Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry

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Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry
Active 1796–1999
Country  Kingdom of Great Britain (1796–1800)
 United Kingdom (1801–1999)
Branch  British Army
Type Yeomanry
Role Boer War
Imperial Yeomanry
World War I
Yeomanry
Infantry
World War II
Royal Artillery
Post War
Royal Armoured Corps
Size World War I
Three Regiments
World War II
Two Regiments
Post War
One Squadron
Part of Territorial Force
Engagements World War I
Battle of Gallipoli
World War II
Operation Ariel
Operation Vitality
Operation Infatuate
Operation Blackcock
Operation Torch
Longstop Hill
Battle of Centuripe
the Viktor Line (Battle of Termoli)
Barbara Line
River Sangro (Gustav Line)
Battle of Monte Cassino
Gothic Line
battle of Argenta gap

The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the British Army that can trace their formation back to 1796. It saw action in the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. It amalgamated with the Lanarkshire Yeomanry and the 1st/2nd Lothians and Border Horse to form the Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry in 1956. Its lineage was revived by B (Lanarkshire and Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Squadron, the Scottish Yeomanry in 1992 until that unit was disbanded in 1999.

History[edit]

Formation and early history[edit]

In 1793, the prime minister, William Pitt the Younger, proposed that the English Counties form a force of Volunteer Yeoman Cavalry that could be called on by the king to defend the country against invasion or by the Lord Lieutenant to subdue any civil disorder within the country.[1] The regiment was first raised in 1796 as " The Glasgow Light Horse". It was subsequently disbanded in 1822 but re-raised as "The Glasgow and Lower Ward of Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry" in 1848. The additional title of "Queen's Own Royal" was conferred by Queen Victoria the following year.[2]

Second Boer War[edit]

On 13 December 1899, the decision to allow volunteer forces serve in the Second Boer War was made. Due to the string of defeats during Black Week in December, 1899, the British government realized they were going to need more troops than just the regular army, thus issuing a Royal Warrant on 24 December 1899. This warrant officially created the Imperial Yeomanry. The Royal Warrant asked standing Yeomanry regiments to provide service companies of approximately 115 men each. In addition to this, many British citizens (usually mid-upper class) volunteered to join the new regiment.[3]

The first contingent of recruits contained 550 officers, 10,371 men with 20 battalions and 4 companies,[4] which arrived in South Africa between February and April, 1900.[5]
The Queen's Own Glasgow Yeomanry provided troops for the 9th (Scottish) Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry; the companies were:

17th (Ayrshire and Lanarkshire) Company, raised 1900; co-sponsored by Ayrshire Yeomanry Cavalry, and Lanarkshire Yeomanry Cavalry
18th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow and Lower Ward of Lanark) Company, raised 1900
19th (Lothians and Berwickshire) Company, raised 1900
20th (Fife and Forfar Light Horse) Company, raised 1900; co-sponsored by 1st Fifeshire Light Horse Volunteers, and 1st Forfarshire Light Horse Volunteers
107th (Lanarkshire) Company, raised 1901
108th (Royal Glasgow) Company, raised 1901 [6]

The regiment had its headquarters at the Yorkhill Parade drill hall at this time.[7]

First World War[edit]

Lowland Mounted Brigade
Organisation on 4 August 1914
  • Source
  • Conrad, Mark (1996). "The British Army, 1914".

In accordance with the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 (7 Edw. 7, c.9) which brought the Territorial Force into being, the TF was intended to be a home defence force for service during wartime and members could not be compelled to serve outside the country. However, on the outbreak of war on 4 August 1914, many members volunteered for Imperial Service. Therefore, TF units were split in August and September 1914 into 1st Line (liable for overseas service) and 2nd Line (home service for those unable or unwilling to serve overseas) units. Later, a 3rd Line was formed to act as a reserve, providing trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line regiments.[8]

1/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

On mobilisation in August 1914 the 1/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was attached to the Lowland Mounted Brigade and moved with it to Cupar, Fife on coastal defence duties. In May 1915, it left the brigade and was split up as divisional cavalry.[9]

V Corps Cavalry Regiment was assembled in France in May 1916 with the RHQ, A and B Squadrons along with B Squadron, Lothians and Border Horse.[9]

In July 1917 the regiment was dismounted and the squadrons were sent to No. 21 Infantry Base Depot at Étaples for infantry training on 23 August. On 29 September, 4 Officers and 146 Other Ranks joined 18th Battalion, Highland Light Infantry in 106th Brigade, 35th Division at Aizecourt-le-Bas which was redesignated as 18th (Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry.[9][b] The battalion was still in 106th Brigade, 35th Division at the end of the war, west of Grammont, Belgium.[13]

2/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

The 2nd Line regiment was formed in Glasgow in 1914. It remained there until May 1915 when it moved to Hawick. In March 1916, the regimental HQ, A and B Squadrons joined the 65th (2nd Lowland) Division in Essex. They were later reduced to a single squadron. In January 1917, they moved to Ireland with 65th Division and in February 1918 were absorbed into the 1st Reserve Cavalry Regiment at The Curragh. In the meantime, C Squadron joined the 64th (2nd Highland) Division in Norfolk in 1916 and was disbanded in 1917.[9]

3/1st Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry[edit]

The 3rd Line regiment was formed in 1915 and in the summer it was affiliated to a Reserve Cavalry Regiment at Aldershot. In June 1916 it was affiliated to the 1st Reserve Cavalry Regiment, also at Aldershot. Early in 1917 it was absorbed in the 4th Reserve Cavalry Regiment, still at Aldershot. As the 1st Line had been converted to infantry, it is probable that some of the men joined the 5th (Reserve) Battalion of the Highland Light Infantry at Catterick.[9]

Between the Wars[edit]

When the Territorial Force reformed as the Territorial Army (TA) in 1920, the 14 senior Yeomanry regiments remained as horsed cavalry regiments (6 forming the 5th and 6th Cavalry Brigades) the remaining Yeomanry regiments were re-roled as Royal Artillery (RA). In 1922 the regiment became 101st (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, with 401 and 402 Field Batteries at Glasgow. It was an 'Army' field brigade in the 52nd (Lowland) Division area.[14][15][16][17]

In 1938 the regiment re-roled again, becoming 54th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA, with 213 (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry), 214 (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) and 215 (City of Glasgow) Anti-Tank Batteries at Glasgow, and 216 (Clyde) Anti-Tank Battery at Kirkintilloch.[15][18][19] The Territorial Army was doubled in size after the Munich Crisis, and the regiment formed a duplicate regiment, 64th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA based at Milngavie in Dunbartonshire.[18][20]

Second World War[edit]

54th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA[edit]

Mobilised in 1939 as part of the 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, they moved to France as a part of the 'Second B.E.F' in June 1940. After being evacuated from France during Operation Ariel together with the rest of the division they trained in mountain warfare.In August 1944, it became part of the First Allied Airborne Army. (As a mountain formation, it had little heavy equipment and transport, and could therefore operate as an air-transportable formation). They returned to France in October 1944, and were assigned to the First Canadian Army to help open the vital port of Antwerp and were involved in the Scheldt Estuary of Belgium and the Netherlands. Operation Vitality, Operation Infatuate and the capture of the island of Walcheren to open the mouth of the Scheldt estuary. In January 1945 they participated in Operation Blackcock, the clearing of the Roer Triangle between the rivers Meuse and Roer.[21][22]

64th (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regiment, RA[edit]

Mobilised in September 1939 the regiment remained in the United Kingdom as part of the second-line 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division until July 1942 when the regiment became an integral part of the newly created 78th "Battleaxe" Infantry Division. The 78th was formed specifically for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa, from regular British Army units, landing at Algiers in November 1942. Thereafter it continued to fight in the Tunisia Campaign, then in the Allied invasion of Sicily, up the length of Italy during the Italian Campaign, before finally arriving in Austria for the end of the war in Europe in May 1945. Units also saw action in Greece, Palestine, and Egypt. Notable engagements include in Tunisia Longstop Hill, in Sicily the Battle of Centuripe and, while fighting in the Italian Campaign, the assaults on the Viktor Line (Battle of Termoli), the Barbara Line and the River Sangro (Gustav Line) as well as the Battle of Monte Cassino, the Gothic Line and the Battle of the Argenta Gap, part of the final Spring 1945 offensive in Italy.[23][24][25]

A 17-pdr anti-tank gun of the 64th Anti-Tank Regiment (Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry), Tunisia, 20 February 1943.

Post war[edit]

In 1947, 64th Anti-Tank Regiment was disbanded[20][26] while 54th Anti-Tank Regiment was reconstituted in the Territorial Army as a yeomanry regiment in the Royal Armoured Corps under its old title of the Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry. In 1956 it amalgamated with the Lanarkshire Yeomanry and the 1st/2nd Lothians and Border Horse to form the Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry.[2][15][26]

The lineage of the regiment was revived with the formation of B (Lanarkshire and Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Squadron, the Scottish Yeomanry at East Kilbride in November 1992 but that regiment was disbanded a result of the Strategic Defence Review in July 1999.[27]

Battle honours[edit]

Honorary Distinction awarded to the Shropshire Yeomanry for service as a Royal Artillery regiment. The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry Honorary Distinction would be similar.

The Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry was awarded the following battle honours:[2]

Second Boer War

South Africa 1900–01

World War I

Loos, Ypres 1917 '18, Passchendaele, Somme 1918, Bapaume 1918, Ancre 1918, Coutrai, France and Flanders 1915–18

World War II

The Royal Artillery was present in nearly all battles and would have earned most of the honours awarded to cavalry and infantry regiments. In 1833, William IV awarded the motto Ubique (meaning "everywhere") in place of all battle honours.[28]

Honorary Distinction: Badge of the Royal Regiment of Artillery with year-dates "1940 '42–45" and four scrolls: "North-West Europe", "North Africa", "Sicily" and "Italy"

Uniform and insignia[edit]

Prior to 1902 the Regiment wore a dragoon style uniform of dark blue with red facings, which had not altered a great deal since its establishment in 1848. A silver spiked helmet with black plumes was worn by all ranks in full dress.[29] Following the Boer War khaki was introduced for home service but the full dress uniform described above was retained for wear by officers in review order, with the addition of a gold lace covered shoulder and waist belt, gold cord shoulder knots and gold trouser stripes. Other ranks wore a simpler dark bue uniform with peaked cap, chain shoulder-straps, red collar and trouser stripes for walking out dress.[30]

In 1943 the 64th (QORGY) Anti-Tank Regiment wore a regimental flash on the right arm beneath the divisional sign that consisted of the letters GY embroidered in on a diamond divided vertically in the RA colours of red and blue.[20]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ C Squadron was replaced in XXI Corps Cavalry Regiment by B Squadron, Hertfordshire Yeomanry.[10]
  2. ^ The Lothians and Border Horse elements joined 17th Battalion, Royal Scots in 106th Brigade, 35th Division.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Worcestershire Yeomanry Cavalry (1794-1994)". Archived from the original on 15 August 2004.
  2. ^ a b c "Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  3. ^ "Boer War Notes". Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  4. ^ "Imperial Yeomanry at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 29 May 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
  5. ^ "Boer War - Imperial Yeomanry Battalions". Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  6. ^ "Imperial Yeomanry (by Btn)". AngloBoerWar.com. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  7. ^ "Glasgow, Yorkhill Parade, Drill Hall And Riding School". Canmore. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  8. ^ Rinaldi 2008, p. 35
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h James 1978, p. 19
  10. ^ a b James 1978, p. 20
  11. ^ James 1978, p. 22
  12. ^ James 1978, p. 24
  13. ^ James 1978, p. 103
  14. ^ Mileham 1994, p. 48-50
  15. ^ a b c Litchfield, p. 293.
  16. ^ Litchfield, Appendix VII.
  17. ^ Titles & Designations 1927.
  18. ^ a b Farndale, Annex K.
  19. ^ Monthly Army List May 1939.
  20. ^ a b c Litchfield, p. 281.
  21. ^ Barton, Derek. "54 (Queens Own Royal Glasgow Yeo) Anti-Tank Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  22. ^ Joslen, p. 85.
  23. ^ Barton, Derek. "64 (Queens Own Royal Glasgow Yeo) Anti-Tank Regiment RA(TA)". The Royal Artillery 1939-45. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  24. ^ Joslen, pp. 58 & 101.
  25. ^ Martin, pp. 3, 14.
  26. ^ a b Farndale, Annex M.
  27. ^ "Lineage of Scottish Yeomanry". Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  28. ^ "Royal Regiment of Artillery at regiments.org by T.F.Mills". Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  29. ^ Harris 1972, plate 9
  30. ^ Haswell Miller 2009, figures 26, 36 and 85

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Years of Defeat: Europe and North Africa, 1939–1941, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1988/London: Brasseys, 1996, ISBN 1-85753-080-2.
  • Harris, R.G. (1972). 50 Years of Yeomanry Uniforms. 1. Muller. ISBN 0-584-10937-7.
  • Haswell Miller, A.E. (2009). Vanished Armies: A Record of Military Uniform Observed and Drawn in Various European Countries During the Years 1907 to 1914. Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-74780-739-1.
  • James, Brigadier E.A. (1978). British Regiments 1914–18. London: Samson Books Limited. ISBN 0-906304-03-2.
  • Lt-Col H.F. Joslen, Orders of Battle, United Kingdom and Colonial Formations and Units in the Second World War, 1939–1945, London: HM Stationery Office, 1960/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2003, ISBN 1-843424-74-6.
  • Norman E.H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0.
  • Lt-Gen H.G. Martin, The History of the Fifteenth Scottish Division 1939–1945, Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1948/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2014, ISBN 978-1-78331-085-2.
  • Mileham, Patrick (1994). The Yeomanry Regiments; 200 Years of Tradition. Edinburgh: Canongate Academic. ISBN 1-898410-36-4.
  • Rinaldi, Richard A (2008). Order of Battle of the British Army 1914. Ravi Rikhye. ISBN 978-0-97760728-0.
  • Titles and Designations of Formations and Units of the Territorial Army, London: War Office, 7 November 1927 (RA sections also summarised in Litchfield, Appendix IV).

External links[edit]