|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Elevation||152.4 m (500.0 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
Sahiwal (Urdu: ساہِيوال; Western Punjabi: ساہیوال), is a city in central Punjab, Pakistan. It is the administrative center of Sahiwal district, and used to be that of the former Sahiwal division. Sahiwal is approximately 180 km from the major city Lahore and lies between Lahore and Multan. With a population of 207,388 (1998 Pakistan Census), it is the 14th largest city in the Punjab and the 22nd largest city in Pakistan.
A small village on the Karachi-Lahore railway line during 1865 was named Montgomery after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab. Later, it was made the capital of the Montgomery District. Its name was reinstated as Sahiwal in 1967 after the Sahi clan of Kharal Rajpoots who are the native inhabitants of this area.
The city is in the densely populated region between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. The principal crops are wheat, cotton, tobacco, legumes, potato and oilseeds. Cotton goods and lacquered woodwork are manufactured.
The Sahiwal District has been settled from the pre-historical era. Harappa is an archaeological site, about 35 km (22 mi) west of Sahiwal, that was built approximately 2600 BCE. The area was part of South Asian empires and in crossroads of migrations and invasions from Central Asia. The pastoral tribes of this barren expanse did not appear to have paid more than a nominal allegiance to the Muslim rulers, the population for the most part remained in a chronic state of rebellion. Sahiwal is located close to Pakpattan, a famous medieval town and Muslim Sufi pilgrimage site. Pakpattan owes its sanctity and modern name, 'the holy ferry', to the shrine of the great Muslim Sufi Fariduddin Ganjshakar Shaikh-ul-Islam, Farid-ul-Hakkwa-ud-Din, Shakar Ganj (1173–1265) which was visited by old great traveler and historian Ibn Batuta in 1334. The native population converted to Islam by Sufi missionaries. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh took control of Sahiwal. The inhabitants were treated benevolently during Sikh rule. The district came under direct British rule in 1849, when the district was officially formed with its headquarters at Pakpattan. The district was expanded to include the trans-Ravi portion in 1852, and the district headquarters were moved to Gogera. In 1865, when the railway was opened, a village on the railway side, was named "Montgomery" and became the capital of the district.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, there was a general uprising of the Muslim population of Sahiwal, and the district formed the scene of the only uprising which took place north of Sutlej. Before the end of May 1857, emissaries from Delhi crossed the river from Sirsa and Hisar, where open rebellion was already ripe, and met with a ready reception from the Kharals and various other Muslim tribes. The district authorities, however, kept down the threatened uprising till August 26, 1857 when the prisoners in jail made a desperate attempt to break loose. At the same time Ahmad Khan, a famous Kharal leader, who had been detained at Gogera, broke his arrest, and though apprehended, was released on security, together with several other suspected chieftains. On September 16, they fled to their homes, and the whole country rose in open rebellion. Kot Kamalia was sacked; and Major Chamberlain, moving up with a small force from Multan, was besieged for some days at Chichawatni on the Ravi. The situation at the civil station remained critical till Colonel Paton arrived with substantial reinforcements from Lahore. An attack which took place immediately after their arrival was repulsed. Several minor actions followed in the open field, until finally the rebels, driven from the plain into the jungles of the interior, were utterly defeated and dispersed. The British troops then inflicted severe punishment on the insurgent clans, destroying their villages, and seizing large numbers of herds.
The climate of Sahiwal district is extreme, reaching 45 °C in summer, and down to 2 °C in winter. The soil of the district is very fertile. The average rainfall is about 200 mm.
Sahiwal is twinned with the town of Rochdale, in Greater Manchester, North West England. There is a direction sign in Rochdale's town centre pointing in Sahiwal's direction with "Sahiwal 3960 miles" written on it.
Sahiwal Dairy Cattle Breed
The Sahiwal Cattle breed is the best dairy breed of zebu or humped cattle (Bos Indicus), followed by the very similar Red Sindhi and Butana breeds. It originated in the dry Punjab region which lies along the Indian-Pakistani Border, and was once kept in large herds by professional herdsmen called "Jaanglees". With the introduction of irrigation to the region their numbers dripped, and farmers used them as draft and dairy animals. The Division Sahiwal has one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. It is thick-resistant, heat-tolerant and resistant to parasites, both internal and external. Cows average 2270 kilograms of milk while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. Due to their heat tolerance and high milk production they have been exported to other Asian countries, Africa, Caribbean and around the world. As oxen, they are docile but slow, making them more useful for slow work. Their colour can range from reddish brown to red, with varying amounts of white on the neck, and the underline. In males, the colour darkens towards the extremities, such as the head, legs and tails. Sahiwal breed arrived in Australia via New Guinea in the early 1950s. In Australia, the Sahiwal breed was initially selected as a dual-purpose breed. It played a valuable role in the development of the two Australian tropical dairy breeds, the Australian milking zebu and the Australian Fresian Sahiwal. Sahiwal breeds are now used in Australia for beef production, as crossing high-grade Sahiwal sires with Bos taurus animals produced a carcass of lean quality with desirable fat cover.
The Sahiwal breed is the heaviest milker of all zebu breeds and displays a well-developed udder. It sires small, fast-growing calves and is noted for its hardiness under unfavourable climatic conditions.
Agriculture is important to the local economy, particularly the growing of cotton and grain exported all over Pakistan and around the world. Cattle and sheep are also for which the division is famous for Water Buffalo milk all over the world. One of the ancient civilization on archaeological evidence dated 3000 to 5000 B.C. 15 miles (24 km) southwest from downtown in suburb of Harapa which was the northern city of Indus Valley Civilization.
Sahiwal's industries include cotton ginning and pressing, tanning, textile (City cloth palace, City Fashion Center), textile spinning, weaving, leather products, garments, pharmaceuticals, flour mills, food processing, oil mills, cold storage, potato, tobacco, vegetable ghee/cooking oil, biscuits, chip board, confectionery, and woolen textile spinning and weaving. The Sahiwal breed of cattle, recognised as productive among Zebu dairy breeds, originated here; they are now found throughout the tropics. The main crops of the Sahiwal district are wheat, cotton, sugarcane, maize and rice. Main fruits are citrus, mangoes and guava. Sahiwal is a green and fertile town with 11,522 acres (46.63 km2) under naturally grown forests. KSC is an electrical industry in Sahiwal, producing water heaters, water coolers, air coolers, fans and washing machines.
Notable people from Sahiwal
- Abdul Latif Khalid Cheema
- Agha Bashir Ahmed, social activist and cricket administrator
- Majeed Amjad, Urdu poet
- Mushtaq Ahmed, former test cricketer
- Manzoor Elahi, former test cricketer
- Tariq Aziz, television anchor
- Attash Durrani, Urdu writer and Scholar
- Rana Mohammad Hanif Khan, politician and former Finance Minister of Pakistan
- Kunwar Mohinder Singh Bedi Sahar, Urdu Poet
- Nouraiz Shakoor, politician and former Federal minister
- Sain Zahoor, Sufi musician
- Munir Niazi, Urdu Poet
- Nazir Naji journalist and Urdu columnist for the Daily Dunya
- Emmanuel Neno, Christian author and translator
- Ali Raza Ahmed,book writer and columnist.
- Mustafa Kanwal, Educationist and social activist
- The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropædia. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1991. ISBN 978-0-85229-529-8. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- A history by Sahiwal Police
- Agricultural Research Council (Pakistan) (1 January 1980). Pakistan journal of agricultural research. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Nazli, Caesar B. Cororaton, Abdul Salam, Zafar Altaf, David Orden and Reno Dewina, Nicholas Minot, Hina. Cotton-Textile-Apparel Sectors of Pakistan: Situations and Challenges Faced. Intl Food Policy Res Inst. p. 47. GGKEY:1W7L1FH7N4N. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Cotton handbook of Pakistan. Pakistan Central Cotton Committee. 1983. p. 217. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ZAHID IKRAM firstname.lastname@example.org. "Explore Pakistan | Sahiwal". Findpk.com. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Montgomery District, Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 410., 1860-1922". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Montgomery District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 411". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- ":Govt. Post Graduate College Sahiwal:". Gpgcs.edu.pk. Retrieved 2013-02-18.
- "Punjab Assembly". Pap.gov.pk. Retrieved 2010-03-24.