Porsche 356

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Porsche 356
Porsche 356 C - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (2) (cropped).jpg
Porsche 356 C coupé
Overview
Manufacturer
Production 1948–1965
Designer Erwin Komenda
Body and chassis
Class Sports car (S)
Body style
Layout Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Dimensions
Wheelbase 82.7 in (2,100 mm)
Length 152.4–157.9 in (3,870–4,010 mm)
Width 65.4 in (1,660 mm)
Height 48.0–51.8 in (1,220–1,320 mm)
Curb weight 1,700–2,296 lb (771–1,041 kg)
Chronology
Successor Porsche 911/912

The Porsche 356 is a luxury sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948-1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950-1965). It was Porsche's first production automobile. Earlier cars designed by the Austrian company includes Cisitalia Grand Prix race car, and the Volkswagen Beetle as well as Auto Union Grand Prix cars were designed by the German company.

The 356 is a lightweight and nimble-handling rear-engine rear-wheel drive two-door sports car available in hardtop coupé and open configurations. Engineering innovations continued during the years of manufacture, contributing to its motorsports success and popularity. Production started in 1948 at Gmünd, Austria, where approximately 50 cars were built. In 1950 the factory relocated to Zuffenhausen, Germany, and general production of the 356 continued until April 1965, well after the replacement model 911 made its autumn 1963 debut. Of the 76,000 originally produced, approximately half survive.[1]

History[edit]

Porsche No. 1 Type 356 (mid-engine prototype)
Porsche 356 1948 coupé at the Porsche-Museum

Prior to World War II Porsche designed and built three Type 64 cars for a 1939 Berlin-to-Rome race that was cancelled. In 1948 the mid-engine, tubular chassis 356 prototype called "No. 1" was completed. This led to some debate as to the "first" Porsche automobile, but the 356 is considered by Porsche to be its first production model.[1][2]

Porsche 356 production[3]
Type Quantity

356 (1948–55) 7,627
356 A (1955–59) 21,045
356 B (1959–63) 30,963
356 C (1963–65/66) 16,678

Total 76,313

The 356 was created by Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche (son of Ferdinand Porsche, founder of the German company), who founded the Austrian company with his sister, Louise. Like its cousin, the Volkswagen Beetle (which Ferdinand Porsche Sr. had designed), the 356 is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, rear-engine, rear-wheel drive car with unitized pan and body construction. The chassis was a completely new design as was the 356's body which was designed by Porsche employee Erwin Komenda, while certain mechanical components including the engine case and some suspension components were based on and initially sourced from Volkswagen. Ferry Porsche described the thinking behind the development of the 356 in an interview with the editor of Panorama, the PCA magazine, in September 1972. "….I had always driven very speedy cars. I had an Alfa Romeo, also a BMW and others. ….By the end of the war I had a Volkswagen Cabriolet with a supercharged engine and that was the basic idea. I saw that if you had enough power in a small car it is nicer to drive than if you have a big car which is also overpowered. And it is more fun. On this basic idea we started the first Porsche prototype. To make the car lighter, to have an engine with more horsepower…that was the first two seater that we built in Carinthia (Gmünd)".

The first 356 was road certified in Austria on June 8, 1948, and was entered in a race in Innsbruck where it won its class.[4] Porsche re-engineered and refined the car with a focus on performance. Fewer and fewer parts were shared between Volkswagen and Porsche as the 1950s progressed. The early 356 automobile bodies produced at Gmünd were handcrafted in aluminum, but when production moved to Zuffenhausen, Germany in 1950, models produced there were steel-bodied. The aluminium bodied cars from that very small company are what are now referred to as "prototypes". Porsche contracted Reutter to build the steel bodies and eventually bought the Reutter company in 1963.[5] The Reutter company retained the seat manufacturing part of the business and changed its name to "Recaro".

Little noticed at its inception, mostly by a small number of auto racing enthusiasts, the first 356s sold primarily in Austria and Germany. It took Porsche two years, starting with the first prototype in 1948, to manufacture the first 50 automobiles. By the early 1950s the 356 had gained some renown among enthusiasts on both sides of the Atlantic for its aerodynamics, handling, and excellent build quality. The class win at Le Mans in 1951 was a factor.[6] It was common for owners to race the car as well as drive them on the streets. They introduced the four-cam racing "Carrera" engine, a totally new design and unique to Porsche sports cars, in late 1954. Increasing success with its racing and road cars brought Porsche orders for over 10,000 units in 1964, and by the time 356 production ended in 1965 approximately 76,000 had been produced.[1]

356 engine layout shows VW ancestry

The 356 was built in four distinct series, the original ("pre-A"), followed by the 356 A, 356 B, and finally the 356 C. To distinguish among the major revisions of the model, 356s are generally classified into a few major groups. The 356 coupés and "cabriolets" (soft-tops) built through 1955 are readily identifiable by their split (1948 to 1952) or bent (centre-creased, 1953 to 1955) windscreens. In late 1955 the 356 A appeared, with a curved windshield. The A was the first road going Porsche to offer the Carrera four-cam engine as an option. In late 1959 the T5 356 B appeared; followed by the redesigned T6 series 356 B in 1962. The final version was the 356 C, little changed from the late T6 B cars but disc brakes replaced the drums.

Prior to completion of 356 production, Porsche had developed a higher-revving 616/36 version of the 356's four-cylinder pushrod engine for installation in a new 912 model that commenced production in April 1965. Although the 912 used numerous 356 components, Porsche did not intended for the 912 to replace the 356.

When the decision was made to replace the 356, the 901 (later 911) was the road car designed to carry the Porsche name forward. The 912 was developed as the "standard version" of the 911 at the 17,500DM price of a 356 1600 SC, while the complex but faster and heavier six-cylinder 911 was priced more than fifty percent higher.[7] Customers purchased nearly 33,000 912 coupés and Targas powered by the Type 616 engine that had served Porsche so well during the 356 era.

356 "pre-A"[edit]

Porsche 356
Nationale oldtimerdag Zandvoort 2010, 1954 PORSCHE 356, RK-70-24.JPG
1954 Porsche 356, showing the V-shaped front windshield
Overview
Production 1948–1955
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.1 L Type 369 B4 (1948-1953, 1100)
  • 1.3 L Type 506 B4 (1300)
  • 1.3 L Type 506/1 B4 (1300 A)
  • 1.3 L Type 589 B4 (1953-1954, 1300 S)
  • 1.5 L Type 527 B4 (1951-1952, 1500)
  • 1.5 L Type 528 B4 (1952-1953, 1500 S)
  • 1.5 L Type 528/2 B4 (1954-1955, 1500 S)
  • 1.5 L Type 546 B4 (1952-1953, 1500)
  • 1.5 L Type 546/2 B4 (1954-1955, 1500)
Transmission four-speed manual

From the earliest, 1100 cc Gmünd beginnings, the overall shape of the 356 remained more or less set. In 1951, 1300 and 1500 cc engines with considerably more power were introduced. By late 1952 the divided windscreen was gone, replaced by a V-shaped unit which fit into the same opening. In 1953, the 1300 S or "Super" was introduced, and the 1100 cc engine was dropped. In late 1954 Max Hoffman, the sole US importer of Porsches, convinced Porsche to build a stripped down roadster version with minimal equipment and a cut-down windscreen. Towards the end of the original 356's time (in 1955, when the 356 A was about to be introduced) Hoffman, wanting a model name rather than just a number got the factory to use the name "Continental" which was applied mostly to cars sold in the United States. Ford, makers of the Lincoln Continental, sued.[8] This name was used only in 1955 and today this version is especially valued. For 1956, the equivalent version was briefly sold as the "European".[8] Today all of the earliest Porsches are highly coveted by collectors and enthusiasts worldwide based on their design, reliability and sporting performance.

356 A[edit]

Porsche 356 A
Porsche 356 Speedster - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (6).jpg
Overview
Production 1955–1959
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.3 L Type 506 B4 (1300)
  • 1.3 L Type 506/2 B4 (1300 S)
  • 1.5 L Type 547/1 B4 (Carrera 1500 GS/GT, 1955-1957)
  • 1.5 L Type 692/0 B4 (Carrera 1500 GT, 1958)
  • 1.5 L Type 692/1 B4 (Carrera 1500 GT, 1958)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/1 B4 (1600)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/2 B4 (1600 S)
  • 1.6 L Type 692/2 B4 (Carrera 1600 GS)
Transmission four-speed manual
1957 356 Speedster

In late 1955, with numerous small but significant changes, the 356 A was introduced. Its internal factory designation, "Type 1", gave rise to its nickname "T1" among enthusiasts. In the US 1,200 early 356s had been badged as the "Continental" and then a further 156 from autumn 1955 to January 1956 as an even rarer T1 “European” variant after which it reverted to its numerical 356 designation. In early 1957 a second revision of the 356 A was produced, known as Type 2 (or T2). Production of the Speedster peaked at 1,171 cars in 1957 and then started to decline. The four-cam "Carrera" engine, initially available only in the spyder race cars, became an available option starting with the 356 A.

Within the last 25 years replicas of the 356 A have become very popular with companies like San Diego Replicas offering 356 Speedster and 550 spyder replicas.

356 B[edit]

Porsche 356 B
1963 Porsche 356B 90 (T6), rear.jpg
1963 Porsche 356 B 90 coupé (T6, with twin grilles on the engine lid)
Overview
Production 1960–1963
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.6 L Type 616/1 B4 (1600)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/2 B4 (1600 S, 1960-1962)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/7 B4 (1600 Super 90)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/12 B4 (1600 S, 1962-1963)
  • 1.6 L Type 692/3 B4 (1600 Carrera GS GT, 1960)
  • 1.6 L Type 692/3A B4 (1600 Carrera GS GT, 1961)
  • 2.0 L Type 587/1 B4 (Carrera 2 GS)
Transmission four-speed manual

In late 1959 significant styling and technical refinements gave rise to the 356 B (a T5 body type). The mid-1962 356 B model was changed to the T6 body type (twin engine lid grilles, an external fuel filler in the right front wing/fender and a larger rear window in the coupé). The Porsche factory did not call attention to these quite visible changes with a different model designation. However, when the T6 got disc brakes, with no other visible alterations, they called it the model C, or the SC when it had the optional extra powerful engine. A unique "Karmann hardtop" or "notchback" 356 B model was produced in 1961 and 1962. The 1961 production run (T5) was essentially a cabriolet body with the optional steel cabriolet hardtop welded in place. The 1962 line (T6 production) was a very different design in that the new T6 notchback coupé body did not start life as a cabriolet, but with its own production design—In essence, part cabriolet rear end design, part T6 coupé windshield frame, unique hard top. Both years of these unique cars have taken the name "Karmann notchback".[9]

356 C[edit]

Porsche 356 C
Oldtimerumzug Aidenbach 2013-08-18 - Porsche.JPG
Porsche 356 C cabriolet
Overview
Production 1964–1965
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.6 L Type 616/15 B4 (1600 C)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/16 B4 (1600 SC)
  • 1.6 L Type 616/26 B4 (1600 SC, police car)
  • 2.0 L Type 587/1 B4 (Carrera 2)
  • 2.0 L Type 587/2 B4 (Carrera 2)
Transmission four-speed manual

The last revision of the 356 was the 356 C introduced for the 1964 model year. It featured disc brakes all around, as well as an option for the most powerful pushrod engine Porsche had ever produced, the 95 hp (71 kW) "SC". Production of the 356 peaked at 14,151 cars in 1964, the year that its successor, the new 911, was introduced to the US market (it was introduced slightly earlier in Europe). The company continued to sell the 356 C in North America through 1965 as demand for the model remained quite strong in the early days of the heavier and more "civilized" 911. The last ten 356s (cabriolets) were assembled for the Dutch police force in March 1966 as 1965 models.[10]

Body styles[edit]

The car was built of a unibody construction, making restoration difficult for cars that were kept in rust-prone climates. The basic design of the 356 remained the same throughout its lifespan, with evolutionary, functional improvements rather than annual superficial styling changes. Nevertheless, a variety of models in both coupé and convertible forms were produced from 1948 through 1965.

One of the most desirable collector models is the 356 "Speedster", introduced in late 1954 after Max Hoffman advised the company that a lower-cost, somewhat spartan open-top version could sell well in the American market. With its low, raked windscreen (which could be removed for weekend racing), bucket seats and minimal folding top, the Speedster was an instant hit, especially in Southern California.

It was replaced in late 1958 by the "convertible D" model.[11] It featured a taller, more practical windshield (allowing improved headroom with the top erected), roll-up glass side-windows and more comfortable seats. The following year the 356 B "roadster" convertible replaced the D model but the sports car market's love affair with top-down motoring was fading; soft-top 356 model sales declined significantly in the early 1960s.

Cabriolet models (convertibles with a full windshield and padded top) were offered from the start, and in the early 1950s sometimes comprised over 50% of total production. A unique "Karmann hardtop" or "notchback" 356 B model was produced in 1961 and 1962, essentially a cabriolet-style body with a permanent metal roof.

Engine[edit]

Porsche designers made the decision to utilize the engine case they had originally designed for the Volkswagen Beetle. It was an air-cooled pushrod OHV flat-four engine. For use in the 356, they designed new cylinder heads, camshaft, crankshaft, intake and exhaust manifolds and used dual carburetors to more than double the VW's horsepower. While the first prototype 356 had a mid-engine layout, all later 356s had a rear-mounted layout. When the four-cam "Carrera" engine became available in late 1955, this engine became an extra cost option starting with the 356 A, and was available through the 356 model run.

Electric motor[edit]

There are kits to convert a Porsche 356 Speedster to an electric vehicle.[12][13]

Legacy[edit]

The 356 has always been popular with the motor press. In 2004, Sports Car International ranked the 356 C tenth on their list of top sports cars of the 1960s. Today, the Porsche 356 is a highly regarded collector car. The Porsche 356 Carrera (with its special DOHC racing engine), SC, Super 90 and Speedster models are among the most desirable 356 models. Few 356 Carreras were produced and these often bring well over $250,000 at auction. A fully restored 356 Carrera Speedster (of which only about 140 were made) can sell for around $300,000 at auction.

The original selling price of a late 1950s Porsche was around US$4,000, which was also the price of a new Cadillac; today they regularly bring between US$20,000 and well over US$100,000 at auction.

Thousands of owners worldwide maintain the 356 tradition, preserving their cars and driving them regularly. The US-based 356 registry on its website states that it is "...world's largest classic Porsche club."

Motorsport[edit]

The Porsche 356, close to stock or highly modified, has enjoyed much success in rallying, the 24 hours of Le Mans, the 1000 km Buenos Aires, the Mille Miglia, the Targa Florio, the Carrera Panamericana, as well as many other important car racing events.

Several Porsche 356s were stripped down in weight, and were modified in order to have better performance and handling for these races. A few notable examples include the Porsche 356 SL, and the Porsche 356 A Carrera GT.

In the early 1960s Porsche collaborated with Abarth and built the Porsche 356 B Carrera GTL Abarth coupé, which enjoyed some success in motor sports.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c 356 Registry. "Timeline for the 356". Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  2. ^ "Porsche History - Milestones". Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  3. ^ Long, Brian (2008). Porsche 356. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-84584-035-8. 
  4. ^ Porsche 356 & RS Spyders, Gordon Maltby ISBN 0-7603-0903-5
  5. ^ "The Porsche Book, Lothar Boschen and Jurgen Bath, page 66
  6. ^ "The Porsche Book, Lothar Boschen and Jürgen Bath, page 199
  7. ^ Lewandowski, Jurgen (2010). Porsche 901: The Roots of a Legend. Germany: Delius Klasing Verlag GMbH. 
  8. ^ a b "Porsche 356 'Continental': A short story about a well-known name". Classic Driver. 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  9. ^ 356 Registry. "356 Registry's spotter's guide". Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  10. ^ Long, Brian (2008). Porsche 356. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-84584-035-8. 
  11. ^ Designed and maintained by ToTheWeb LLC, www.ToTheWeb.com. "Porsche Convertible D Registry - Porsche 356". Convertibledregistry.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  12. ^ Porsche 356 Speedster EV Conversion Kit
  13. ^ BMZ conversion

References[edit]

External links[edit]