From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city of Lahore. For other uses, see Lahore (disambiguation).
Megacity / Metropolitan City
Lahore Fort, Lahore..jpg
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore..JPG Food street lahore.JPG
Minar-e-Pakistan 2 lahore.JPG Punjab University, Lahore.jpg
Montgomery Hall (Quaid-e-Azam Library) by Usman Ghani (cropped).jpg
Lahore is located in Pakistan
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361Coordinates: 31°32′59″N 74°20′37″E / 31.54972°N 74.34361°E / 31.54972; 74.34361
Country  Pakistan
Province Flag of Punjab.svg Punjab
City District Government 11 September 2008
City Council Lahore
Towns 10
 • Type City District
 • District Administrator Captain (R) Muhammad Usman Younis
 • District Coordination Officer Captain (R) Muhammad Usman Younis
 • Capital City Police Chief Captain (R) Amin Venus
 • Total 1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)
Elevation 217 m (712 ft)
Population (2015)[2]
 • Total 10,052,000
  Lahore Urban agglomeration
Demonym(s) Lahori
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
Postal code 54000
Dialling code 042[3]
HDI 0.806 Increase
HDI Category Very High
Lahore Cantonment is a legally separate military-administered settlement.

Lahore (/ləˈhɔər/) (Punjabi: لہور, Urdu: لاہور‎) is the capital city of the province of Punjab, the second-largest metropolitan area in Pakistan and with a population of 10,052,000 people, it is the 15th-most-populous city in the world.[2] It is an important historical centre in South Asia. With a rich history dating back over a millennium, Lahore is a main cultural centre of the Punjab region and Pakistan, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world.[4]

Lahore, ancient Lava Puri named after Lava - son of Rama, served as the regional capital of the empires of the Hindu Shahi kingdom in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th centuries and the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. From 1802 to 1849, Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. In the mid-19th and early 20th century, Lahore was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj.[5]

The traditional capital of Punjab for a millennium, Lahore was the cultural centre of the northern Indian subcontinent which extends from the eastern banks of the Indus River to New Delhi.[6][7] Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jahan are some of the major tourist attractions in the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Indo-Saracenic style, such as the General Post Office, Lahore Museum and many older universities and colleges.

Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan, as it hosts most of the arts, cuisine, festivals, music, film-making, gardening and intelligentsia of the country.[6] The city has always been a centre for publications where 80% of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan.[8] It is also home to hundreds of temples, mosques, churches and shrines.[9] The city is credited is home to some of Pakistan's leading universities including the Government College University, Forman Christian College and LUMS.[10]

Modern day Lahore consists of an old city, which is home to several world and national heritage sites, surrounded by larger suburban communities towards the southeast.[11] The city has an important cultural influence over Pakistan including through the Sufi inspired Qawwali Music, status as home to Pakistan's film industry and a popular domestic and foreign tourist destination.[12][13] More recently, the city is home to Pakistan's technology sector and is ranked as a Gamma+ world city.[14][15] The total GDP of the city is estimated at $102 billion contributed by the presence of 9,000 industrial units.[16]


Main article: History of Lahore


A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Lavapura,[17] was founded by Prince Lava or Loū,[18][19] the son of Sita and Rama, the king of Ayodhya and an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu according to the Ramayana epic. The city of Kasur was founded by his twin brother, Prince Kusha.[20] To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant Lava temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh").[21][22] Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.[23]

The oldest authentic surviving document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud al-'Alam (The Regions of the World).[24] In 1927 it was translated into English by Vladimir Minorsky and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is mentioned as a town being invaded by Arabic savages[25] "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist", and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum.[26] Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago.[27] The earliest recorded mention is by the Chinese pilgrim Hieun-tsang, who gave a vivid description of Lahore when he visited the city in AD 630.[28] Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes.[29]

Hindu Rajput period and invasions

Lahore is described as a Hindu principality in the Rajput accounts. Keneksen, the founder of Suryavansha is believed to have migrated out from the city.[30] The Solanki tribe, belonging to Amukhara Pattan which included the Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer "point to Lahore" as their place of earliest settlement. In 1241, Lahore was invaded by Mongols. Though Timur captured the city in 1397, he did not loot it because "it was not rich then".[30]

Ghaznavid Empire to Delhi Sultanate

Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1671.

Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of (hakim i lahur) –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind.[31] Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one,[32] which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under Ayaz's rule, the city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry.[33] The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.[34]

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by Turko-Afghan dynasties based in Delhi, known as the Delhi Sultanate,[35] including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Mamluk, Sayyid and Lodhis.[36] During the reign of Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Lahore was known as the 'Ghazni of India'. Scholars and poets from as far away as Kashghar, Bukhara, Samarkand, Iraq, Khorasan and Herat, gathered in Lahore and made it a city of learning. Under Aibak, Lahore had more poets of Persian than any other Islamic city.[37] In 1286, Prince Muhammad, who was the son of Balban was defeated in an encounter with the Mongols in the city.[38]

Mughal era

Food street near Shahi Qila.

In the early 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.[39] The Mughals were descended from Central Asian Turco-Mongols. Lahore reached the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time.[38]

Humayun, his son married Hamida Banu Begum in Lahore while fleeing to Persia. It was also the headquarters of Mughal rule during Akbar between 1584 and 1598. Thus along with Agra and Delhi, it became an "alternate seat of imperial court". Akbar also held discussions with Portuguese missionaries in the city. Abul Fazl, his court historian calls it a "a great city in Bari Doab, in magnificance and populousness it has few equals".[40]

The Mughal period in Lahore was interrupted with Nader Shah's brief conquest in early 1739.[41] Before leaving Delhi later that same year, he gave it back to the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah, as with all other Mughal territories to the east of the Indus which he had overrun.[42] Ahmed Shah Abdali took the city between 1747 and 1758, the founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire.[28]

Maratha reign

In 1758, the Maratha Empire's general Raghunathrao conquered Lahore, Attock and Peshawar, and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Attock were under the Maratha rule for the most part. In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players.[43]

Afghan Durrani Empire

In 1761, following the victory at the Third Battle of Panipat between the Afghan Durrani and the Maratha Empire, Ahmad Shah Abdali again captured Lahore and remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab and Kashmir regions and consolidated control over them.[44] Afghan rule continued till they were defeated and Lahore was captured by the Sikhs in 1799.

Sikh reign

Main article: Sikh period in Lahore
Maharaja Sher Singh (1807-1843) seated, attended by his council in the Lahore Fort.

During the late 18th century, frequent invasions by the Durrani Empire and the Maratha Empire due to the decline of the Mughal Empire, led to a lack of governance in the Punjab region. The Sikh Misls were in close combat with the Durrani Empire, but began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl captured Lahore. When Zaman Shah invaded Punjab again in 1799 Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. The citizens of Lahore, encouraged by Sada Kaur, offered him the city and he was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl and their allies.[45]

Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire in accordance with Lahore being the capital of Punjab. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the end of 18th century a close struggle to gain control, rebuilding efforts under the Sikh Empire were shaped by and indebted to Mughal practice. Maharaja Ranjit Singh moved into the Mughal palace in Lahore's citadel.[46] By 1812 he had mostly refurbished the city's defences by adding a second circuit of outer walls that followed the outline of Akbar's original walls and were separated from them by a moat. The Maharaja also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar, and British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show that walled private gardens – many of them bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles – continued in the Mughal pattern under Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples and mosques.[47][48]

British Raj

Street scene of Lahore.
Street scene of Lahore, 1890s.
the General Post Office
designed by Sir Ganga Ram

Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir, while keeping the British East India Company from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to East India Company control of the Punjab ten years later in 1849. For the East India Company, the Punjab was a frontier province, because the region had boundaries with Afghanistan. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and Sindhis, were discouraged from using their mother tongue as an official language out of fear of Nationalism. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab,[49][50] including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under the British (1849–1947), architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles.

Under the British, Sir Ganga Ram (referred to as the father of modern Lahore) designed and built the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, and the Lady Maynard Industrial School.[51]

Independence of Pakistan

Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of India. The 1929 Indian National Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929.[52] On this occasion, the Swaraj flag (with a charkha at its centre) was adopted by the Congress. Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionaries. Noted independence activist Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the most famous martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here.[53] The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940.[54] Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the league, that Muslims League publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.[55]


Upon the independence of Pakistan, Lahore was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments—including the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and colonial buildings.[56]

After independence and its deep impact, Lahore as so many times before, once again gained its significance as an economic and cultural powerhouse of the region, through government reforms. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city in 1974.[57]


Main article: Geography of Lahore

Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 square kilometres (156 sq mi).


Main article: Climate of Lahore
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[58]

Lahore has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). The hottest month is June, when average highs routinely exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, and the wettest month is July,[58] with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts. The coolest month is January with dense fog.

The city's record high temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F), recorded on 30 May 1944.[59] 48 °C (118 °F) was recorded on 10 June 2007.[60][61] At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F). The record low is −1 °C (30 °F), recorded on 13 January 1967.[62] The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), recorded on 13 August 2008.[63] On 26 February 2011, Lahore received heavy rain and hail measuring 4.5 mm (0.18 in), which carpeted roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the city's recorded history.[64][65]

Climate data for Lahore (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
Average high °C (°F) 19.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8
Average low °C (°F) 5.9
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
Average rainfall mm (inches) 23.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 218.8 215.0 245.8 276.6 308.3 269.0 227.5 234.9 265.6 290.0 259.6 222.9 3,034
Source #1: NOAA (1961-1990) [66]
Source #2: PMD[67]

Civic administration

Administrative towns of Lahore[68]

Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001,[69] Lahore became a City District, and was divided into nine towns.[70] Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils (U.C.'s).[71]


Main article: Economy of Lahore

As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008).[72] The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%.[73] As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144.[72] Lahore's GDP is projected to be 102 billion$ by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%.[72][74]

A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries.[75] Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services.[75] The city is Pakistan's largest software & hardware producing centre,[75] and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry.[75]

The Lahore Expo Centre is one of the biggest projects in the history of the city and was inaugurated on 22 May 2010.[76] Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country.[77] Ferozepur Road of the Central Business Districts of Lahore contains high-rises and skyscrapers including Kayre International Hotel and Arfa Software Technology Park.


Interchange in Walled City of Lahore.

Lahore Metro

The Lahore Metro or Lahore Rapid Mass Transit System (LRMTS) was first proposed in 1991. Funding was not secured, and in 2012 it was abandoned by the Punjab Government in favour of the more cost–effective Lahore Metro Bus System which opened in February 2013. However, in May 2014 the Punjab Government decided to restart development on the Lahore Metro as a $1.6 billion project with Chinese assistance. The Orange Line, which will be 27.1-kilometre (16.8 mi) long, (25.4 kilometres (15.8 mi) of which will be elevated),[78] will be the first line of the project and is under construction.[79]


Several bus companies operate in Lahore. Premier Bus Services, owned by the Beaconhouse Group, was started in 2003, and provides transportation services to the general public in Lahore. With over 240 buses running on exclusive routes, it is the largest public transport company in Pakistan. As of 2010, the buses are in the process of being converted to compressed natural gas for environmental and economic reasons.[80][not in citation given] Sammi Daewoo's City Bus Division operates three routes within the city and two suburban routes for Gujranwala and Sheikhupura.[81][better source needed] The Daewoo City Bus also operates routes within Lahore. Its headquarters are located in the city of Lahore. It is operated by a Korean company, Sammi. On 11 February 2013, Punjab Government launched Rapid Bus Transit System (MBS) in Lahore.[82]


Allama Iqbal International Airport

The government built a new city airport in 2003. It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal,[83] and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines.[84] The old terminal now operates as the Hajj terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year.[citation needed] Lahore also has a general aviation airport known as Walton Airport. The second closest commercial airport is in Amritsar, India.[citation needed]


Main article: Religion in Lahore

According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Muslim, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population), and a small number of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Ahmediya, Parsis, and Sikhs.


According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. An estimate in January 2015 gave the population of the Lahore agglomeration as 10,052,000.[2]


The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Punjabi: داتا گنج بخش) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival. Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.[85]


Lahore remains a major tourist destination in Pakistan. Particularly the Walled City of Lahore which was renovated in 2014 is popular due to presence of UNESCO World Heritage Site's.[86]

Among the most popular sights are the Lahore Fort, located to adjacent to the Walled City, is home to Sheesh Mahal, Alamgiri Gate, Naulakha pavilion, and Moti Masjid. The fort along with the adjoining Shalimar Gardens has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.[87]

The city is home to several ancient religious sites including prominet Hindu temples, the Krishna Temple and Valmiki Mandir Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, also located near the Walled City, houses the funerary urns of the Sikhruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The most prominent religious building is the Badshahi Mosque, constructed in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world upon construction. Another popular sight is the Wazir Khan Mosque which is known for its extensive faience tile work was constructed in 1635.[88]


Other well known Masjids inside the Walled City are

andAnga] the tomb of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire.

Museums [89]

Tombs and Shrines

The city of Lahore has a large number of historic tombs[89] of Mughals and shrines of Sufi saints. Following is the list:[90]


There are many havelis inside the Walled City of Lahore, some in good condition while others need urgent attention. Many of these havlis are fine examples of Mughal and Sikh Architecture. Some of the havelis inside the Walled City include:

Other landmarks

  • Shahi Hamam
  • Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
  • Tomb of Malik Ayaz
  • Lal Haveli beside Mochi Bagh
  • Mughal Haveli (Residence of Maharaja Ranjeet Singh)
  • Haveli Sir Wajid Ali Shah (Near Nisar Haveli)
  • Haveli Mian Khan (Rang Mehal)
  • Haveli Shergharian (Near Lal Khou)

Historic neighborhoods surrounding old city

Historic parks and gardens

Artificial Waterfall at jilani park

Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th-century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.[91][not in citation given]


Main article: Education in Lahore

Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan's largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high tech centre of Pakistan .[92] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes:

Lahore's principal educational institutes and establishments include:


The Pakistan Fashion Design Council organised the Lahore Fashion Week 2010[94] as well as the PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore 2011.[95]


Further information: Architecture of Lahore


Lahore has successfully hosted many international sports events including final of the 1990 Hockey World Cup and final of the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The headquarters of all major sports governing bodies are located here in Lahore including Cricket, Hockey, Rugby, Football etc. and also has the head office of Pakistan Olympic Association.

Gaddafi Stadium is the largest stadium of Pakistan with a capacity of 60,000 spectators.

Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia.

Lahore is home to several golf courses. The Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course, the Lahore Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built DHA Golf Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007.[96][not in citation given] Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River.[97][better source needed]

Professional Sports Teams from Lahore
Club League Sport Venue Established
Lahore Qalandars Pakistan Super League Cricket Dubai International Cricket Stadium 2015
Lahore Lions National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket Gaddafi Stadium 2004
Lahore Eagles National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket Gaddafi Stadium 2006
WAPDA F.C. Pakistan Premier League Football Punjab Stadium 1983

Notable people

Twin Towns and Sister Cities

The following international cities have been declared twin towns and sister cities of Lahore.

See also


  1. ^ "Punjab Portal". Government of Punjab. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Demographia Worlf Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia. 1 January 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "National Dialing Codes". Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Pakistan Demographics Profile 2014". IndexMundi. July 2014. 
  5. ^ "Rising Lahore and reviving Pakistan - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  6. ^ a b Lahore Cantonment,
  7. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 22 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  8. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 4 March 2005. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Asher, Catherine; Talbot, Cynthia (2006). India before Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-521-80904-5. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  10. ^ Zaidi, S. Akbar (2012-10-15). "Lahore’s domination". Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  11. ^ "Lahore | Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  12. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Lahore, Pakistan - Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  13. ^ Windsor, Antonia (22 November 2006). "Out of the rubble". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  14. ^ "Lahore based start-up secures $100,000 investment for expansion - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 2016-01-09. Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  15. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2010". 14 September 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2012. 
  16. ^ "Economy | Business | GDP". Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  17. ^ Bombay Historical Society (1946). Annual bibliography of Indian history and Indology, Volume 4. p. 257. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  18. ^ Baqir, Muhammad (1985). Lahore, past and present. B.R. Pub. Corp. p. 22. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  19. ^
  20. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan N (2005). Punjab: land, history, people. Al-Faisal Nashran. p. 111. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 
  21. ^ Ahmed, Shoaib (16 April 2004). "Hindu, Sikh temples in state of disrepair". Daily Times. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  22. ^ Naqoosh, Lahore Number 1976
  23. ^ Charles Umpherston Aitchison. Lord Lawrence and the Reconstruction of India Under the British Rule. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 54. ISBN 9788177551730. 
  24. ^ unknown author from Jōzjān (1937). Hudud al-'Alam, The Regions of the World: A Persian Geography, 372 A.H. – 982 A.D. Translated by V. Minorsky. London: Oxford University Press. 
  25. ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink
  26. ^ "Dawn Pakistan – The 'shroud' over Lahore's antiquity". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  27. ^ "Glasgow gets a new twin in Lahore". Living in Glasgow. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  28. ^ a b Kerr, Ian J. "LAHORE". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  29. ^ Ihsan H. Nadiem. Lahore, a Glorious Heritage. Sang-e-Meel Publications. p. 11. ISBN 9789693507188. 
  30. ^ a b Neville, p.xii
  31. ^ Al-Hind, the Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th–13th Centuries By André Wink PAGE 235
  32. ^ Andrew Petersen (1996). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-415-06084-4. 
  33. ^ ":.GC University Lahore". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  34. ^ James L. Wescoat; Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (1 January 1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-88402-235-0. 
  35. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. "Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia (2 volumes): A Historical Encyclopedia" ABC-CLIO, 22 jul. 2011 ISBN 978-1598843378 pp 269-270
  36. ^ History of Lahore, Lahore City Government. Retrieved on 19 September 2007. Archived 29 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ "Once upon a time". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  38. ^ a b Neville, p.xiii
  39. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)
  40. ^ Neville, p.xiv
  41. ^ Axworthy, Michael (2010). Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. p. 195. ISBN 978-0857733474. 
  42. ^ Axworthy, Michael (2010). Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. I.B. Tauris. pp. 212, 216. ISBN 978-0857733474. 
  43. ^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8. 
  44. ^ For a detailed account of the battle fought, see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H. G. Keene.
  45. ^ Kakshi, S.R.; Pathak, Rashmi; Pathak, S.R.Bakshi R. (1 January 2007). Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. pp. 272–274. ISBN 978-81-7625-738-1. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  46. ^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. ''(Date:1989. ISBN 8170172446'')". 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  47. ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (1 January 2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3.
  48. ^ Masson, Charles. 1842. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, 3 v. London: Richard Bentley (1) 37
  49. ^ Janet Maybin; Open University (1994). Language and Literacy in Social Practice: A Reader. Multilingual Matters. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-85359-215-7. 
  50. ^ Florian Coulmas (2003). Writing Systems: An Introduction to Their Linguistic Analysis. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-521-78737-6. 
  51. ^ Gill, Anjum. "Father of modern Lahore remembered on anniversary." Daily Times (Pakistan). 12 July 2004. Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. ^ "Republic Day". Tribune India. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  53. ^ "A memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh, says the governor of Lahore." Daily Times Pakistan. 2 September 2007.
  54. ^ Story of Pakistan – Lahore Resolution 1940, Jin Technologies. Retrieved on 19 September 2007.
  55. ^ I H Qureshi (1965), Struggle for Pakistan, Karachi
  56. ^ Dalrymple, William. Lahore: Blood on the Tracks.
  57. ^ "Second Islamic Summit Conference". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  58. ^ a b "Climatological Normals of Lahore". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  59. ^ "QUETTA". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  60. ^ "Highest temperature in 78 years: Four die as city sizzles at 48o C". Daily Times. 10 June 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  61. ^ "Heatwave to persist for 4–5 days", The Dawn, 10 June 2007.
  62. ^ [1] Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ [2] Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  64. ^ [3] Daily Times – Citizens cheer as hail turns city white
  65. ^ "Lahore becomes Murree!". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  66. ^ "Lahore Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  67. ^ "Extremes of Lahore". Pakistan Meteorological Department. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  68. ^ "Town Nazims & Naib Town Nazims in the City District of Lahore". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  69. ^ "The Local Government System 2001". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. 14 August 2001. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  70. ^ "City District Governments". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  71. ^ "City District". National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  72. ^ a b c "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  73. ^ Inskeep, Steve (1 June 2008). "Karachi Calling!". NPR. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  74. ^ "Richest cities in the world in 2020 by GDP". City Mayors. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2009. 
  75. ^ a b c d Asian Development Bank. "Rapid Mass Transit System Project" (PDF). Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  76. ^ "Expo Centre Lahore". LahoreExpo. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  77. ^ "Defence Raya Golf Resort, Lahore - By D.H.A Lahore". Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  78. ^ "City to lose 620 trees for Orange Line train". 
  79. ^ Habib Construction, current projects
  80. ^ [4] Archived 10 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  81. ^ ":- Daewoo Express (Dream Journey)-:". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  82. ^ Lahore Metro Bus Tribune Cover Page Story
  83. ^ "History of Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore". Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  84. ^ "Pakistan International Airlines". Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  85. ^ "11 Dead at Pakistani Kite Festival, Metal Kite Strings, Stray Celebratory Gunfire Claim Lives at Annual Event, More Than 100 Injured". CBS News. 26 February 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  86. ^ Reporter, The Newspaper's Staff (2016-01-02). "Ten-fold increase in foreign tourists for Lahore Walled City". Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  87. ^ "Historical mosques of Lahore". Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  88. ^ Blanshard Asher, Catherine (1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521267281. 
  89. ^ a b
  90. ^
  91. ^ Lawrence Gardens at Garden Visit website. (Retrieved on 27 March 2007)
  92. ^ Raza, M. Hanif (1999). Portrait of Pakistan. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 969-0-01545-1. 
  93. ^ "University of the Punjab – Introduction". University of the Punjab. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
  94. ^ Kiran Khalid (23 February 2010). "Pakistan's fashionistas: We aren't revolutionaries — CNN". Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  95. ^ "PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore 2011, Lahore Fashion Week 2011". Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  96. ^ "Lahore Marathon Website". Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  97. ^ "Lahore soon to get a Sports City". Lahore Metblogs. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  98. ^ a b c d e f g h i Syed Shayan (February 2015). "Ground Realities 4". Akhbar Peela. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  99. ^ Mansab Dogar, [5], "Daily Times" , October 15, 2008
  100. ^ "Glasgow 'twinned' with Lahore". 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  101. ^ "Lahore & Chicago". Chicago Sister Cities International Program. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  102. ^ "Lahore and Chicago declared sister cities". City District Government of Lahore. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 


External links