Designed by architect Bertram Goodhue between 1918 and 1924, and built between 1925 and 1928 without the use of structural steel, it contains about 70 integrated figural sculptures by sculptors Lee Lawrie and Ulric Ellerhusen, and interior work by mosaicist Hildreth Meiere. Today the chapel is used for ecumenical worship services, weddings, university convocations, guest speakers, musical programs, and occasional film screenings. It occupies most of a block and can seat 1700 people.
The woodcarvings that adorn the organ and South balcony were created by Alois Lang, a Master Woodcarver at the American Seating Co., and one of the artists responsible for bringing the medieval art of ecclesiastical carving back to life. His pieces in Rockefeller Chapel are carved from White Appalachian Oak.