Ottoman–Persian wars

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The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iraq.

Name of the war Ottoman sultan Persian shah Treaty at the end of the war Victor
Battle of Chaldiran (1514)[1] Selim I Ismail I None The Ottoman Empire
War of 1532–1555[2] Suleiman I Tahmasp I Treaty of Amasya (1555) The Ottoman Empire[3]
War of 1578–1590[4] Murad III Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I Treaty of Constantinople (1590) The Ottoman Empire
War of 1603–1618, first stage

Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns

Ahmed I Abbas I Treaty of Nasuh Pasha (1612) The Persian Empire
War of 1603–1618, second stage[5] Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II Abbas I Treaty of Serav (1618) The Persian Empire
War of 1623–1639[6] Murad IV Abbas I, Safi Treaty of Zuhab (1639) The Ottoman Empire
War of 1730–1735[7] Mahmud I Abbas III, Nader Shah Treaty of Constantinople (1736) The Persian Empire
War of 1743–1746[8] Mahmud I Nader Shah Treaty of Kerden (1746) Indecisive[9]
War of 1775–1776[10] Abdulhamid I Karim Khan Zand None Basra captured by Persia,[11] retaken by Ottomans three years later.[11]
War of 1821–1823[12] Mahmud II Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Treaty of Erzurum (1823) Stalemate

Among the numerous treaties, the Treaty of Zuhab of 1639 is usually considered as the most important one,[by whom?] as it fixed present TurkeyIran and IraqIran borders. In later treaties, there were frequent references to the Treaty of Zuhab.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 339-340
  2. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 277-281
  3. ^ Gábor Ágoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire , ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1, p.280
  4. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 21-25
  5. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 43-45
  6. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 78-82
  7. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 1-8
  8. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 22-25
  9. ^ Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010), The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, quote: "This indecisive military conflict resulted in the preservation of the existing borders.", The Scarecrow Press Inc., p. 170
  10. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karim-khan-zand
  11. ^ a b Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781438402376. 
  12. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 193-195

Sources[edit]

  • Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi.
  • Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 027596891X.