Chiniot

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Chiniot

چنیوٹ
Clockwise from top: Shah Burhan Shrine, exterior and interior views of Chiniot's Shahi Mosque, Omar Hayat Mahal
Clockwise from top: Shah Burhan Shrine, exterior and interior views of Chiniot's Shahi Mosque, Omar Hayat Mahal
Municipal Committee Chiniot
Municipal Committee logo
Chiniot is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Chiniot
Chiniot
Location of Chiniot in Pakistan
Chiniot is located in Pakistan
Chiniot
Chiniot
Chiniot (Pakistan)
Coordinates: 31°43′10″N 72°59′3″E / 31.71944°N 72.98417°E / 31.71944; 72.98417Coordinates: 31°43′10″N 72°59′3″E / 31.71944°N 72.98417°E / 31.71944; 72.98417
Country Pakistan
ProvincePunjab, Pakistan Punjab
DistrictChiniot
TehsilChiniot
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Committee
 • ChairmanMehar Muhammad Khalid
 • Vice ChairmanHaji Muhammad Zahid
 • Chief OfficerAbdul Waheed
Elevation
179 m (587 ft)
Population
(2012)[2]
 • Total477,781
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+6 (PDT)
Postal code
35400
Dialling code047
Distance(s)
WebsiteMC Chiniot

Chiniot (Urdu, Punjabi: چنیوٹ) is a city and the administrative headquarter of Chiniot District in the state of Punjab, Pakistan. On the bank of the river Chenab, it is known for its intricate wooden furniture, architecture, and mosques, and is home to the Omar Hayat Mahal.

History[edit]

Early Hindu rule[edit]

The origins of Chiniot are obscure, and historical records accurately detailing its founding are unavailable.[3] According to some accounts, the city was founded by an ancient king's daughter named Chandan, who while on a hunting expedition, was charmed by the surrounding area, and ordered the construction of the settlement of Chandaniot,[4] alternatively spelt Chandniot,[5] which was named in her honour. The name Chiniot, a contracted version of the original name, eventually gained favour,[6] though the older name had been used up until at least the 1860s.[7]

Mughal[edit]

During Mughal rule, Chiniot was governed as part of the subah, or province, of Lahore. The city reached is zenith under the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, and his governor of the area, Nawab Sadullah Khan of the Thahim tribe,[4] who served between 1640 and 1656.[8] Under Sadullah Khan's governorship, Chiniot's famous Shahi Mosque was built.[4] Chiniot's artisans were renowned for their skill during the Mughal era, and were employed in the decoration of the Taj Mahal, and Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque.[5]

Mughal decline and nominal Sial rule[edit]

Following the collapse of Mughal authority after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the local Sial tribe], a tribe of Zamindar status, s under the rule of Walidad Khan was officially granted governorship of the area on account of his loyalty to the Delhi throne.[4] Though nominally a part of the declining Mughal realm, Walidad Khan forged an largely independent state in western Punjab that controlled the region between Mankera and Kamalia[4] Chiniot suffered heavily during the Durrani invasion of the late 1748.[4]

Sikh[edit]

The Sial state around Chiniot was encroached upon by Sikh chieftains in the north, and from Multani chiefs in the south, before coming under control of the Bhangi Sikhs by 1760.[4] The Sikhs imposed an annual tribute on the Sial chief, Inayatullah Khan, which he ceased paying in 1778 before also capturing Chiniot.[4] He died in 1787, though the city had reverted to Bhangi Sikh rule before his death.[4]

The city suffered during the Sikh Misl states period in which the city region's Bhangis battled the Sukerchakia Misl.[4] Chiniot was captured by Ranjit Singh in 1803, and thereafter became part of the Sikh Empire.[4] The city was invested in Sial chief Ahmad Khan, who promised to pay tribute to Ranjit Singh's kingdom.[4] Khan stopped paying tribute, and briefly seized full control of the region in 1808, but was decisively defeated by Ranjit Singh's forces in 1810.[4]

British[edit]

The city came under British rule by 1849, and the city was constituted as a municipality in 1862.[4] In 1875, the city's population was 11,999.[4] During the British period, a vast network of canals were laid to irrigate Punjab, resulting in the creation of many new "canal colonies" around Chiniot.[5] Chiniot's famous Omar Hayat Mahal was built between 1923 and 1935 for a businessman who made his fortune in Calcutta.[9]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Chiniot is at the intersection of the Faisalabad-Sargodha and Lahore-Jhang roads. It is 158 kilometres northwest from Lahore and 38 kilometres north of Faisalabad. Chiniot city is spread over an area of 10 square kilometers with an average elevation of 179 meters (587 ft).

Rabwah city, the headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is on the other side of the Chenab River. In the center of river a worship center (or Chilla Gah) of the Sufi Bu Ali Shah Qalandar is located.

Topography[edit]

Chiniot city lies on left bank of the Chenab River, and is located on a small rocky hill. Much of the surrounding area consists of alluvial plains, interspersed with rocky outcroppings of slate and sandstone that reach up to 400 feet in height around Chiniot.[7]

Climate[edit]

Chiniot
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
18
 
 
19
8
 
 
35
 
 
22
11
 
 
24
 
 
27
16
 
 
13
 
 
33
20
 
 
17
 
 
39
25
 
 
48
 
 
40
28
 
 
82
 
 
35
27
 
 
87
 
 
35
27
 
 
43
 
 
34
25
 
 
9
 
 
32
20
 
 
11
 
 
27
14
 
 
12
 
 
21
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [10]

The weather in Chiniot is variable.


Climate data for Chiniot (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
22
(72)
27
(81)
33
(91)
39
(102)
39
(102)
35
(95)
35
(95)
34
(93)
32
(90)
27
(81)
21
(70)
30
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 8
(46)
11
(52)
16
(61)
20
(68)
25
(77)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(57)
9
(48)
19
(67)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18
(0.7)
35
(1.4)
24
(0.9)
13
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
48
(1.9)
82
(3.2)
87
(3.4)
43
(1.7)
9
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
399
(15.7)
Source: My Weather[11]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 1998 census, the population of Chiniot was 965,124 (included urban 172,522). According to the 2010 estimated census, the urban population of Chiniot is 201,781.[citation needed] The language spoken is Punjabi.

Economy[edit]

The important products of Chiniot includes silk, cotton, wheat, sugar, rice, milk, pottery, wooden furniture, etc. The city's agricultural economy is largely derived from "canal colonies" established during British rule when a vast network of canals were laid to irrigate Punjab.[5]

Chiniot is famous for his wooden furniture,[12] and developed as a centre of woodworking given its close proximity to the Chenab River - as timber from Kashmir would be floated down the river towards Chiniot.[5] Chiniot's artisans are renowned for their skill, and were employed in the construction of both the Taj Mahal and Wazir Khan Mosque.[5] The city's metalworkers, along with those of Lahore, were considered the best in Punjab during the British period,[13] and Chinioti designs and were considered superior to those of Hoshiarpur or Jalandhar.[13] Chaudri Sugar Mills is located at Faisalabad road.

Education[edit]

A side view of the building of Chenab College Chiniot

Educational institutions in Chiniot include

Libraries[edit]

After his death, Sheikh Omar Hayat's palace Omar Hayat Mahal was converted into a library by the government of Pakistan.

Transport and communication[edit]

Chiniot is connected with the rest of Pakistan by a main highway and rail line. The nearest international airport is Faisalabad International Airport, which is 48.5 kilometres from Chiniot.

The railway track is the easiest and cheapest way of transportation. Chiniot railway is a main source of transporting the furniture from Chiniot to the rest of Pakistan; it is a main source of importing the wood for furniture from all over Pakistan. Chiniot Railway Station was built in 1927 during British empire. It was a great step for the local economy.

Khatm-e-Nabuwat Chowk is the main place of and main intersection between GT roads connecting large cities of Pakistan. Chiniot Bridge is crossing over Chenab river on the Chiniot-Sargodha road.

Culture[edit]

The interior of Chiniot's 17th century Shahi mosque is richly decorated with Mughal frescoes.
Chiniot-style 'Kunna Gosht'

Islamic occasions[edit]

In Chiniot people celebrate Islamic occasions with great arrangements. On 12 Rabi' al-awwal, 1440th birthday celebration of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, people of Chiniot arranged a 63-maund cake, one of the largest cakes in the world.[17]

Furniture[edit]

Chiniot is known for its furniture. Chinioti craftsmen and artisans have for centuries carved flowers and geometric patterns onto cellulose fibres. Masons from Chiniot are thought to have been employed during the construction of the Taj Mahal and Golden Temple.[18]

Sport[edit]

Cricket is the most popular sport in Chiniot. Football is also played in Chiniot. Other popular sports include Hockey, Volleyball, Basketball, Badminton, Tennis, Kabbadi, and Horse racing.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "MC Chiniot: Administrative Setup". Local Government Punjab. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  2. ^ http://population.mongabay.com/population/pakistan/1181096/chiniot Urban population according to 2010 GEOnames
  3. ^ Steedman, E. B. (1882). Report on the Revised Settlement of the Jhang District of the Punjab, 1874-1880. W. Ball.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Gazetteer of the Jhanq District. Punjab Government Press. 1884.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Hasan, Arif; Raza, Mansoor (2009). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. IIED. ISBN 9781843697343.
  6. ^ Journal of Central Asia. Centre for the Study of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Quaid-i-Azam University. 1992.
  7. ^ a b London, Linnean Society of (1862). Journal: Botany.
  8. ^ Thahim, Abdul Razak A. (1980). Book on History of Ancient Arab Tribe Tamim. A.R.A. Thahim.
  9. ^ Ali, Aown (2015-12-03). "Umar Hayat Mahal: Chiniot's dying 'wonder'". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  10. ^ "Climate chart of Chiniot". My Weather. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Climatological Information for Chiniot", My Weather, web: My Weather.
  12. ^ Gupta, Om (2006). Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 9788182053922.
  13. ^ a b Watt, Sir George (1903). Indian Art at Delhi 1903: Being the Official Catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition 1902-1903. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120802780.
  14. ^ "Din College in Chiniot". University of the Punjab. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  15. ^ http://www.ilm.edu.pk
  16. ^ "FAST-NU – Campus". www.nu.edu.pk. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
  17. ^ "Celebration of 12 Rabi' al-awwal and in Aashora-e-Muharram, there are many Imam Barghas were regularly conducting Aashora Majalis in the respect of Shahadat e Imam-e-Hussain. Sunni and Shia Brothers are regularly participating in this occasion. They construct eight numbers of Tazia's in the honour of Imam Hussain which are very beautiful and unique". Dunya News. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  18. ^ http://www.apnaorg.com/articles/shirazi-1/

External links[edit]

Muhammad Wala View