|Megacity / Metropolitan City|
|Nickname(s): The Pearl of Punjab, The Heart of Pakistan, City of Lively Hearts|
|City District Government||11 September 2008|
|• Type||City District|
|• Divisional Commissioner||Abdullah Sumbal|
|• District Coordination Officer||Captain (R) Muhammad Usman Younis|
|• Total||1,772 km2 (684 sq mi)|
|Elevation||217 m (712 ft)|
|Lahore Urban agglomeration|
|Time zone||PKT (UTC+5)|
|HDI Category||Very High|
|Lahore Cantonment is a legally separate military-administered settlement.|
Lahore (//; ALA-LC: Lahor Punjabi pronunciation: [ləhoːr] ( listen); Urdu: لاہور ALA-LC: Lāhor IPA: [lɑːhoːr]) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, the second largest metropolitan area in the country and an important historical center in South Asia. With a rich history dating back over a millennium, Lahore is a main cultural centre of the Punjab region and Pakistan. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains an economic, political, transportation, entertainment, and educational hub. It is referred to as the "Mughal City of Gardens"[by whom?] due to the historic presence of gardens in and around the city dating back to the Mughal period.
Lahore successively served as a regional capital of the empires of the Shahi kingdoms in the 11th century, the Ghaznavids in the 12th century, the Ghurid State in the 12th and 13th centuries and the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. From 1802 to 1849, Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire. In the mid-19th and early 20th century, Lahore was the capital of the Punjab region under the British Raj. The traditional capital of Punjab for a millennium, Lahore was the cultural centre of the northern Indian subcontinent which extends from the eastern banks of the Indus River to New Delhi. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jahan, Chauburji Gate, and the walled city are some of the major tourist attractions in the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Indo-Saracenic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Lahore Railway Station, and many older universities and colleges including the University of the Punjab, Govt College and King Edward Medical University. The Lahore Zoo, thought to be the fourth oldest in the world, is also situated here.
Lahore is referred to as the cultural heart of Pakistan as it hosts most of the arts, cuisine, festivals, music, film-making, gardening and intelligentsia of the country. The city has always been a centre for publications where 80 percent of Pakistan's books are published, and it remains the foremost centre of literary, educational and cultural activity in Pakistan. It is also an important religious centre as it is home to hundreds of temples, mosques, churches and shrines like Data Durbar Complex.
According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,319,000. In July 2014, Index Mundi put the population of the city at 7,566,000. An estimate in January 2015 gave the population of the Lahore agglomeration as 10,052,000. It is ranked 34 in the most populated urban areas in the world and the 8th largest city within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The area of Lahore has almost doubled in the last 12 to 14 years. In 2010, Lahore was ranked as a Gamma+ world city. The Guardian has rated Lahore as the 2nd best tourist destination in Pakistan after Taxila.
- 1 History
- 2 Language and dialects
- 3 Geography
- 4 Civic administration
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Population
- 8 Religion
- 9 Culture
- 10 Historic parks and gardens
- 11 Health care
- 12 Education
- 13 Arts and media
- 14 Fashion
- 15 Architecture
- 16 Sports
- 17 Notable people
- 18 Twin Towns and Sister Cities
- 19 See also
- 20 References
- 21 Bibliography
- 22 External links
A legend based on oral traditions holds that Lahore, known in ancient times as Shehwar Elahi da Thikana ("Den of Shehwar" in Sanskrit), was founded by Prince Lava (or Loh), the son of Sita and Rama, the Hindu deity in the Ramayana. The city of Kasur was founded by his twin brother, Prince Kusha. To this day, Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence Loh-awar or "The Fort of Loh"). Ptolemy, the celebrated 2nd-century Egyptian astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna) mostly, in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir). It was described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may have been ancient Lahore.
The oldest authentic surviving document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982. It is called Hudud al-'Alam (The Regions of the World). In 1927 it was translated into English by Vladimir Minorsky and published in Lahore. In this document, Lahore is mentioned as a shehr or town inhabited by infidels "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist", and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. Lahore was called by different names throughout history. To date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded. Some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago. However, historically, it has been proved that Lahore is at least 2,000 years old. Hieun-tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim has given a vivid description of Lahore which he visited in the early parts of the 7th century. Lahore has been ruled and plundered by a number of dynasties and hordes.
Rajput period and invasions
Lahore is referred as a Hindu principality in the Rajput accounts. Keneksen, the founder of Suryavansha is believed to have migrated out from the city. The Solanki tribe, belonging to Amukhara Pattan which included the Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer "point to Lahore" as their place of earliest settlement. In 1241, Lahore was invaded by Chengiz Khan. Though Timur captured the city in 1397, he did not loot it because "it was not rich then".
Lahore appears as the capital of the Punjab for the first time under Anandapala – the Hindu Shahi king who is referred to as the ruler of (hakim i lahur) –after leaving the earlier capital of Waihind. Few references to Lahore remain from before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi in the 11th century. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. In 1021, Sultan Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037–1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695–96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under Ayaz's rule, the city became a cultural and academic centre, renowned for poetry. The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.
After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Turkic dynasties based in Delhi, known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Mamluk, Sayyid and Lodhis. During the reign of Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Lahore was known as the 'Ghazni of India'. Scholars and poets from as far away as Kashghar, Bukhara, Samarkand, Iraq, Khorasan and Herat, gathered in Lahore and made it a city of learning. Under Aibak, Lahore had more poets of Persian than any other Islamic city. In 1286, Prince Muhammad, who was the son of Balban was defeated in an encounter with the Mongols in the city.
In the early 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The Mughals were descended from Central Asian Turco-Mongols . Lahore reached the zenith of its glory during the Mughal rule from 1524 to 1752. Lahore reached the peak of its architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time.
Humayun, his son married Hamida Banu Begum in Lahore while fleeing to Persia. It was also the headquarters of Mughal rule during Akbar between 1584 to 1598. Thus along with Agra and Delhi, it became an "alternate seat of imperial court". Akbar also held discussions with various Portuguese missionaries in the city. Abul Fazl, his court historian calls it a "a great city in Bari Doab,in magnificance and populousness it has few equals".
During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Punjab, including Lahore, was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. In 1739, Nader Shah, the Turkic emperor of Afsharid dynasty in Persia, invaded north western India, defeated the Mughal Emperor Mohammed Shah at the huge Battle of Karnal, and occupied most of Balochistan and the Indus plain including Lahore. In 1747, the Durrani Empire was established by Ahmad Shah Abdali in Afghanistan, during this period, Punjab saw frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali, The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta lahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da"("we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah").
In 1758, the Maratha Empire's general Raghunathrao conquered Lahore, Attock and Peshawar, and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lahore, Multan, Peshawar, Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Attock were under the Maratha rule for the most part. In Punjab and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players. In 1761, following the victory at the Third Battle of Panipat between the Durrani and the Maratha Empire, Ahmad Shah Abdali captured remnants of the Maratha Empire in Punjab and Kashmir regions and consolidated control over them.
During the late 18th century, frequent invasions by the Durrani Empire and the Maratha Empire due to the decline of the Mughal Empire, led to a lack of governance in the Punjab region. The Sikh Misls were in close combat with the Durrani Empire, but began to gain territory and eventually the Bhangi Misl captured Lahore. When Zaman Shah invaded Punjab again in 1799 Maharaja Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in the chaos. He defeated Zaman in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. The citizens of Lahore, encouraged by Sada Kaur, offered him the city and he was able to take control of it in a series of battles with the Bhangi Misl and their allies. Lahore served as the capital city of the Sikh Empire in accordance with Lahore being the capital of Punjab. While much of Lahore's Mughal era fabric lay in ruins by the end of 18th century a close struggle to gain control, rebuilding efforts under the Sikh Empire were shaped by and indebted to Mughal practice. Maharaja Ranjit Singh moved into the Mughal palace in Lahore's citadel. By 1812 he had mostly refurbished the city's defences by adding a second circuit of outer walls that followed the outline of Akbar's original walls and were separated from them by a moat. The Maharaja also partially restored Shah Jahan's decaying gardens at Shalimar, and British maps of the area surrounding Lahore dating from the mid-19th century show that walled private gardens – many of them bearing the names of prominent Sikh nobles – continued in the Mughal pattern under Sikh rule. The Sikh court continued to endow religious architecture in the city, including a number of Sikh gurdwaras, Hindu temples and mosques.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to the Khyber Pass and also included Jammu and Kashmir, while keeping the British East India Company from expanding across the River Sutlej for more than 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to East India Company control of the Punjab ten years later. For the East India Company, the Punjab was a frontier province, because the region had boundaries with Afghanistan. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were discouraged from using their mother tongue as an official language out of fear of Nationalism. The British first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab, including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under the British (1849–1947), architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. Under the British, Sir Ganga Ram (referred to as the father of modern Lahore) designed and built the General Post Office, Lahore Museum, Aitchison College, Mayo School of Arts (now the NCA), Ganga Ram Hospital, Lady Mclagan Girls High School, the chemistry department of the Government College University, the Albert Victor wing of Mayo Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram High School (now Lahore College for Women) the Hailey College of Commerce, Ravi Road House for the Disabled, the Ganga Ram Trust Building on Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, and the Lady Maynard Industrial School. He also constructed Model Town, a suburb that has recently developed into a cultural centre for Lahore's growing socioeconomic elite.
Independence of Pakistan
Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of India. The 1929 Indian National Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929. On this occasion, the Swaraj flag (with a charkha at its centre) was adopted by the Congress. Lahore's prison was used by the British to detain revolutionaries. Noted independence activist Jatin Das died in Lahore's prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the most famous martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged here. The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the league, that Muslims League publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.
Upon the independence of Pakistan, Lahore was made capital of the Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out among Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments—including the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and colonial buildings. With United Nations assistance, the government was able to rebuild Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of independence were erased. Less than 20 years later, however, Lahore once again became a battleground in the War of 1965. The battlefield and trenches can still be observed today close to the Wagah border area.
After independence and its deep impact, Lahore as so many times before, once again gained its significance as an economic and cultural powerhouse of the region, through government reforms. The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city in 1974. In 1996 the International Cricket Council Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. The Walled City of Lahore known locally as the "Un-droone Shehr" is the oldest and most historic part of Lahore. The Punjab government embarked on a major project in 2009 to restore the Royal Trail (Shahi Guzar Gah) from Akbari Gate to the Lahore Fort with the help of the World Bank under the Sustainable Development of the Walled City of Lahore (SDWCL) project. The project aims at the Walled City development, at exploring and highlighting economic potential of the Walled City as a cultural heritage, exploring and highlighting the benefits of the SWDCL project for the residents, and at soliciting suggestions regarding maintenance of development and conservation of the Walled City. This city is famous for historic places i.e. Badshahi Mosque, Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore Fort, Malik Ayaz tomb, Wazir Khan Mosque, Moti Masjid, Lahore (Pearl Mosque), Muslim Mosque, Akbari Mandi, Taxali Gate etc.
Language and dialects
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi language is spoken by 87% of the population. Lahore being the capital of the province of Punjab exhibits a great variety of Punjabi dialects spoken by the people of different district's living in the city.
Other languages include:
- Urdu being the national language is also spoken and understood by most of the population and primarily used as a second language.
- English is also understood and spoken by a sizeable segment of the educated population.
- Minority Languages spoken by people of different parts of Pakistan and Afghan refugees living in Lahore (Pahari, Haryanvi, Mewati, Raangrri, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Brahui, Kashmiri, Shina, Balti, Khowar/Chitrali, Burushaski and Dari).
Lying between 31°15′—31°45′ N and 74°01′—74°39′ E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 square kilometres (156 sq mi) and is still growing.
Lahore Museum was established in 1865
Tomb for Allama Iqbal
Wagah border ceremony
A.C. Woolner statue
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Lahore has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). The hottest month is June, when average highs routinely exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, and the wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudbursts. The coolest month is January with dense fog.
The city's record high temperature was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F), recorded on 30 May 1944. 48 °C (118 °F) was recorded on 10 June 2007. At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C (131 °F). The record low is −1 °C (30 °F), recorded on 13 January 1967. The highest rainfall in a 24-hour period is 221 millimetres (8.7 in), recorded on 13 August 2008. On 26 February 2011, Lahore received heavy rain and hail measuring 4.5 mm (0.18 in), which carpeted roads and sidewalks with measurable hail for the first time in the city's recorded history.
|Climate data for Lahore (1961–1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.8
|Average high °C (°F)||19.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.8
|Average low °C (°F)||5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||23.0
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||218.8||215.0||245.8||276.6||308.3||269.0||227.5||234.9||265.6||290.0||259.6||222.9||3,034|
|Source #1: NOAA (1961-1990) |
|Source #2: PMD|
Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Lahore became a City District, and was divided into nine towns. Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils (U.C.'s).
Other major residential areas within Lahore include:
Lahore's old city fabric has changed dramatically over time under the occupation of various South Asian empires. Some of the older remaining colonies of Lahore are:
As of 2008, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $40 billion with a projected average growth rate of 5.6 percent. This is at par with Pakistan's economic hub, Karachi, with Lahore (having half the population) fostering an economy that is 51% of the size of Karachi's ($78 billion in 2008). The contribution of Lahore to the national economy is supposed to be around 13.2%. As a whole Punjab has $115 billion economy making it first and to date only Pakistani Subdivision of economy more than $100 billion at the rank 144. Lahore's GDP is projected to be 102 billion$ by the year 2025, with a slightly higher growth rate of 5.6% per annum, as compared to Karachi's 5.5%. Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand). Lahore's economic base is broad and varied.
A major industrial agglomeration with about 9,000 industrial units, Lahore has shifted in recent decades from manufacturing to service industries. Some 42% of its work force is employed in finance, banking, real estate, community, cultural, and social services. The city is Pakistan's largest software & hardware producing centre, and hosts a growing computer-assembly industry. Arfa Software Technology Park in Lahore is the biggest and most advanced IT park in the country.
Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet manufacturing in Pakistan. At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry. Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types. Lahore has head offices of many multi national and important national corporations. National corporations like WAPDA, Pakistan Railway, Pakistan Cricket Board, Pakistan Hockey Federation, Pakistan Football Federation, SUI Northern gas, Packages Ltd, NesPak, Qurshi, SUFI and multinationals like Nestle Pakistan Ltd, ABB, McDonald's, Metro, Makro and Hyperstar (Carrefour)all have their headquarters in Lahore.
Lake City is a resort and residential development planned on the outskirts of Lahore. Covering an area of more than 2,104 acres (851 ha), the resort will include lush green parks, sinuous lakes, an 18-hole regulation golf course and other features. Defense Raya Golf Resort, also under construction, will be Pakistan's and Asia's largest golf course. The project is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia. The rapid development of large projects such as these in the city is expected to boost the economy of the country. Ferozepur Road of the Central Business Districts of Lahore & contains many high-rises and skyscrapers including Kayre International Hotel, Arfa Software Technology Park and the Mubarak Center. Hafeez Center and Hall Road, count among major trade areas for electronic equipment.
Lahore's two major markets both are located in Gulberg. The Main Market Gulberg and Liberty Market are commercial hubs in central Lahore, functioning as half bazaar and half shopping mall in appearance and layout. Along the side of Main Market is the Canal Park Bazar. FC College which was established in 1864 now a leading University of Pakistan is in Gulberg. Most of Lahore's major high-end commercial districts are located within Gulberg, including M. M. Alam road, Gulberg Main Boulevard, portions of Mall Road, Jail Road, Gaddafi Stadium and others. Many important buildings as well as skyscrapers like Pace Towers, City Towers, M. M. Tower, Ali Tower, Vogue Towers etc. are also located here. Ali Trade Center is also under construction here..
Among the many other projects under construction in Lahore are: Pace Tower (24 floors, under construction), Ali Trade Center (24 floors, under construction), Expo Centre tower (approved), IT Tower (23 floors, under construction), Alamgir Tower (31 floors, under construction), DHA Haly Tower (low rise, under construction), Lahore Ring Road (under construction), Lahore Sports City (approved), Xinhua Mall (20 floors, under construction),Ali Trade Center is also under construction, Boulevard Heights (19 floors, under construction), Pearl Continental Tower (40 floors, 152 meters, proposed), LDA Tower (40 floors, approved), Bank Square Gulberg (vision), Pace Circle and Hyatt Regency (12 floors, under construction) and Tricon Corporate Tower (18 floors, under construction). The economy is also enhanced by Lahore's historic and cultural importance. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan brings the city one of the largest development budgets in the country.
Lahore has 2 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, more than 200 archaeological sites and historic places and is a centre of art and culture in Pakistan. The main tourist attractions in Lahore are the Lahore Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Minar-e-Pakistan, Shalimar Gardens, Lahore Museum, Tomb of Jahangir, Tomb of Nur Jahan, Tomb of Asif Khan, Chauburji, Gawalmandi Food Street, Fort Road Food Street, Lahore Zoo, Lahore Zoo Safari Park, Fortress Stadium, The Mall, Lahore, Wazir Khan Mosque, Anarkali Bazaar, Hazuri Bagh Baradari, Jallo Park,Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Wild Life Park, Changa Manga, Zamzama, Masonic Temple (Lahore), Charing Cross, Lahore and Sukh Chayn Gardens.
Lahore is one of Pakistan's most accessible cities and the only city in the country where one can find public and private transportation 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This includes public buses, as well as thousands of rickshaws and taxis, which run on compressed natural gas to reduce pollution in the city. About 75% of residents have their own conveyances. The roads in the city are well maintained and are broadened when needed to meet increasing demand.Lahore TransLahore:Lahore Transport Company was established in 1984 to ease the traffic conditions of Lahore and improve bus services. LTC got all the transport responsibilities of travelling in Lahore in December 2009. A BRTS fleet of 650 buses was introduced. It was named TransLahore. However, the BRTS did not have dedicated lanes and had to share roads with regular traffic with no right of way privileges. This resulted in a system that was a BRTS only in name.
- The Lahore Metrobus Service was inaugurated on 10 February 2013. The first section consists of a 27-kilometre road track, from Gajumata to Shahadra. Of this track, 8.5 km is elevated. Travel time for the 27 km is 55 minutes. It has 27 bus stations and incorporates e-ticketing and the intelligent transportation system.
In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. Road), motorways connecting all major cities (Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, etc.) have been built. A motorway to Sialkot is under construction. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. The government would undertake planned rehabilitation of the roads, which have outlived their designed life, construction of missing road links and development of province-wide secondary arteries linking national motorways and trade corridors to foster economic opportunities via meeting expanding domestic and international travel and trade demands. The Punjab government had allocated Rs. 170.300 million for W/I of Thokar-Raiwind Road, Rs. 50 million for the dualisation of Lahore-Jaranwala Road from Ferozepur Interchange to Mandi Faizabad, Rs. 40 million for the construction of extending building for IWMI Thokar Niaz Baig Lahore, Rs. 50 million for the strengthening of Sheikhupura-Gujranwala Road, and Rs. 15 million for the construction of a bypass between Sargodha and Lahore Road.
Several bus companies operate in Lahore. Premier Bus Services, owned by the Beaconhouse Group, was started in 2003, and provides transportation services to the general public in Lahore. With over 240 buses running on exclusive routes, it is the largest public transport company in Pakistan. As of 2010[update], the buses are in the process of being converted to compressed natural gas for environmental and economic reasons.
Sammi Daewoo's City Bus Division operates four routes within the city and two suburban routes for Gujranwala and Sheikhupura. Though these buses are fewer in number, they are air-conditioned and provide better comfort to passengers.
In addition to these two major companies, there are several other small companies (New Khan Metro, Niazi, etc.) that provide services within Lahore; they cover only particular routes and are few in number.
The Foton City Bus and First Bus, which were introduced by Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif for comfortable and luxurious transportation in the city, operate routes within Lahore. They are the first buses of its kind introduced in Pakistan. The Lahore Transport Company (LTC) signed an agreement with First Bus Service (FBS) and Foton Bus Company (FBC) to run as many as 400 buses in the city. The latter is to launch 225 buses and FBS 175 buses before December this year.
The Daewoo City Bus also operates routes within Lahore. Its headquarters are located in the city of Lahore. It is operated by a Korean company, Sammi. On 11 February 2013, Punjab Government launched Rapid Bus Transit System (MBS) in Lahore.
In addition to above Turkish company Albayrak is operating 172 CNG buses in the city of Lahore since June 2012 and also operating MBS (Metro Bus Service) with 64 articulated buses since Feb 2013 becoming largest public transport operator in Lahore.
Lahore Railway Station is biggest Railway Station in Pakistan. Pakistan Railways is headquartered in Lahore. Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters and connects distant parts of the country with Lahore for business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Lahore Junction railway station, built during the British colonial era, is located in the heart of the city.
To accommodate increased air travel, the government built a new city airport in 2003. It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet-philosopher of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. The previous airport now operates as the Hajj terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year. Lahore also has a general aviation airport known as Walton Airport.
The second closest commercial airport is in Amritsar, India.
According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was 6,318,745. An estimate in July 2014 put the population of the Lahore agglomeration at 7,566,000. It is considered to be one of the 35 largest cities of the world.
According to the 1998 census, 94% of Lahore's population is Sunni or Shia Muslim, up from 60% in 1941. Other religions include Christians (5.80% of the total population, though they form around 9.0% of the rural population), and a small number of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Ahmediya, Parsis, and Sikhs. Due to Lahore's diverse culture, there are many mosques, shrines, synagogues, Hindu and Jain temples, Sikh Gurudwaras, and churches across the city. Some of the most famous mosques include: Badshahi Masjid, Dai Anga Mosque, Data Durbar Complex, Shia Masjid, Suneri Mosque, Wazir Khan Mosque, Moti Masjid, Masjid-e-Shuhda (Martyr's Mosque) and Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum. There are many shrines dedicated to different people. Some of the famous shrines include: Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal, Bibi Pak Daman, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Tomb of Shah Jamal, Tomb of Lal Hussain, Tomb of Anārkalī, Tomb of Jahangir, Tomb of Empress Nur Jehan and Tomb of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan. Some of the well-known churches include Regal Church, Hall Road Church, Convent of Jesus and Mary and Sacred Heart Cathedral.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012)|
Lahore's culture is unique. Known as the Cultural Capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city was the seat of the Mughal Empire and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th-century empire and in the British Empire. Lahore has a number of shopping malls. Mall of Lahore with a super market green valley in underground and food court with lots of fast food, Italian, Chinese, Pakistani and Mediterranean restaurants is one of them. There are also Al Noor, Vogue Towers and Ali towers on M. M. Alam Road, Gulberg. Gulberg and Defence and DHA EME are Affluent suburbs of Lahore. Urban neighbourhoods of Lahore like Bahria Town,Safari Villas and Ahram e Misr, Lake Coty, Park View Villas, Tricon Valley and Raiwind are developing rapidly.
Lahore has played an important role in Pakistani history. It was the city where Pakistan's independence declaration was made. It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims lived closely in Lahore before the independence of Pakistan. The city suffered revolts, demonstrations and bloodshed at the time of independence due to the enmity between Muslims and Hindus at the time and the uncertainty which loomed over the fate of Lahore even after India and Pakistan became independent. Lahore's culture, its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract people from all over the country.
The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and other traditions. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses during public holidays; roads and businesses may be lit for days. The mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri, also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش) or Data Sahib, is located in Lahore, and an annual urs is held every year as a big festival.Basant is a Punjabi festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centred in Lahore, and people from all over the country and from abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharp kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.
The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens. The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings. On 14 August, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore; the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers. The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten-day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime, and puppetry shows. The festival has an international character, with nearly 80 percent of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15–20 different shows are performed every day of the festival.
Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating. While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin' Donuts, Nando's, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Hardee's have appeared all over the city. Recently the food streets in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Fort Road) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. Some branches of Pizza Hut and McDonald's are open 24/7; McDonald's and KFC also offer a home delivery service. Lahore also boasts a unique restaurant housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist which was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favoured haunt of intellectuals and artists. Lahore remains a traditional centre of Pakistani Chinese cuisine, demonstrated through the large presence and popularity of Chinese restaurants in the city.
The alleys and lanes of these bazaars are full of traditional wares like leather articles, embroidered garments, glass bangles, beaten gold and silver jewellery, and creations in silk. Anarkali is named after the famous courtesan of Akbar's time, Anarkali (Pomegranate Blossom). The grave of Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, who died falling off his horse while playing polo, is located in Anarkali on Aibak Road. Rang Mahal is part of old Lahore and today's houses a largest wholesale and retail cloth markets in Pakistan. Lahore's technology markets include the Hall Road, Pakistan's largest electronics market adjacent to the Mall Road, Abid Market on Queen's Road and the Hafeez Centre, Asia's largest computer market, located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard. Pace, a shopping centre, is also located on the Main Boulevard beside the Hafeez Centre. Other well-known and popular shopping areas are the Liberty Market in Gulberg and at the Fortress Stadium, as well as malls in Gulberg, Model Town, M M Alam Road, and Cantonment. Apart from these, shopping areas are being developed in many of Lahore's new suburbs such as Bahria Town, Lake City, and Cantonment.
Lahore offers a variety of nighttime activities. There are popular shisha bars (offering the flavoured tobacco pipes commonly found in Middle Eastern nations), attractive food outlets, and musical concerts and shows. Alcohol is available to foreigners who request it at certain hotels, but is generally not sold in public. Lahoris are known for their exquisite taste in food, so the market has produced some of the most versatile, classy and inviting restaurants in the world. The blend of food and music at some uniquely expressive locales is exceptional. There are many shopping areas which remain open late into the night, offering an atmosphere of lively hustle and bustle (not to mention numerous bargains). There are scenic parks that are frequented by joggers, couples, children, students and seniors. Bagh-e-Jinnah (formerly known as Lawrence Gardens) is one such place; it has a large variety of gorgeous plants, trees, long and varied pathways and creative light effects. The younger crowd is generally more attracted to shops and restaurants near Gaddafi Stadium, Fortress Stadium and Gulberg. Most of the food chains are also here. The city has many significant connections with Sikhism and played an important part in the history of the Sikh Gurus. Guru Ram Das was born at Bazaar Chuna Mandi, Lahore in 1534. Guru Arjan Dev got the foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib, laid by a Muslim Saint Hazrat Mian Mir Ji of Lahore in December 1588. Guru Arjan met an untimely death when he was tortured on the orders of the Emperor Jahangir in 1606 in this city. The Gurdwara Dehra Sahib and the Ranjit Singh Samadhi are located in Lahore.
Historic parks and gardens
Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. Many gardens were built in Lahore during the Mughal era, some of which still survive. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Qur'an. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh layout of four squares, with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th-century British Viceroy to India. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district. Another example is the Bagh-e-Jinnah, a 141-acre (57 ha) botanical garden that houses entertainment and sports facilities as well as a library.
The Lahore Zoo is the second oldest zoo in South Asia after Calcutta and has been a source of amusement and recreation for families for more than 100 years. Lahore also has a safari park covering more than 200 acres (81 ha). The park has safaris for different animals. The safaris with tigers, lions, rhinos, elephants, bear, apes, African and Indus plane animals cover an area of 80 acres (32 ha). Pakistan's largest walkthrough aviary is also located here, with all kinds of birds, including pheasants, waterfowls and peacocks. Birds are kept in their natural habitat instead of being caged; a net fence at the perimeter keeps birds in the aviary. There are more than a thousand species of animals in the park. Lahore's biggest lake is also situated here for boating and fishing. Jilani Park (formerly Race Course Park) is famous for its floral exhibitions and artificial waterfall. Annual horse racing competitions are held in this park.
In December 2004, Pakistan and China signed a million contract for the construction of a housing project on Multan Road in Lahore. The result was Sukh Chayn Gardens, a beautiful housing society full of lush green parks and gardens.
Lahore has a number of hospitals, including Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Hamid Latif Hospital, Nawaz Sharif Social Security Hospital, Lahore General Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Gulab Devi Hospital, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Fatima Memorial Hospital Shadman Lahore, Ittefaq Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology and Sharif Medical Complex. The telephone emergency service Rescue 1122 was launched in Lahore in 2004 as a pilot project and is now operational in the whole of Punjab Province.
Lahore is known as Pakistan's educational capital, with more colleges and universities than any other city in Pakistan. Lahore is Pakistan's largest producer of professionals in the fields of science, technology, IT, engineering, medicine, nuclear sciences, pharmacology, telecommunication, biotechnology and microelectronics, nanotechnology and the only future hyper high tech centre of Pakistan . Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. The current literacy rate of Lahore is 74%. Lahore hosts some of Pakistan's oldest educational institutes: Government College Lahore (now Government College University), established in 1864; Forman Christian College, a chartered university established in 1864; Government Islamia College Lahore, established in 1892; University of the Punjab, established in 1882; Kinnaird College, established in 1913; and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), established in 1921. UET is also Pakistan's oldest technical degree-awarding institute and its first university in the field of engineering and technology.
Lahore's principal educational institutes and establishments include:
The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences is the only college in Lahore providing education in the field of veterinary medicine. The De'Montmorency College of Dentistry is an important college of dentistry. There are many institutes offering education in fields of nursing and pharmacy as well.
Arts and media
Lahore is at the core of Pakistan's media and arts scene. Pakistan's most prestigious art college, National College of Arts, is located here. Every year, it hosts the World Performing Arts Festival, in which artists from dozens of countries show off their talents. This festival is managed by the Peerzada group, which is also the largest puppetry theatre company in Pakistan. It too has a prestigious university named University of South Asia. Lahore is also home to the country's developing fashion industry.It houses Pakistan's most esteemed board of designers, the Pakistan Fashion Design Council, which features some of Pakistan's best names in the circles of fashion and design.As a result the city is supported by numerous designer outlets and the country's most prestigious fashion school, the Pakistan School of Fashion Design, which has some of the best photo studios and photographers in the country. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council, also successfully organised the Lahore Fashion Week 2010 as well as the PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week Lahore 2011.
Lahore has also been home to Pakistan's old classical music, ghazals and Qawwalis, with big names such as Noor Jehan, Arif Lohar, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mehdi Hassan and Ghulam Ali residing in the city. In recent years Lahore has produced some of Pakistan's greatest pop singers, such as Ali Azmat,Shafqat Amanat Ali, Atif Aslam and Ali Zafar. The city is recognised as the birthplace of South Asia's modern rock scene thanks to popular bands like Junoon, Jal, Call, Roxen, Noori and Entity Paradigm, some of whose songs have been featured in Bollywood films.
Pakistan's film industry is based in the city and is called Lollywood. Many films are filmed in Lahore and the city has some of the oldest film studios in the country. Many actors and directors are based in Lahore, which brings many artists together to launch films. Cinema's popularity is on the upswing again in recent years and IMAX is building outlets in the city. Several FM radio stations and television stations have set up their operations here. Lahore is home to many popular news channels such as Dunya News and Express News among others.Geo TV's Infotainment Division and Pakistan's first children's television channel, Wikid, as well as Pakistan's first community channel, Asset Plus (available only in DHA Lahore) and lifestyle channel, Value TV are all based here. The television channel, City 42 broadcasts news and information about latest happenings and events in the city. The channel contains a variety of programs in Urdu, Punjabi and English which span from current affairs to general infotainment.
Lahore is recognised as one of the nation's important fashion capitals, along with Karachi. Most of the fashion industry of Pakistan is based in Lahore. It has been home to numerous fashion artists and designers, such as Hassan Sheheryar Yasin, Karma, Qasim Yar Tiwana, Khawar Riaz and many others designers. Many models of Pakistan also belong to Lahore such as Amna Haq, Iman Ali, Imran Abbas, Mehreen Syed, Meesha Shafi, Rabia Butt and many others. Numerous fashion weeks have been held in Lahore. The Fashion models are not only restricted within the national boundaries but are reaching among the international fashion models, and catwalks. It is becoming multi-dimensional industry with the variety in it. The frequent participation of Pakistani Fashion models has also proved that they are working on different grounds, facing the international models. In the Fashion industry internationally, Pakistani Fashion models are making their prominent position. Lahore is also home to important fashion institutions such as Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design and the Lahore School of Fashion Design.
Lahore is the home of sports in Pakistan. It has many world class sports venues and stadiums. Lahore has successfully hosted many international sports events including final of the 1990 Hockey World Cup and final of the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The headquarters of all major sports governing bodies are located here in Lahore including Cricket, Hockey, Rugby, Football etc. and also has the head office of Pakistan Olympic Association.
Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium now boasts a capacity of over 60,000. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, the Al Hamra, open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey stadium, Lahore City Cricket Association Ground and Headquarters of Pakistan Cricket Board, all based in the city's Sports complex. In the same vicinity lie headquarters of the Pakistan Football Federation, as well as the multi-sport Punjab Stadium. Lahore is home to the domestic cricket teams Lahore Lions and Lahore Eagles, as well as to Pakistan Premier League giants WAPDA FC, Pakistan Railways FC, PEL FC, and Wohaib FC. In addition to cricket and football, Kabaddi, a South Asian team sport, is also popular in Lahore. Many citizens play Kabbadi after work.
Lahore's elites are fond of golf and city is home to several golf courses. The Lahore Gymkhana Golf Course, the Lahore Garrison Golf and Country Club, the Royal Palm Golf Club and newly built DHA Golf Club are well maintained Golf Courses in Lahore. In nearby Raiwind Road, a 9 holes course, Lake City, opened in 2011. The newly opened Oasis Golf and Aqua Resort is another addition to the city. It is a state-of-the-art facility featuring golf, water parks, and leisure activities such as horse riding, archery and more.The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on 30 January 2005, and again on 29 January 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on 14 January 2007. Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the Ravi River.
Twin Towns and Sister Cities
Following international cities have been declared twin towns and sister cities of Lahore.
- Istanbul, Turkey (Since 1975)
- Sariwon, North Korea (Since 1988)
- Xi'an, China (Since 1992)
- Kortrijk, Belgium (Since 1993)
- Fez, Morocco (Since 1994)
- Bukhara, Uzbekistan
- Chengdu, China (April 2015)
- Samarkand, Uzbekistan (Since 1995)
- Isfahan, Iran (Since 2004)
- Mashad, Iran (2006–2012)
- Glasgow, United Kingdom (Since 2006)
- Chicago, United States (Since 2007)
- Belgrade, Serbia (Since 2007)
- Fresno, United States (Since 2007)
- Kraków, Poland (2007)
- Coimbra, Portugal (Since 2007)
- Hounslow, United Kingdom
- Dushanbe, Tajikistan
- Bogotá, Colombia
- Córdoba, Spain (Since 1994)
- Amol, Iran (Since 2010)
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