Peruvian Naval Infantry
|Peruvian Naval Infantry|
|Infantería de Marina del Perú|
|Active||6 November 1821 – present
195 years, 2 months
|Type||Marine combined arms|
and aerial warfare
|Part of||Peruvian Navy|
|Motto(s)||• Acción y valor (Action and valor)|
The 3,000 personnel Peruvian Naval Infantry (Spanish: Infantería de Marina del Perú - IMAP) includes an amphibious brigade of three battalions and local security units with two transport ships (one used as a training ship), four tank landing ships, and about forty Portuguese Chaimite armored personnel carriers.
Since 1982 IMAP detachments have been deployed, under Peruvian Army command, in counter-insurgency capacities in Ayacucho and Huancavelica departments. The Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force) falls under the Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico (Pacific Operations General Command).
Following the creation of the Peruvian Navy on 23 October 1821, the Commander General of the Navy, Jorge Martín Guise, requested a garrison of 38 troops to be stationed at Balcarce and Belgrano. The formal request was made on 6 November 1821 to the Minister of War and Navy, creating the Navy Battalion. The Navy Brigade was later formed after another battalion was formed and on 2 June 1823, the brigade attacked the Spanish in Arica, successfully taking the city. During the War of the Confederation, the Navy Brigade fought in the Siege of Talcahuano on 23 November 1837. In 1847, President Ramón Castilla reorganized the Peruvian Navy, creating six companies of the naval infantry.
War of the Pacific
During the War of the Pacific, the Marine Garrison Battalion under the direction of the Commander General of the Navy was created on 10 January 1880 with a force of 600 men. The Marines participated in the Battle of Miraflores on 15 January 1881 with 524 Marines led by Juan Fanning and Guardia Chalaca. Both of the commanders were killed along with nearly all Marines, with the infamous shout of Fanning becoming a motto of the Peruvian Marines, "¡Adelante marina, marina adelante!" or "Forward Marine, Marine forward!".
The Marines were received an update on 2 February 1919 when the Battalion of the Navy was organized into two companies of riflemen, one section of machine gunners and another section of servicemen, commanded by corvette captain Héctor Mercado. The Peruvian Navy in charge of defending the oil port of Talara then allied itself with the United States, patrolling the continent and the Panama Canal. On 9 June 1943, President Manuel Prado decreed the creation of the nfantería de Marina as part of the Naval Coast Defense Force. Through the 1950s and into the 1960s, multiple amphibious warfare ships and weapons were purchased. The Naval Station of Ancon was created on October 8, 1971 with the Amphibious Command Company headquartered there a year later providing logistical information to better organize amphibious operations.
Following over a decade of an authoritarian government in Peru, elections were held in 1980. Leftist armed groups arose, such as the Shining Path and later the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). The Marines began counterterrorist operations against such groups stationed in the Ayacucho Region from 1985 to 1991, creating Task Force 90, later expanding to Ucayali, Huánuco and Loreto. In 1995, Marines also participated in the brief the Cenepa War, a brief territorial conflict with Ecuador.
On 17 December 1996, hundreds of diplomats, businessmen, as well as government and military officers were taken hostage by the MRTA at the Japanese ambassadors residence, initiating the Japanese embassy hostage crisis. Over the year, some hostages were released, though 72 hostages remained. Peruvian Marines were then involved in a hostage rescue operation, Operation Chavín de Huántar, named after the Chavín de Huantar archaeological site due to the tunnels dug by troops to access the ambassadors compound. The operation resulted in two commandos and one hostage dead while all fourteen militants were killed. Operation Chavín de Huánta is regarded as one of the most successful hostage rescue operations in history.
- Brigada de Infanteria de Marina
- 1st Naval Infantry Battalion - Ancón
- 2nd Naval Infantry Battalion - Ancón
- Amphibious Support Group
- Fire support Group
- Commando Grouping
- Engineers Unit
- Other units
- 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion - Tumbes
- 4th Naval Infantry Battalion - Puno
- 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Iquitos
- 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Pucallpa
- Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur - Mollendo
- Special Forces Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers.
- "Comandancia de Fuerzas de Infanteria - Marina de Guerra del Perú". www.marina.mil.pe. Marina de Guerra del Perú. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- "Top 10 most daring rescue missions in history". The Richest. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- "Top 10 greatest hostage rescue operations of all time". Exploredia. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- "The World's Most Successful Hostage Rescue". youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- Official Peruvian Navy Website
- The Peruvian Navy: the XIX Century Maritime Campaigns — a series of articles covering the history of the 19th century Peruvian Navy by Juan del Campo.
- Marine Link article with pics