opera soprano
- DJ Koze (born 1972), German DJ and music producer
- Kim Frank (born 1982), singer and actor
- Ingrid Verena Timm (born 1985), taus player, singer, musicologist and teacher
Science and religion
- Lütke Namens (1497–1574), the last Franciscan friar in Flensburg and critic of the Reformation
- Thomas Fincke (1561–1656), Danish mathematician and physicist, and a professor at the University of Copenhagen
- Heinrich Harries (1762–1802), German Protestant pastor from the Duchy of Schleswig
- Hans Lassen Martensen (1808–1884) a Danish bishop and academic
- Theodor von Jürgensen (1840–1907), an internist, regards pneumonia and measles.
- Dr Hugo Eckener (1868–1954), pioneer of German Zeppelin aviation.
- Carl Wilhelm Otto Werner (1879–1936), German physician, after whom Werner syndrome, a form of progeria, was named
- Hans Asmussen (1898—1968), was a German Evangelical and Lutheran theologian
- Lorenz Magaard (born 1934), German-American mathematician and oceanographer
- Tim Clausen (born 1969), structural biologist in Vienna, studies pyridoxal phosphate enzymes.
Political and public service
- Hans Nansen (1598–1667), Danish statesman  and tradesman, travelled to the White Sea, northern Russia and Iceland
- Johan Lorensen (ca.1640–1702), Governor-General of The Danish West Indies 1689-1702
- Christian V (1646–1699) king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until 1699.
- Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark (1647–1717), daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark
- Frederik Krag (1655–1728), a Danish nobleman, senior civil servant and Governor-General of Norway 1713–1722
- Johannes Moller (1661–1725), a Danish pietist and headmaster
- Georg Waitz (1813–1886), German historian  politician and disciple of Leopold von Ranke.
- Marie Kruse (1842–1923), a Danish schoolteacher, specialized in educating of girls
- Friedrich von Scholtz (1851–1927), general, served in the East and in the Balkans during WWI
- Nicholas Asmussen (1871–1941), Flensburg-born Ontario building contractor and political figure
- Peter Voss (1897–1976), was an SS-Oberscharführer, commander of the crematoria and gas chambers at Auschwitz
- Hans von Luck (1911–1997), army colonel and author the book Panzer Commander.
- Kay Nehm (born 1941), German lawyer, served as Attorney General of Germany 1994 / 2006
- Wolfgang Börnsen (born 1942), CDU politician, member of the Bundestag from 1987 to 2013
- Jürgen Storbeck (born 1946), director of Europol 1999 to 2005
- Bärbel Höhn (born 1952), German politician, member of the Bundestag since 2005
- Klaus Tscheuschner (born 1956), Lord Mayor of Flensburg 2005 to 2011
- Simon Faber (born 1968), German politician and Lord Mayor of Flensburg since 2011
- Charles Meyer (1868–1931), Danish racing cyclist
- Haide Klüglein (born 1939), swimmer
- Kristian Poulsen (born 1975), Danish racing driver
- Sascha Görres (born 1980), footballer in USA, 230 appearances for the Richmond Kickers
- Kolja Afriyie (born 1982), former professional football defender, over 240 pro appearances
- Niels Hansen (born 1983), retired football midfielder, over 200 pro appearances
- Pierre Becken (born 1987), footballer, over 230 pro appearances
- Flensburg, Minnesota
- Isted Lion, in German known as the Flensburger Löwe
- Chronicle of the Expulsion of the Grayfriars#Chapter 1 Concerning the Friary in Flensborg
- SG Flensburg-Handewitt
- ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein 4. Quartal 2021" (XLS) (in German). Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein.
- ^ Verkehrssünderkartei in Flensburg: Bundeskabinett beschließt Punktereform, Der Spiegel, 12 December 2012
- ^ Generalkonsulatet i Flensburg Archived 2016-11-21 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark)
- ^ "Stadt Flensburg – Kommunalwahl 2008". Flensburg.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- ^ "SSW und CDU wollen den Stadtpräsidenten stürzen". shz.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- ^ "Stadt Flensburg – Stadtpräsident". Flensburg.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- ^ "Dänische Minderheit: Der Verbindungsmann – Inland". FAZ. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- ^ "Stadtportrait". flensburg.de (in German). Flensburg. Retrieved 2019-11-30.
- ^ p167. http://setis.ec.europa.eu/publications/jrc-setis-reports/background-report-eu-27-district-heating-and-cooling-potentials
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 06 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 350–351. .
- ^ IMDb Database retrieved 23 March 2018
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 787. .
- ^ Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 19 (11th ed.). pp. 163–164.
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 277–278. .
- ^ The American Cyclopædia. 1879. .
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 28 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 247. .
- Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 10 (11th ed.). 1911. .
- Flensburg's official website
- Flensburg tourism information Archived 2006-05-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Flensburg online
- Danish newspaper in Flensburg
- German newspaper in Flensburg
- Museumsberg Flensburg