Arab Democratic Party (Lebanon)

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Arab Democratic Party
الحزب العربي الديمقراطي
Leader Rifaat Eid
Founder Ali Eid
Founded 1974; 43 years ago (1974)
Headquarters Lebanon Tripoli, Lebanon
Ideology Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
Pan-Arabism
Political position Left-wing
Religion Alawi
National affiliation March 8 Alliance
Parliament of Lebanon
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Cabinet of Lebanon
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Party flag
ADP Lebanon flag.jpg

The Arab Democratic Party – ADP (Arabic: الحزب العربي الديمقراطي‎‎ | Al-Hizb Al-'Arabi Al-Dimuqrati) or Parti Démocratique Arabe (PDA) in French, is a Lebanese party, based in Tripoli. Its current leader is Rifaat Eid.

Origins[edit]

Ali Eid in 2008

The ADP traced back its origins to an earlier leftist students’ organization called the Alawite Youth Movement – AYM (Arabic: حركة الشباب العلوي | Harakat al-Shabab al-Alawiyya) or Mouvement de la Jeunesse Alaouite (MJA) in French, originally formed in 1972 at Tripoli by Ali Eid, a former teacher. As its name implies, the AYM drew its support from the Shia Alawite sect minority of Lebanon, even receiving the personal backing of Rifa’at al-Assad,[1] Syria’s vice-president at the time and himself a member of that sect. During the early war years, the AYM kept itself outside the LNM-PLO alliance, but in 1977-78 the movement joined the Patriotic Opposition Front – POF, a pro-Syrian multiconfessional coalition of Lebanese notables and activists founded in Tripoli by the MP Talal El-Merhebi (elected in 1972), Souhale Hamadah, Rashid Al-Muadim, George Mourani, and Nassib Al-Khatib, with Ali Eid being elected vice-president of the new formation.[citation needed]

However, internal disagreements soon led to the dissolution of the alliance at the early 1980s, when Eid and some of its ex-coalition partners went to form in 1982 the ADP, choosing the Sunni Muslim lawyer Nassib Al-Khatib as their first Secretary-General, later replaced by Ali Eid in 1985.[citation needed] In the process, the AYM was absorbed into the new party and became its youth branch.[citation needed]

The ADP in the civil war 1982-1990[edit]

Widely regarded[by whom?] as a Syrian-backed proxy force, the ADP and its Red Knights' battled several Tripoli-based factions hostile to Damascus' presence in Lebanon, in particular the Sunni Islamic Unification Movement (Arabic: al-Tawhid‎‎)[2][3][4] since 1981-82, which they suppressed with the help of the Syrian army, the pro-Syrian Syrian Social Nationalist Party and Ba'ath Party factions and the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) in 1985-86.[5][6]

The ADP/ARK also joined the LNRF (Jammoul) guerrilla alliance in September 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon and later its successor, the wider Syrian-sponsored Lebanese National Salvation Front (LNSF) in July 1983 against the American-backed government of President Amin Gemayel.[citation needed] In 1988-1990 they accepted the Taif Agreement and supported the parliament-based provisional government of Selim al-Hoss against General Michel Aoun's military interim government.[citation needed]

Military structure and organization[edit]

The ADP raised in July 1981 with Syrian support its own militia,[7] the Arab Red Knights – ARK (Arabic: Al-Fursan al-Hammur al-Arabi‎‎) or Red Knights for short. Trained by Rifa'at's Defense Companies, they were also known as the 'Pink Panthers' due to their green- and raspberry-colored camouflage uniforms.[8][9] Commanded by Ali Eid the ARK initially aligned just 500 militiamen,[10] but subsequently grew to 1,000 well-armed male and female fighters, organized into infantry, signals, medical and Military Police 'branches', plus a motorized corps made of gun-trucks or 'technicals'. The latter comprised Santana 88 Ligero Militar jeeps and Land-Rover series II-III and Toyota Land Cruiser (J40) light pickups equipped with heavy machine-guns, recoilless rifles and Anti-Aircraft autocannons. The ADP/ARK operated manly in northern Lebanon, with its main stronghold in the adjacent Alawite-populated Jabal Muhsin, a sub-urban strategic high ground area overlooking the whole city of Tripoli though they also claimed to control some of the Alawite villages of the Akkar District right up to the Lebanese-Syrian border.

Illegal activities and controversy[edit]

By the mid-1980s, allied with the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) Popular Guards' militia, the Red Knights also controlled the city’s commercial harbour and oil refinery – the second large deep-waters port of Lebanon – in collusion with the director of Tripoli’s harbour Ahmad Karami and corrupt Syrian Army officers. The National Fuel Company (NFC) headed jointly by businessmen Maan Karami (brother of late prime-minister Rachid Karami) and Haj Muhammad Awadah, run in the behalf of the ADP and LCP a profitable fuel smuggling ring that stretched to the Beqaa Valley.

The post-war years[edit]

After the end of the civil strife in October 1990, the ADP was disarmed and its leader Ali Eid was elected in 1991 to the newly established Alawite seat in the Lebanese Parliament. Prior to this, no Alawite had been elected to the Lebanese parliament.[11] The Party seems to have revised its traditional pro-Syrian stance in the 1990s, in favour of a moderate, cautious neutralist posture in the current sphere of Lebanon’s internal politics.

In 2005 it was rumoured[by whom?] that Rifa'at al-Assad was reviving the Red Knights militia in Tripoli.[12] It rearmed during the 2007 Lebanon conflict, after it was revealed that the Islamist group Fatah al-Islam had planned to attack the Alawis of Tripoli.[13] It was active during the 2008 Lebanon conflict, now led by Ali Eid's son Rifaat, being between 1,000 and 2,000 men strong. During the 2008 conflict, where Sunnis and Shias fought throughout Lebanon, Rifaat said in an interview: "We're the most convenient targets, the stand-in for Hezbollah, our problem can only be solved when the Shiites and Sunnis solve theirs."[14] As many as 9.000 Alawis fled their homes during the conflict.[15] Despite years of freedom in operating a militia throughout Tripoli, the Lebanese Army later severely cracked down on the militia starting in April 2014. This forced most militants to surrender to security forces and the group's leaders/commanders to free from the possibility of life in prison.[16]

Syrian Civil War[edit]

During the Syrian civil war, spillover from that conflict has led to further tensions between the ADP and surrounding Sunni militants.[17]

On 29 March 2014, Rifaat and Ali Eid Left Lebanon to Syria.

And on April 10, 2014, the Lebanese Military Investigative Judge Riyad Abu Ghayda issued an arrest warrant in absentia for the pro-Assad figure Rifaat Eid and 11 of his associates over their alleged involvement in clashes on the northern city of Tripoli. Abu Ghayda’s warrants are based on articles in the Penal Code that could lead to the death penalty.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rifaat founded the Red Knights in northern Lebanon in the early 1970s and they were eventually instrumental in helping Yasser Arafat to slip by sea to Tripoli in 1983..."Naharnet
  2. ^ "Sporadic fighting in Tripoli between the Alawite ADP forces and anti-Syrian Sunni Moslem groups has continued throughout the 1980s. Open conflict between the ADP and anti-Syrian Sunni groups broke out in the streets of Tripoli in 1981-82, largely in response to the conflict in Syria between the Sunni majority and the Alawites who constitute the ruling elite. "[1]
  3. ^ "Hashem Minqara: Free at Last" (September 2000) Archived April 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "mideastmonitor.org". mideastmonitor.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  5. ^ O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon (1998), p. 171.
  6. ^ Middle East Contemporary Survey. Google Books. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  7. ^ O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon (1998), p. 110.
  8. ^ "... the pro-Syrian Arab Democratic Party, whose militiamen are sometimes called the Pink Panthers because of their raspberry-colored fatigues..." [2]
  9. ^ James Kelly, His Brother's keeper, TIME magazine, December 19, 1983, p. 21 (box).
  10. ^ Makdisi and Sadaka, The Lebanese Civil War, 1975-1990 (2003), p. 44, Table 1: War Period Militias.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-22. 
  12. ^ "President Bashar Assad's exiled uncle, Rifaat Assad, is reactivating his "Red Knights" dissident organization in Alawite-populated regions surrounding the northern port city of Tripoli after the downfall of Syria's 29-year control of Lebanon, An Nahar reported on Sunday.""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  13. ^ "mideastmonitor.org". mideastmonitor.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  14. ^ Williams, Daniel (29 September 2008). "Tripoli Turmoil Increases Risk of a Sunni-Shiite War in Lebanon". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Robert Fisk (15 August 2008). "Al-Qa'ida sends its warriors from Iraq to wage 'jihad' in Lebanon". The Independent. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  16. ^ "Army crackdown pacifies Tripoli as militia leaders flee | News , Lebanon News". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-06-10. 
  17. ^ "Arab Democratic Party Official Shot Dead in Tripoli amid Flare up". Naharnet. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Denise Ammoun, Histoire du Liban contemporain: Tome 2 1943-1990, Fayard, Paris 2005. ISBN 978-2-213-61521-9 (in French)
  • Edgar O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon, 1975-92, Palgrave Macmillan, London 1998. ISBN 0-333-72975-7
  • Fawwaz Traboulsi, Identités et solidarités croisées dans les conflits du Liban contemporain; Chapitre 12: L'économie politique des milices: le phénomène mafieux, Thèse de Doctorat d'Histoire – 1993, Université de Paris VIII, 2007. (in French) – [3]
  • Moustafa El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks, Blue Steel books, Sidon 2008. ISBN 9953-0-1256-8
  • Rex Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival: the PLO in Lebanon, Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.
  • Robert Fisk, Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War, London: Oxford University Press, (3rd ed. 2001). ISBN 0-19-280130-9
  • Samer Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon, Beirut: Elite Group, 2003. ISBN 9953-0-0705-5
  • Samir Makdisi and Richard Sadaka, The Lebanese Civil War, 1975-1990, American University of Beirut, Institute of Financial Economics, Lecture and Working Paper Series (2003 No.3), pp. 1-53. – [4]