Peter II of Portugal
Engraving of King Peter II;
Christopher Elias Heiss, c. 1683-1703.
|King of Portugal and the Algarves|
|Reign||12 September 1683 –
9 December 1706
|Inauguration||27 January 1668|
|Spouse||Maria Francisca of Nemours
Maria Sofia of Neuburg
|House||House of Braganza|
|Father||John IV of Portugal|
|Mother||Luisa de Guzmán|
|Born||26 April 1648
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon
|Died||9 December 1706 (aged 58)
|Burial||Pantheon of the Braganzas, Lisbon|
Dom Peter II (Portuguese: Pedro II Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpedɾu] (26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706) was Regent (1668–83) and King of Portugal and the Algarves (1683–1706). He was sometimes known as o Pacífico, "the Peaceful".
He was the youngest son of John IV and was created Duke of Beja. Following his father's death his mother became regent for the new king Afonso VI, Peter's elder, partially paralysed and mentally unstable brother. In 1662 Afonso put away his mother and assumed control of the state. In January 1668, shortly before Spanish recognition of Portugal's restoration of independence, Peter acquired political ascendancy over his brother and was appointed regent, banishing Afonso to the Azores and, later, Sintra where he died in 1683. Peter thereupon inherited the throne. Around this time, the discovery of gold mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil enlarged Peter's treasury to the extent that he was able to dismiss the Cortes in 1697 and rule without its revenue grants for the rest of his reign.
He was tall, well proportioned, with dark eyes and dark hair.
Peter initially supported France and Spain in the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), but on 16 May 1703, Portugal and Great Britain signed the Methuen Treaty. This trade accord granted mutual commercial privileges for Portuguese wine and English textile traders and would later give Britain significant influence in the Portuguese economy. This was followed in December 1703 by a military alliance between Portugal, Austria and Great Britain for an invasion of Spain. Portuguese and Allied forces, under the command of the Marquês das Minas, captured Madrid in 1706, during the campaign which ended in the Allied defeat at Almansa.
Peter not only inherited his brother's throne but also wed his widow, Queen Marie-Françoise of Savoy (1646–1683). They had one daughter, Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira (1669–90), heiress-presumptive a.k.a. a Sempre-Noiva ("the ever-engaged"), because of the many marriage projects intended for her that never came to fruition. The Queen died at the end of 1683, 14 years after Isabel's birth.
Peter's second wife was Maria Sophia (1666–1699), daughter of Phillip Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg. Among Sophia's sisters were Eleonor Madeleine, third wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria Anna, second wife of Charles II of Spain.
The couple had eight children, including the younger John, who succeeded his father in 1706 as King John V of Portugal.
Marriages and descendants
|By Marie-Françoise of Savoy-Nemours (1646–1683; married 2 April 1668)|
|Infanta Isabel Luísa of Portugal||6 January 1669||21 October 1690||2nd Princess of Beira|
|By Maria Sophia of Neuburg (6 August 1666 – 4 August 1699; married in 1687)|
|João, Prince of Brazil||30 August 1688||17 September 1688||Prince of Brazil and 12th Duke of Braganza|
|John V of Portugal||22 October 1689||31 July 1750||Prince of Brazil from 1697; succeeded Peter as King of Portugal|
|Infante Francisco of Portugal||25 May 1691||21 July 1742||Duke of Beja|
|Infante António of Portugal||15 March 1695||20 October 1757|
|Infanta Teresa Maria of Portugal||24 February 1696||16 February 1704|
|Infante Manuel of Portugal||3 August 1697||3 August 1766||Count of Ourém.|
|Infanta Francisca Josefa of Portugal||30 January 1699||15 July 1736|
|By Maria da Cruz Mascarenhas (c. 1655-?)|
|Luísa de Braganza||9 January 1679||23 December 1732||Natural daughter; Duchess of Cadaval through marriage first to Luís Ambrósio de Melo, 2nd Duke of Cadaval, and then to Jaime Álvares Pereira de Melo, 3rd Duke of Cadaval|
|By Anne Armande du Verger (c. 1660-?)|
|Miguel de Braganza||15 October 1699||13 January 1724||Natural son|
|By Francisca Clara da Silva (c. 1650-?)|
|José de Braganza||6 May 1703||3 June 1756||Natural son; Archbishop of Braga|
- Marsha, Linda Frey (1995), The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession, p. 335,
[Peter] III of Portugal (1648 1706 r. 1683–1706), the third son of [John] IV, who founded the Braganza ruling dynasty and secured the independence of Portugal from Spain. [Peter] […] loved hunting both women and animals, and excelled as a horseback rider.
- Sousa 1741, Vol VII, p. 664.
- Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VII. Lisbon: Silviana.
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Peter II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of AvizBorn: 26 April 1648 Died: 9 December 1706
Luisa de Guzmán
|Prince Regent of Portugal and the Algarves
27 January 1668 – 12 September 1683
Catherine of Braganza
|King of Portugal and the Alagraves
12 September 1683 – 9 December 1706