Phoenix (son of Agenor)
Eponym of Phoenicia
|Member of the Phoenician Royal Family|
|Parents||(a) Agenor and Telephassa|
(b) Agenor and Damno
(c) Agenor and Argiope
(d) Agenor and Tyro
(e) Agenor and Antiope
(g) Belus and Achiroe (probably)
|Siblings||(a, c) Europa, Cadmus and Cilix|
(b) Isaea and Melia
(d) Europa, Cadmus, Cilix and Syrus
(e) Cadmus and Cilix
(f) Phineus and Taygete
(g) Agenor, Phineus, Aegyptus, Danaus and sometimes Ninus
|Children||(1) Europa and Phineus or|
(1) Carme, Cilix, Phineus and Doryclus
(2) Europa, Astypale, Phoenice and Peirus
(3) Europa and Astypalaea
(5) Cadmus, Europa and Thasus
In Greek mythology, Phoenix or Phoinix (Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ Phoinix, gen.: Φοίνικος means "sun-red") was the eponym of Phoenicia who together with his brothers were tasked to find their abducted sister Europa.
Phoenix was a son of King Agenor of Tyre by either Telephassa, Argiope, Antiope, Damno or Tyro. He was the brother of Europa, Cadmus, Cilix, Syros, Isaia and Melia.
In some accounts, Phoenix's father was called King Belus of Eypt and sibling to Agenor, Phineus, Aegyptus, Danaus and Ninus. In the latter's version of the myth, Phoenix' mother could be identified as Achiroe, naiad daughter of the river-god Nilus.
Phoenix was believed to have fathered a number of children with different women. By Cassiopeia, Phoenix had a daughter, Carme, and three sons: Cilix, Phineus, and Doryclus, as well as a stepson Atymnius, whose natural father was Zeus; by Alphesiboea, he had Adonis. Phoenix was also credited as the father of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia, whose wife was another Cassiopeia.
According to early accounts, Europa was not Phoenix's sister, but his daughter, while Cadmus was identified as his son. Otherwise, Europa was called one of his two daughters by Perimede, daughter of Oeneus, the other one being Astypalaea; she was also included on the list of Phoenix's children by Telephe, her siblings in this case being Peirus, Phoenice, and Astypale (apparently identical to the aforementioned Astypalaea).
When Europa was carried off by Zeus, her three brothers were sent out by Agenor to find her, but the search was unsuccessful. Phoenix eventually settled in a country in Asia or ?Africa, which he named Phoenicia after himself. He was said to have founded Bithynia which was previously named Mariandyna.
Malalas recounted following account about Phoenix and Heracles the Tyrian:
"Herakles the philosopher, called the Tyrian, lived in the reign of King Phoenix. It was he who discovered the purple-shell. He was wandering on the coastal part of Tyre city when he saw a shepherd dog eating the so-called purple-shell, which is a small maritime species like a sea snail. The shepherd thought the dog was bleeding, and took a clump of sheep’s wool and wiped off what was coming out of the dog’s mouth, and it dyed the wool. Herakles noticed that it wasn’t blood but the virtue of a strange dye, and wondered at it. Recognizing that the dye deposited on the wool came from the purple-shell, and having taken the wool from the shepherd as a great gift, he brought it to Phoenix, the King of Tyre. He too was surprised by the sight of the strange color of the dye. Admiring his discovery, he ordered that wool be dyed from this purple-shell dye and become a royal mantle for him. He was the first to wear this purple mantle, and everyone marveled at his royal raiment, as a foreign spectacle. From then, King Phoenix commanded that no one under his rule dare to wear such virtuous clothing on land or sea, except himself and those who ruled Phoenicia after him, so that they would recognize the King in the army and the crowd from his marvelous and strange clothing."
|Hes.||Hom.||Pher.||Hel.||Bac.||Sch. on||Pala.||Sch. on||Mos.||Ps. Scy.||Con.||Apd.||Dic.||Hyg.||Pau.||Ant.||Sol.||Non.||Mal.||Sud.||Tzet.||St. Jer.|
|Agenor and Damno||✓|
|Agenor and Telephassa||✓|
|Agenor and Argiope||✓|
|Agenor and Tyro||✓|
|Agenor and Antiope||✓|
|Belus and Achiroe||✓|
Argive family tree
- Antoninus Liberalis, 40; Dictys Cretensis, 1.9; Malalas, Chronographia 2.31 & 5.96; Suda, s.v. Phoenician letters
- Hesiod, Ehoiai 106 (139 MW) = Probus in Vergil, Bucolics 10.18 (III.2 p. 348.11 Thilo-Hagen)
- Hesiod (2007). Most, Glenn W. (ed.). The Shield, Catalogue of Women, Other Fragments. Cambridge, Massachuesetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 978-0-674-99623-6.
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Moschus, Europa 37 ff.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 178
- Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenician Women 5; Tzetzes, Chiliades 7.165–166
- Gantz, p. 208; Pherecydes, fr. 21 Fowler 2000, p. 289 = FGrHist 3 F 21 = Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1177-87 ff.
- Malalas, Chronographia 2.30
- Gomme, A. W. (1913). "The Legend of Cadmus and the Logographoi". JHS: 70.
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 178; St. Jerome, Chronicon B1444; Malalas, Chronographia 2.30
- Hesiod, Ehoiai 89 (140 MW) = Scholium D on Homer, Iliad 12.397 (p. 392 van Thiel); cf. Scholia T Homer, Iliad 12.292 (III p. 359.49 Erbse cum apparatu)
- Hesiod (2007). Most, Glenn W. (ed.). The Shield, Catalogue of Women, Other Fragments. Cambridge, Massachuesetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-0-674-99623-6.
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 178; Palaephatus, On Incredible Tales 3; Malalas, Chronographia 2.30; Tzetzes, Chiliades 7.166
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 178; Malalas, Chronographia 2.30; Tzetzes, Chiliades 7.166
- Malalas, Chronographia 2.30
- Gantz, p. 208; Pherecydes fr. 21 Fowler 2000, p. 289 = FGrHist 3 F 21 = Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1177-87f
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3.287 ff.
- Tzetzes, Chiliades 7.159–160
- Tzetzes, Chiliades 7.353
- Antoninus Liberalis, 40
- Pherecydes, fr. 21 & 3F86
- Solinus, Polyhistor 38.3
- Pseudo-Scymnos, Circuit de la terre 953 ff.
- Hesiod, Ehoiai 96 (138 MW) = Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, 2.178 (p. 140.1–3 Wendel); FGrHist 4 F
- Hesiod (2007). Most, Glenn W. (ed.). The Shield, Catalogue of Women, Other Fragments. Cambridge, Massachuesetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-0-674-99623-6.
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2.178
- Hesiod, Ehoiai 106 (139 MW) = Probus in Vergil, Bucolics 10.18 (III.2 p. 348.11 Thilo-Hagen); 107 (139 MW) = Ps. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.14.4 (p. 159.4 Wagner)
- Apollodorus, 3.14.4
- Hyginus, De Astronomica 2.9.1
- Homer, Iliad 14. 321; compare to Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Bacchylides, Dithyrambs 17.31; Dictys Cretensis, 1.2 & 1.9; Palaephatus, On Incredible Tales 3; Moschus, Europa 37 ff.
- Hesiod, Ehoiai 90 (141 MW; 56 H) = P. Oxyrhynchus papyrus 1358 fr. 1 col. l; 6-13: P. Reinach 77
- Hesiod (2007). Most, Glenn W. (ed.). The Shield, Catalogue of Women, Other Fragments. Cambridge, Massachuesetts; London, England: Harvard University Press. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-0-674-99623-6.
- Scholia on Homer, Iliad B, 494, p. 80, 43 ed. Bekk. as cited in Hellanicus' Boeotica
- Pausanias, 7.4.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 157
- Scholia on Euripides, Phoenician Women 5
- Moschus, Idylls 2.42
- Conon, Narrations 32 & 37
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1; Hyginus, Fabulae 178
- St. Jerome, Chronicon B1424
- Malalas, Chronographia 2.32
- Not named but implied in the context
- Though Europa was unnamed in this text, she was definitely the daughter of Phoenix who coupled with Zeus.
- Europa's mother was not named by Apollodorus, if her father was Phoenix.
- Antoninus Liberalis, The Metamorphoses of Antoninus Liberalis translated by Francis Celoria (Routledge 1992). Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website.
- Conon, Fifty Narrations, surviving as one-paragraph summaries in the Bibliotheca (Library) of Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople translated from the Greek by Brady Kiesling. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Fowler, Robert. L. (2000), Early Greek Mythography: Volume 1: Text and Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0198147404.
- Gaius Julius Hyginus, Astronomica from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. ISBN 978-0674995796. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer, Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920. ISBN 978-0198145318. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. ISBN 0-674-99328-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library.