|Body and chassis|
|Class||Full-size luxury car (F)|
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive / four-wheel-drive|
The Porsche Panamera production model was unveiled at the 13th Auto Shanghai International Automobile Show in Shanghai, China, on April 2009. In 2011, hybrid and diesel versions were launched. In April 2013, a facelift to the Panamera was announced, launching again at the Auto Shanghai show. A plug-in hybrid version, the Panamera S E-Hybrid, was released in the U.S. market in November 2013.
- 1 Concept and description
- 2 Production
- 3 First generation (2010–2016)
- 4 Second generation (2016–)
- 5 Reception
- 6 Sales
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Concept and description
The Panamera's name is derived, like the Porsche Carrera line, from the Carrera Panamericana race. The Panamera is generally considered to be the long-awaited fruit of Porsche's 989 concept vehicle from the late 1980s.
Like the Porsche Cayenne SUV (which has become the marque's best-selling vehicle), the Panamera upset many Porsche purists, since it was seen as an attempt to broaden Porsche's appeal beyond that of hardcore fans. The Panamera ran contrary to the company's signature offerings, particularly its light two-door rear-engine sports cars like the 911. The Panamera on the other hand is considered a full-size luxury car, weighing nearly 4,000 pounds (1,800 kg), with four doors, and its engine mounted in the front. The Panamera's appearance with its long hood and rear hatch bears resemblance to a stretched 911. The iconic 911 has a sparse interior, as it was focused on raw performance, while the Panamera has a sumptuous interior loaded with modern technological amenities and expensive leather upholstery.
Engines are first assembled in Stuttgart, and the car's body is built, painted and final assembly in Leipzig, Germany, alongside the Cayenne and Macan. From 2009 to 2016, the bodies were built at the Volkswagen Group facility in Hannover.
First generation (2010–2016)
|First generation (970) Chassis G1|
Porsche Panamera 4S (pre-facelift)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door fastback saloon|
|Wheelbase||2,900 mm (114.2 in)|
|Length||4,970 mm (195.7 in)|
|Width||1,931 mm (76.0 in)|
|Height||1,418 mm (55.8 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,870 kg (4,123 lb)|
The V8-powered Panamera S, 4S, and Turbo models were the first versions that debuted in 2009. In addition to the 4.8L Twin Turbo 500 bhp (373 kW; 507 PS) V8, Porsche launched two further models in 2010: the Panamera and Panamera 4 which are both powered by 3.6-litre V6 engines producing 300 bhp (224 kW; 304 PS).
Being derived from the V8 engine of the Panamera S and Panamera 4S, the V6 retains the V8's technologies like Direct Fuel Injection, infinitely variable intake camshaft adjustment with variable valve lift (VarioCam Plus), an on-demand oil pump, water cooling with thermal management, a variable intake manifold, as well as integrated dry sump lubrication with two-stage extraction of oil, and an Auto Start-Stop function (only with the PDK transmission). Turbo version uses active aerodynamics with a multi-stage, adjustable rear spoiler. Optional Sports Chrono Packages include a Sport Plus button, which has tighter damping and air springs, and lowers the car body by 25 mm (1.0 in).
The Panamera, S, Hybrid and Diesel models are rear-wheel drive, while the Panamera 4, 4S, and GTS have the same four-wheel drive system as the Turbo and Turbo S, called Porsche Traction Management (PTM).
|car model||displacement &
|max. motive power @ rpm||max. torque @ rpm||max. speed||emissions CO2|
|Panamera||3.6 litre V6||300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) @ 6,200||400 N·m (295 lbf·ft) @ 3,750–4,250||261 km/h (162 mph)||265 g/km (manual)|
|Panamera 4||3.6 litre V6||300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) @ 6,200||400 N·m (295 lbf·ft) @ 3,750–4,250||257 km/h (160 mph)||225 g/km|
|Panamera Diesel||3.0 litre V6 turbodiesel||250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) @ 3,800||550 N·m (406 lbf·ft) @ 1,750–2,750||250 km/h (155 mph)||172 g/km|
|Panamera S||4.8 litre V8||400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp) @ 6,500||500 N·m (369 lbf·ft) @ 3,500–5,000||285 km/h (177 mph)||293 g/km (manual)|
|Panamera 4S||4.8 litre V8||400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp) @ 6,500||500 N·m (369 lbf·ft) @ 3,500–5,000||282 km/h (175 mph)||254 g/km|
|Panamera GTS||4.8 litre V8||430 PS (316 kW; 424 hp) @ 6,700||520 N·m (384 lbf·ft) @ 3,500–5,000||288 km/h (179 mph)||256 g/km|
|Panamera S Hybrid||3.0 litre V6 supercharged||380 PS (279 kW; 375 hp) @ 5,500||580 N·m (428 lbf·ft) @ 3,000–5,250||270 km/h (168 mph)||167 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo||4.8 litre V8 twin turbo||500 PS (368 kW; 493 hp) @ 6,000||700 N·m (516 lbf·ft) @ 2,250–4,500||303 km/h (188 mph)||270 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo S||4.8 litre V8 twin turbo||550 PS (405 kW; 542 hp) @ 6,000||750 N·m (553 lbf·ft) @ 2,250–4,500||306 km/h (190 mph)||270 g/km|
The new ZF seven-speed PDK dual clutch transmission is standard on the Panamera 4, 4S and Turbo models. With the addition of the optional sport chrono package, this provides faster acceleration times. In some markets a six-speed manual is available for rear-wheel drive petrol versions. The S Hybrid and Diesel models have an Aisin-supplied eight-speed automatic transmission called Tiptronic S.
Panamera Turbo S
The Panamera Turbo S engine features larger turbochargers than the standard Panamera Turbo’s 4.8-litre V8, as well as high-pressure fuel injection, and aluminium-alloy pistons. The piston rings are coated in a low-friction surface to help eke out even more performance. The Panamera Turbo S accelerates to 62 mph in 3.8 seconds with launch control engaged. Roll-on acceleration should be more impressive, changes to the PDK (Porsche Doppelkupplung) gearbox allow for faster gearshifts, and the alleged 27.7mpg fuel economy is no worse than the less powerful Panamera Turbo.
- Drag Coefficient: 0.30
- 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h): 3.2 seconds
- 0–100 mph (0–161 km/h): 7.2 seconds 
- 1/4 mile: 11.5 seconds @ 127 mph (204 km/h) 
- Braking 70 mph (113 km/h) to 0 mph (0 km/h): 135 feet (41 m) 
Panamera S Hybrid
In 2008, Porsche AG announced the development of a parallel hybrid system for the Panamera, and in February 2011, Porsche unveiled the Panamera S Hybrid. Using the same drivetrain seen in the Cayenne S Hybrid—an Audi-sourced supercharged 3.0-litre V6 engine producing 333 PS (245 kW; 328 hp) along with an electric motor rated at 47 PS (35 kW; 46 hp), as well as the Cayenne's eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission—the 380 PS (279 kW; 375 hp) Panamera S Hybrid can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 6.0 seconds. The Panamera S Hybrid produces only 193 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer, rendering it the cleanest car in the entire Porsche model range, but still provides a top speed of 270 km/h (167.8 mph).
Deliveries began in the United States in 2011, and cumulative sales reached 684 units through March 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the fuel economy for the 2013/2012 model year Panamera Hybrid at 22 mpg‑US (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg‑imp) for city driving, 30 mpg‑US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg‑imp) for highway, and 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) combined.
The Panamera Diesel was launched in May 2011. The vehicle uses the same Audi 3.0L V6 engine used in the Cayenne Diesel, itself a tuned carryover of an existing engine. The Panamera's engine has a power output of 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp). The car is capable of accelerating from 0–100 km/h in 6.8 seconds and has a top speed of 242 km/h (150.4 mph). It is also the most economical Porsche in the entire vehicle range, consuming just 6.3 liters per 100 kilometers (37 US MPG/45 UK MPG).
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In October 2012, Porsche introduced the Panamera Platinum Edition. The exterior of the Panamera Platinum Edition is enveloped in one of five basic colors – black, white, basalt black, carbon gray metallic, and mahogany metallic. It includes more standard equipment, larger wheels, and an exclusive interior leather combination of luxor beige and black. It will be offered with rear and all wheel drive, and has a 0 to 60 mph (0 to 97 km/h) time of under 5.8 seconds or faster on all variants. Exclusive equipment includes the special interior combination, platinum rear overhang, and front lower grille, platinum door sills, and platinum mirrors. The finalizing touch to this special edition includes an exclusive set of 19-inch Panamera Turbo alloy wheels with the red, black, and gold Porsche crest. It will be very limited, with most dealers receiving just one or two examples.
In March 2015, Porsche announced that they were releasing a new special edition Panamera called the "Panamera Edition". The car is based on the 310 horsepower base model cars, The car includes high-gloss black trim strips outline the windows,19-inch Panamera Turbo wheels with colored center caps, the sills are inscribed with the word "Edition," and body-coloured door handlea are additional add on when the customer chooses the Porsche Entry & Drive option. The car also includes performance upgrades include active suspension. The Panamera Edition will cost $80,000 USD.
Porsche announced its updated Panamera on 3 April 2013, with a scheduled formal launch at Auto Shanghai. The revised model can be identified by new front and rear bumpers and some technical changes included the addition of a new 3.0L twin turbocharged Panamera S and a new E-Hybrid model. A long wheelbase version with an additional 150 mm will be available for selected left-hand drive markets, and the Turbo S is scheduled to follow in 2014. The long wheelbase versions are only available on 4S, Turbo, and Turbo S models.
|car model||displacement &
|max. motive power @ rpm||max. torque @ rpm||max. speed||emissions CO2|
|Panamera||3.6 litre (3605cc) V6||306 bhp (228 kW; 310 PS) @ 6,200||400 N·m (295 lbf·ft) @ 3,750||259 km/h (161 mph)||196 g/km|
|Panamera 4||3.6 litre (3605cc) V6||306 bhp (228 kW; 310 PS) @ 6,200||400 N·m (295 lbf·ft) @ 3,750||257 km/h (160 mph)||203 g/km|
|Panamera Diesel||3.0 litre (2967 cc) V6 turbodiesel||259 bhp (193 kW; 263 PS) @ 3,800-4,400||550 N·m (406 lbf·ft) @ 1,750–2,750||244 km/h (152 mph)||166 g/km|
|Panamera S||3.0 litre (2997 cc) V6 twin turbo||414 bhp (309 kW; 420 PS) @ 6,000||520 N·m (384 lbf·ft) @ 1,750–5,000||287 km/h (178 mph)||204 g/km|
|Panamera 4S||3.0 litre (2997 cc) V6 twin turbo||414 bhp (309 kW; 420 PS) @ 6,000||520 N·m (384 lbf·ft) @ 1,750–5,000||286 km/h (178 mph)||208 g/km|
|Panamera S E-Hybrid||3.0 litre (2995cc) V6 supercharged||410 bhp (306 kW; 416 PS) @ 5,500||590 N·m (435 lbf·ft) @ 1,250–4,000||270 km/h (168 mph)||71 g/km|
|Panamera GTS||4.8 litre (4806cc) V8||434 bhp (324 kW; 440 PS) @ 6,700||520 N·m (384 lbf·ft) @ 3,500||288 km/h (179 mph)||249 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo||4.8 litre (4806cc) V8 twin turbo||513 bhp (383 kW; 520 PS) @ 6,000||700 N·m (516 lbf·ft) @ 2,250–4,500||305 km/h (190 mph)||239 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo S||4.8 litre (4806cc) V8 twin turbo||562 bhp (419 kW; 570 PS) @ 6,000||750 N·m (553 lbf·ft) @ 2,250–4,500||309 km/h (192 mph)||239 g/km|
Panamera S E-Hybrid
As part of the 2013 Panamera facelift, Porsche announced the introduction of a plug-in hybrid model, the Panamera S E-Hybrid. The plug-in version was unveiled at the April 2013 Shanghai Auto Show. The S E-Hybrid is powered by a 71 kW (97 PS; 95 bhp) electric motor, with a total system power of 310 kW (421 PS; 416 bhp). Top speed is 84 mph (135 km/h) in all-electric mode, and its time from 100 km/h (62 mph) is 5.2 seconds. The plug-in electric hybrid will have a 9.4 kWh lithium-ion battery pack capable of delivering a range of more than 32 km (20 mi) under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) standard. The battery can be fully charged in approximately 2½ hours from a 240V power source. The Panamera plug-in hybrid reduces fuel consumption to 3.1 L/100 km (91 mpg‑imp; 76 mpg‑US), down from 7.11 L/100 km (39.7 mpg‑imp; 33.1 mpg‑US) for the current Panamera hybrid, which translates to CO2 emissions of 71 g/km, down from 167g/km for the current hybrid.
In November 2013, the UK Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) approved the eligibility of the Panamera S E-Hybrid for the Plug-in Car Grant which entitles customers to a maximum purchase subsidy of GB£5,000 ( ~ US$8,000). The plug-in hybrid was rated with a fuel economy of 91 mpg‑imp (3.1 L/100 km; 76 mpg‑US) and CO2 emissions of 71 g/km.
- EPA fuel economy ratings
|EPA fuel economy ratings||Cost
|Panamera S E-Hybrid||2014||Electricity
(52 kWh/100 mi)
|Gasoline only||25 mpg||23 mpg||29 mpg||US$3.90|
|Porsche Panamera S||2014||Gasoline only||21 mpg||17 mpg||27 mpg||US$4.64||US$2,800|
|Porsche Panamera Turbo||2014||Gasoline only||18 mpg||15 mpg||24 mpg||US$5.42||US$3,250|
|Porsche Panamera Turbo S||2014||Gasoline only||18 mpg||15 mpg||24 mpg||US$5.42||US$3,250|
|Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. Values rounded to the nearest $50. Electricity cost of US$0.12/kWh, premium gasoline price
of US$3.90 per gallon (as of 4 April 2014[update]). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kWh. (2) The all-electric range is between 0 and 15 mi
- Markets and sales
The Panamera S E-Hybrid was released in the European market during the fourth quarter of 2013. Retail deliveries began in the U.S. in October 2013. As of December 2013[update], a total of 90 units were delivered in France, 86 units in the United States, 59 units in the Netherlands, 14 in Spain, and about 12 in Germany.
In the American market the 2014 model year price starts at US$99,000 before any applicable government incentives. Since its introduction, 698 Panamera S E-Hybrids have been sold in the United States through August 2014. Global sales between January and August 2014 totaled over 1,500 units, presenting 9% of all Panamera models sold worldwide and 1.3% of all Porsche vehicles sold during this period.
Second generation (2016–)
|Second generation (971) Chassis G2|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door fastback saloon
|Platform||Volkswagen Group MSB|
3.0 L V6 Turbo
2.9 L V6 Twin-turbo
4.0 L V8 Twin-turbo
4.0 L V8 Twin-turbo
|Transmission||8-speed PDK dual-clutch|
|Wheelbase||2,950 mm (116.1 in)|
|Length||5,049 mm (198.8 in)|
|Width||1,937 mm (76.3 in)|
|Height||1,423 mm (56.0 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,815 kg (4,001 lb) to 2,310 kg (5,093 lb)|
The second generation Panamera was revealed on 28 June 2016 at a special event in Berlin, Germany. Codenamed 971, it is 35mm longer, 5mm wider and 5mm taller than the first generation Panamera, with a 30mm longer wheelbase. The inside features a redesigned dashboard layout, with touch-sensitive surfaces replacing the previous generation’s array of buttons. A centrally mounted tachometer also harks back to the 1955 Porsche 356 A.
The new car includes two seven-inch displays in place of the dials, as well as a 12.3-inch touchscreen featuring online sat-nav, Apple CarPlay integration and an updated voice control system. Under the bonnet is a new engine range, with only the Panamera 4S, 4S Diesel and flagship Turbo  available from launch. 
In March 2017, Porsche unveiled the Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid, a plug-in hybrid for the 2018 model year. The Turbo S E-Hybrid will receive the 4.0 L V8 engine from the Panamera Turbo, but will also be paired with an electric motor. Total system power will be 680 PS (500 kW; 671 bhp), which makes it the second most powerful Porsche ever, after the 918 Spyder.
The new Panamera no longer has its predecessor's oft-criticized, elephantine hatchback wagon styling, with the tail of the vehicle developing a clear link to the Porsche 911 through the full width rear LED light bar, and the sharply creased tail and upper bumper. This improvement in design has helped clarify the model's identity as a sports-oriented GT car.
In Europe a 5-door, shooting-brake estate variant, called the Sport Turismo, will be offered alongside the saloon. It will also be available in the United States of America. The Panamera Sport Turismo debuted in March 2017 at the Geneva Motor Show, and is currently available with the same engine range as the 4-door car. An exception to this is the flagship Turbo S E-Hybrid, which is currently only available on the 4-door Panamera.
|Car Model||Years||Powertrain||Max. Power||Max. Torque|
|Panamera||2016-||Turbocharged V6, 2995 cc, petrol||330 PS (243 kW; 325 bhp) @ 5400-6400 rpm||450 N·m (332 lb·ft) @ 1340-4900 rpm|
|Panamera 4||2016-||Turbocharged V6, 2995 cc, petrol||330 PS (243 kW; 325 bhp) @ 5400-6400 rpm||450 N·m (332 lb·ft) @ 1340-4900 rpm|
|Panamera 4 E-Hybrid||2016-||Twin-turbocharged V6, 2894 cc, petrol
(with electric motor)
|Combustion Engine: 330 PS (243 kW; 325 bhp) @ 5250-6500 rpm
Electric Motor: 136 PS (100 kW; 134 bhp) @ 2800 rpm
System Output: 462 PS (340 kW; 456 bhp) @ 6000 rpm
|Combustion Engine: 450 N·m (332 lb·ft) @ 1750-5000 rpm
Electric Motor: 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) @ < 2300 rpm
System Output: 700 N·m (516 lb·ft) @ 1100-4500 rpm
|Panamera 4S||2016-||Twin-turbocharged V6, 2894 cc, petrol||440 PS (324 kW; 434 bhp) @ 5650-6600 rpm||550 N·m (406 lb·ft) @ 1750-5500 rpm|
|Panamera 4S Diesel||2016-||Twin-turbocharged V8, 3956 cc, diesel||422 PS (310 kW; 416 bhp) @ 3500-5000 rpm||850 N·m (627 lb·ft) @ 1000-3250 rpm|
|Panamera Turbo||2016-||Twin-turbocharged V8, 3996 cc, petrol||550 PS (405 kW; 542 bhp) @ 5750-6000 rpm||770 N·m (568 lb·ft) @ 1960-4500 rpm|
|Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid||2017-||Twin-turbocharged V8, 3996 cc, petrol
(with electric motor)
|Combustion Engine: 550 PS (405 kW; 542 bhp) @ 5750-6000 rpm
Electric Motor: 136 PS (100 kW; 134 bhp) @ 2800 rpm
System Output: 680 PS (500 kW; 671 bhp) @ 6000 rpm
|Combustion Engine: 770 N·m (568 lb·ft) @ 1960-4500 rpm
Electric Motor: 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) @ < 2300 rpm
System Output: 850 N·m (627 lb·ft) @ 1400-5500 rpm
|Car Model||Powertrain||0 to 100 km/h (62 mph)||Top Speed||CO2 emissions|
|Panamera||3.0L V6 turbo petrol||5.5 s||264 km/h (164 mph)||171-173 g/km|
|Panamera 4||3.0L V6 turbo petrol||5.3 s||262 km/h (163 mph)||175-177 g/km|
|Panamera 4 E-Hybrid||2.9L V6 twin-turbo petrol||4.6 s||278 km/h (173 mph)||56 g/km|
|Panamera 4S||2.9L V6 twin-turbo petrol||4.2 s||289 km/h (180 mph)||184-186 g/km|
|Panamera 4S Diesel||4.0L V8 twin-turbo diesel||4.3 s||285 km/h (177 mph)||176-178 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo||4.0L V8 twin-turbo petrol||3.6 s||306 km/h (190 mph)||212-214 g/km|
|Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid||4.0L V8 twin-turbo petrol||3.4 s||310 km/h (193 mph)||66 g/km|
Despite the differences in dimensions and design, a reviewer noted that the Panamera's driving dynamics were close to that of the 911, and it "seems to occupy the no-man's-land between really good sports sedans and proper sports cars", and so far the Panamera has won every comparison test against other four-door performance cars on the market such as the Maserati Quattroporte and Aston Martin Rapide. Function was also praised, with the 15.7 cubic feet (440 L) hatchback trunk, and the four-corner adaptive air suspension that retained superior handling while also providing a comfortable ride for public roads. Edmunds stated that the Panamera was an innovative engineering feat that "makes a unique statement about the way that luxury transportation and serious high-performance potential can be mixed together in one car".
Unlike most of the V8-engined contemporaries, all models of the Panamera avoid the US Gas Guzzler Tax. The V6-powered Panamera was also praised, as its smaller engine still retained respectable acceleration, and as it had even better handling than its V8 siblings, due to the engine being lighter by 100 lb (45 kg) which gave the car better weight distribution.
However, CAR magazine of the U.K. described the S model as lacking sportiness, which they attributed to their test car's being "about as oriented to comfort as it’s possible to get" and called the Turbo model "a missed opportunity on behalf of Porsche" to be "the world’s first lightweight four seater" as the top model weighs as much as an Audi S8.
The 30 November 2008 edition of BBC's Top Gear featured a look at the Panamera in its news section, with the three presenters being very critical of the look. In the June 2009 edition, Richard Hammond and James May were seen driving the Panamera along the A30 in Devon, Great Britain. They were racing against a letter sent via Royal Mail between the Isles of Scilly and the Orkney Islands. Jeremy Clarkson reviewed the Porsche Panamera for an article with The Times newspaper and was quite critical.
As of 2011, the largest national market was the United States with 6188 sold. Sales by cities: Los Angeles (890), New York (760), Hong Kong (300), Dubai (285), Tokyo (223), Munich (206), Moscow (203), Shanghai (188), Hamburg (117) and Berlin (108). Sales internationally by model variant: Panamera 4S (9394), Turbo (6171), S (4563) and V6 (2390—introduced weeks earlier).
In 2012, U.S. sales of the Panamera totaled 7614 and Canadian sales of the Panamera totaled 422.
|Porsche Panamera Sport Turismo at the 2012 Paris Motor Show.|
On 20 April 2007, a spy video of the Porsche Panamera became available on the Internet.
On 28 November 2008, Porsche sent a mailer containing two photos of the Panamera which were labeled as "the first official images of the Porsche Panamera" with an invitation to have online access to via Porsche USA's website.
On 19 April 2009, Porsche finally unveiled the Porsche Panamera sedan to the public at the 2009 Shanghai Auto Show. One of the highlights of the Panamera's debut was fitting the car in the freight elevator of the Shanghai World Financial Center and sending it to the skyscraper's 94th floor.
An estate version concept of the Panamera was introduced at the 2012 Paris Motor Show called Sport Turismo. Powered by an advancement of Porsche's current hybrid system utilized in the Panamera S Hybrid, the Sport Turismo concept's new "e-Hybrid" system uses the 333-horsepower, supercharged 3.0-litre V6 and a 95-horsepower electric motor for 416 combined horses and a 30-kilometer electric range. As opposed to the current production system, this e-Hybrid setup prioritizes all-electric motivation unless the driver instructs the car otherwise. The Sport Turismo is technically a plug-in hybrid since the lithium-ion battery pack can be fully charged in as little as 2.5 hours when plugged into a wall outlet. Porsche declares that the combined powertrain is proficient for 0-62 mph acceleration in less than six seconds, and that the Sport Turismo can exceed 80 mph while running purely on electric power.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to
- Porsche Panamera official microsite
- 2010 Porsche Panamera article at LeftLaneNews.com
- "The most expensive Panamera almost tops 200,000 Euros"—Porsche Panamera article at AutoEvolution.com
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