Pilatus PC-7

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PC-7
Pilatus PC-7, Switzerland - Air Force JP7211053.jpg
Role Light trainer aircraft
Manufacturer Pilatus Aircraft
First flight 12 April 1966 (prototype)
18 August 1978 (production)
Introduction 1978
Status In service, in production
Primary users Indian Air Force
Mexican Air Force
South African Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Produced 1966–present
Number built >618
Developed from Pilatus P-3
Variants Pilatus PC-9

The Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer is a low-wing tandem-seat training aircraft designed and manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. The aircraft is capable of all basic training functions including aerobatics, instrument, tactical and night flying.

The PC-7 was developed from the preceding Pilatus P-3, largely differing by the adoption of a turboprop engine, a bubble canopy, and a new one-piece wing. Introduced during the 1970s, it has since developed a sizable presence of the global trainer market.[1] The type has been adopted by in excess of 20 air forces as their ab initio trainer, as well as multiple civilian operators. Over one million hours have reportedly been flown by PC-7s worldwide.[citation needed] In addition to training operations, some aircraft are armed and have been used for combat missions by several customers, including Chad, Iran, and Mexico, often in violation of the relevant export agreement between the customer and the Swiss government.

An improved model of the aircraft, the PC-7 Mk II, was developed during the 1990s by combining the newer PC-9's airframe and avionics with the PC-7's smaller turbine engine. Reportedly, in excess of 500[needs update] PC-7s have been sold to various operators, the majority of which still being in service. In Pilatus' line-up, the PC-7 has been succeeded by the newer PC-9 and PC-21 trainers.[2]

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

Work on what would become the PC-7 commenced during the 1960s. It was based on the earlier piston-powered Pilatus P-3, the initial prototype being produced from the existing prototype P-3, principally differing by the substitution of its Lycoming O-435 engine with a Pratt & Whitney PT6A-20 turboprop powerplant.[3] On 12 April 1966, the modified prototype performed its maiden flight. However, the PC-7 programme was abruptly shelved following an accident involving the aircraft.[4] The termination of work was reportedly driven by a lack of market interest.[3]

A PC-7

During 1973, it was decided to restart work on the programme; factors for its revival had included the 1973 oil crisis, the launch of the rival Beechcraft T-34C Turbo-Mentor, and the increasing age of existing trainer aircraft.[3] To support the relaunch, another P-3 was obtained from the Swiss Air Force. After modifications, this aircraft first flew on 12 May 1975. Further extensive modifications followed later in the programme, including the adoption of a new one-piece wing complete with integral fuel tanks, along with an altered tailfin and a bubble canopy.[citation needed] The flight test programme came to a close during Autumn 1977.[3]

On 12 August 1978, the first production aircraft made its first flight. On 5 December of that year, Switzerland's Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA) issued civil certification for the PC-7;[3] immediately thereafter, initial deliveries of production aircraft commenced to South American customers Burma and Bolivia.[5] Over time, sales of the PC-7 generated considerable profits, allowing the company to finance the development of further types of aircraft.[6]

Further development[edit]

The PC-7 Mk II is a development of the PC-9's airframe and avionics, which was powered by the PC-7's smaller turbine engine, which reportedly achieved lower operating and maintenance costs.[citation needed] This variant was developed at the behest of the South African Air Force (SAAF), who later adopted the type.[7] A batch of 60 PC-7 MK IIs were locally assembled in South Africa using kits supplied by Pilatus for the SAAAF; due to political considerations, these aircraft were not fitted with the armament hardpoints. Deliveries to the SAAF took place between late 1994 and 1996.[3]

In addition to Pilatus' own improvement programmes, several third party companies have independently developed their own upgrades for customer's PC-7. During the late 1990s, Israeli engineering firm Radom began offering a kit of new avionics for the type, which included a new mission computer, a wide-angle head-up display, along with various replacement communications and weapons-delivery systems.[8]

During July 1998, Pilatus announced that it has come to an agreement with American company Western Aircraft for the latter to act as a distributor for the PC-7 across the North American civil aviation market.[9] At this time, there were already five civil-registered PC-7s in operation in North America; Pilatus believed that the region could be a viable market for both remanufactured and newly-built examples of the type, which would be priced between $1 million and $2 million respectively. It was recognised that this market was limited, Western Aircraft expected to sell only a few aircraft per year.[9]

Operational history[edit]

General use[edit]

All export sales of the PC-7 are subject to approval by the Swiss Government, whose authorisation is required prior to any delivery taking place.[10] The sale of combat-capable aircraft has been a controversial matter at times, and political pressure has been applied for PC-7s to be shipped without the fittings for armaments being installed. The Swiss government has occasionally held up or outright refused to issue export licences for some nations, a move which has reportedly lead to the loss of several potential sales, such as to South Korea and Mexico.[10]

A PC-7 in-flight, 2012

In addition to its adoption by numerous military customers, the PC-7 has also been used by private customers. It has been certified for civil use by both the FOCA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as compliant with regulations pertaining to general aviation operations in both Europe and the United States.[3] Amongst its uses in the civilian sector has been aerobatic displays.[3]

During the 1990s, the PC-7 Mk II was adopted as the basic trainer of the Royal Brunei Air Force alongside the BAE Systems Hawk jet trainer; the acquisition was seen a key to its expanded operations with fixed-wing aircraft.[11][12]

During June 2011, the Indian Air Force (IAF) selected the PC-7 MkII as its new basic trainer, signing a contract for an initial batch of 75 aircraft with an option for buying an additional 38 PC-7 MkIIs; the service had a total requirement of 181 trainers.[13] The fast-tracked decision to procure a foreign aircraft over a domestically-developed alternative proposed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was a controversial one; retired Air Marshal Anil Chopra argued that HAL had no viable design for the role and that the IAF could not have reasonably afforded the delay involved in the development of such an aircraft.[14] The procurement of an additional 106 trainers under the ‘Make & Buy (Indian) category was repeatedly deferred. In 2017, the maintenance agreement with Pilatus lapsed, resulting in the IAF becoming solely responsible for performing these activities.[15] During 2018, India announced that it had chosen to exercise the option of buying a batch of 38 trainers.[16]

Combat use[edit]

A number of PC-7s were employed by the Guatemalan Air Force in air strikes and for close air support (CAS) during the Guatemalan civil war, starting in 1982 until the end of the conflict in 1996. The PC-7s were typically deployed from the airfield in La Aurora, being armed with a mixture of gun pods and rocket pods.[17]

During the lengthy Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s, amid tensions between Iran and the United States, it is alleged that Iranian officials threatened to arm its PC-7 fleet with explosives and use them to launch suicide attacks against United States Navy vessels present in the Persian Gulf.[18] Iran reportedly trained a number of suicide pilots and flew some operational missions, training was performed at Bushehr Air Base in Iran and overseas in North Korea.[19][20]

In 1994, the Mexican Air Force used several armed PC-7s to attack units of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation during the Chiapas conflict in Mexico. This action was considered illegal by the Swiss government because the airplanes were sold for training purposes only, and as result, Switzerland issued a ban on the sale of additional units to Mexico.[21] At the time, the Mexican Air Force was the largest single export operator of the type and had been seeking to acquire further PC-7s, thus the sales ban was viewed as an economic blow to Pilatus.[10]

During the mid to late 1990s, Executive Outcomes, a private military contractor (PMC) led by Eben Barlow, utilised three armed PC-7s (ex-Bophuthatswana Air Force aircraft) to provide close air support (CAS) during its operations in Sierra Leone.[22][23]

During the late 2000s, the Chadian Air Force reportedly used its small fleet of PC-7s to bomb rebel positions both in their own territory and in neighbouring Sudan.[24] The Swiss government summoned the Chad's ambassador to request an explanation for these reports, as these actions breached the export agreements previously struck for the sale of the type to Chad.[25]

Variants[edit]

  • PC-7 : two-seat basic trainer aircraft, powered by PT6A-25A engine rated at 410 kW (550 shp).[26]
  • PC-7 Mk II is a development of the PC-9's airframe and avionics, retaining the PC-7's wing to mount external stores. Powered by PT6A-25C of 522 kW (700 shp) rather than more powerful PT6A-62 of PC-9.[27] Developed for the SAAF, and known as the "Astra"; the aircraft is a hybrid PC-7 and PC-9, either a PC-7 "Heavy" or a PC-9 "Lite" depending on point of configuration.[28]
  • NCPC-7 : upgraded version of the standard PC-7 with fully IFR glass cockpit avionics, developed for the Swiss Air Force.

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

Pilatus PC-7 of the Royal Netherlands Air Force
Pilatus NCPC-7 of the Swiss Air Force PC-7 Team

An incomplete list of the users of the PC-7:[29]

 Angola
 Austria
 Bolivia
 Botswana
  • Botswana Defence Force Air Wing: seven (delivered from 1990) to be replaced by five PC-7 Mk 2s in 2013.[30] Five PC-7 Mk II aircraft formally accepted into service on February 8, 2013, removing six PC-7s from service.[31]
 Brunei
 Chad
 Chile
 France
Five (delivered 1991)
 Guatemala
 India
  • Indian Air Force: 75.[32] India has decided to exercise the option clause of ordering 38 additional Pilatus aircraft.
 Iran
 Malaysia
  • Royal Malaysian Air Force: 30 PC-7 Turbo Trainers out of a first order of 44 (delivered from 1983), 17 PC-7 Mk IIs out of a second order of 19 (delivered in two batches, nine from 2001 and ten from 2007). Total of 47 currently in service. The type is also used by the Taming Sari aerobatic display team.
 Mexico
 Myanmar
 Netherlands
 South Africa
  Switzerland
 United Arab Emirates
 Uruguay

Former military operators[edit]

Flag of Bophuthatswana.svg Bophuthatswana
Three (delivered from 1989, later transferred to South Africa and subsequently served in the Sierra Leone civil war and Chad)
 Iraq
 Nigeria
 Suriname

Former civil operators[edit]

  Switzerland

Accidents and incidents[edit]

The South African Air Force (SAAF) grounded their fleet of PC-7 MkIIs after a crash on 15 January 2008. The aircraft went down shortly after takeoff from Overberg Air Force Base in the Western Cape Province. SAAF Lieutenant-Colonel Chris Meiring, 58, died shortly after the crash. The aircraft was flying to Langebaanweg Air Force Base for maintenance but shortly after takeoff it rolled and flew into the ground. The cause is believed[by whom?] to have been a structural problem.

A Silver Falcons PC-7 Mk II, similar to the one that was in the South African Air Force incidents.

In November 2009, a civilian passenger in the back seat of a South African Air Force Pilatus PC-7 MK II ejected from the aircraft while in flight. The civilian accidentally pulled the yellow and black ejection lever while trying to brace himself. The passenger is thought[by whom?] to be a friend of the pilot, Captain Gerhard Lourens of the Silver Falcons. Civilians are not usually allowed in SAAF aircraft equipped with ejector seats.[citation needed] An air force spokesman confirmed that officials had launched an investigation into the accident. The passenger survived the incident.[35][needs update]

In March 2010, a pilot was killed when his Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) aircraft exploded and caught fire in midair during a solo airshow. This is the fifth accident involving Royal Malaysian Air Force PC-7 aircraft.[36]

In June 2010, two Mexican pilots were killed when their Air Force PC-7 crashed after taking off from Pie de la Cuesta, a district in the resort city of Acapulco, Mexico. The PC-7 crashed into the sea near Acapulco.[37][38]

On 20 October 2011, two PC-7s of the Botswana Defence Force were involved in a midair collision over Letlhakeng 100 km west of Gaborone. Two of the four aircrew involved were killed in the accident.[39]

On 12 September 2017 a pilot was killed when his Swiss Air Force PC-7 crashed at the Schreckhorn in Canton Bern on its way from Payerne AFB to Locarno AFB.[40]

Specifications (PC-7 Turbo Trainer)[edit]

Pilatus PC-7

Data from [41]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Hardpoints: 6 × hardpoints for bombs and rockets with a capacity of 1,040 kg (2,294 lb)[43]

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Training - Bridging the gap." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 10 July 2001.
  2. ^ "Elementary training role for PC-21?" Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 14 August 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer." Forecast International, September 1999.
  4. ^ Air International September 1979, p. 112.
  5. ^ Air International September 1979, p. 114.
  6. ^ Wastnage, Justin. "Pilatus ponders additions to civilian aircraft offering." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 26 February 2002.
  7. ^ Wastnage, Justin. "Peace dividend." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 30 April 2002.
  8. ^ "Radom offers PC-9 upgrade for training and combat." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 25 November 1998.
  9. ^ a b "Pilatus appoints Western to market PC-7 trainer." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 22 July 1998.
  10. ^ a b c "Government veto blocks PC-9 sale to Mexico." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 8 February 1998.
  11. ^ "Brunei finalises MPA configuration." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 18 October 1996.
  12. ^ "Sultan of Brunei confirms Hawk deal." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 12 March 1997.
  13. ^ Pilatus Press Release. "India Selects Pilatus Basic Trainer." Archived 2 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine LiveFistDefence.com, 24 May 2012. Retrieved: 19 June 2011.
  14. ^ Chopra, Anil. "Stuck at the basics of aircraft design." Hindu Business Line, 7 October 2013.
  15. ^ Raghuvanshi, Vivek. "Swiss Firm not expanding maintenance deal for India's PC-7 trainers." defensenews.com, 20 July 2017.
  16. ^ "IAF gets its 75th Pilatus training aircraft PC-7 MkII". The Economic Times. India Times. 14 July 2018. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  17. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Guatemala since 1954". ACIG.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  18. ^ Razoux 2015, pp. 421–422.
  19. ^ Bodansky 1993, p. 14.
  20. ^ Cordesman and Wagner 1991, p. 285.
  21. ^ Aranda, Jesús. "Ahora que la FAM pretende renovar su flota no puede adquirir aviones Pilatus C-9" (in Spanish). Archived 19 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine La Jornada. 13 November 2009. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  22. ^ Barlow, Eben. "Executive Outcomes: Against all Odds." Archived 29 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine galago.co. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  23. ^ "Gunships for hire." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 21 August 1996.
  24. ^ Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows to the conflict in Chad." Archived 2 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine sipri.org, August 2009. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  25. ^ "Chad likely armed Swiss-made aircraft." Archived 16 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine swissinfo.ch, 17 January 2008.
  26. ^ Air International September 1979, p. 115.
  27. ^ Taylor 1999, pp. 96–97.
  28. ^ "Pilatus PC-7." Archived 24 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine militaryaviation.eu. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  29. ^ "Pilatus PC-7 list of users." Archived 24 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine militaryaviation.eu. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  30. ^ "Botswana Defence selects PC-7 MkII turboprop trainer aircraft worth SF 40 Mil." Archived 25 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine frontierindia.net. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  31. ^ Botswana introduces new PC-7 MkII trainers Archived 14 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine - Flightglobal.com, February 11, 2013
  32. ^ "IAF gets its 75th Pilatus training aircraft PC-7 MkII". The Economic Times. 14 July 2018. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  33. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 454.
  34. ^ "Pilatus NCPC-7." Archived 22 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Swiss Air Force. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  35. ^ Maclean, Sean. "Oops! Civilian in joyride accidentally grabs ejection lever but lands safely." Archived 5 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine Daily Mail, 2 November 2009. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  36. ^ "Nasional Karnival konvokesyen UUM bertukar tragedi." Archived 28 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine bharian.com, 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  37. ^ "Cae avión militar en Acapulco" (in Spanish). El Debate. Retrieved: 6 May 2013.
  38. ^ "Two Die in Military Plane Crash in Mexico." Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Latin American Herald Tribune. Retrieved: 6 May 2013.
  39. ^ "Two BDF planes collide, killing two pilots." Archived 7 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine Mmegi online. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
  40. ^ "PC-7 crash on Schreckhorn". Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  41. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 359–360.
  42. ^ Normal rating of PT6A-25A 485 kW (650 shp) - flat rated to 410 kW (550 shp) in PC-7 installation
  43. ^ Air International September 1979, p. 113.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bodansky, Yossef. "Target America & the West: Terrorism Today." SP Books, 1993. ISBN 1-5617-1269-8.
  • Cordesman, Anthony H. and Abraham R. Wagner. "The Lessons of Modern War: The Iran-Iraq War." Westview Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8133-1330-9.
  • Jackson, Paul. "Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004." Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Lambert, Mark. "Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993-94." Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
  • Razoux, Pierre. "The Iran-Iraq War." Harvard University Press, 2015. ISBN 0-6740-8863-8.
  • "The Svelte Switzer ... Pilatus' Turbo Trainer". Air International, Vol. 16, No. 3, September 1979, pp. 111–118.

External links[edit]