Forvie National Nature Reserve
|Forvie National Nature Reserve|
Forvie 2013 - Cabro Aviation Ltd.
|Location||Newburgh, Aberdeenshire, Scotland|
|Governing body||Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH)|
|Forvie National Nature Reserve|
The Forvie National Nature Reserve, also called the Sands of Forvie, is a nature reserve managed by Scottish Natural Heritage that is north of Newburgh in Aberdeenshire, in the northeast of Scotland. Forvie National Nature Reserve has the fifth largest sand dune system in Britain, and the least disturbed by human activity.
The dune system is an integral part of the Ythan Estuary and separated by the estuary from Balmedie beach. The reserve contains large areas of sandy foreshore, mobile and fixed dunes, dune pasture and lowland heath and the successional development of vegetation. The sand dunes are of various stages of evolution and contain marram grass (Ammophila arenaria), red fescue, (Festuca rubra), crowberry, (Empetrum nigrum), the cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix), common sedge, (Carex nigra), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) and the invasive creeping willow (Salix repens ssp. argentea).
The reserve contains the largest breeding colony of eider duck in Britain and an internationally important ternery. Off the coast there are commons seals and harbour porpoises. The area is designated as a Special Protection Area for wildlife conservation purposes. The reserve is managed by Scottish Natural Heritage. Stevenson Forvie Centre near Collieston provides information on the reserve.
The sands were the site of the village of Forvie that was abandoned due to drifting sands.
History in the World Wars
Forvie was active in World Wars I and II, although very few details are recorded on the use of the area. It was incorrectly claimed there was a nine-hole golf course from 1900 to the outbreak of World War II. The course built for Lady Cathcart in 1900 was on the west coast island Uist.
The layout of Forvie and Newburgh could be mistaken for the mouth of the River Don in Aberdeen. With this is mind, defences were put in places around the mouth of the Ythan. These consisted of pill boxes, two gun batteries and anti-tank blocks built by the 143rd Pioneer Corps. From a review of vulnerable beaches from April–October 1941, Forvie appeared on this list and was identified as "blocked with mines". The minefield ran from East to West (WO ref 31/521474 to 538472). These were British Type C land mines weighing about 65 lbs each. Following a clear up of the area in July 1944, a number of landmines were unaccounted for due to the shifting sands of the area. Mine clearance altered the area slightly as the Bomb Disposal Unit from the Royal Engineers used a converted Bren gun carrier (known as a wasp) as a flamethrower to scorch vegetation on the mined area. Images of the clearance and the location of the minefield is recorded in a local book covering World War 2 in NE Scotland . Records show on some days 222 mines being dealt with, the actual mine count is unknown but the area took several months to clear. on 27 July 1944, Sapper Harry Dean (28) of 11 coy, Royal Engineers was killed whilst clearing a mine at Forvie. Sapper Dean is buried in Yorkshire 
Forvie sands was used to train the Gordon Highlanders and Highland Light Infantry in desert warfare, in addition to this Forvie Moor was used to train soldiers in the use of grenade, anti-tank grenades and 2" trench mortars. Since the war, mortar bombs have been found across the moor. Craters are still visible in the area. The soldiers training at Forvie were billeted at the Slains Lodge and buildings in Collieston.
On 3 November 1940, 30 High Explosive Bombs were dropped on Forvie Links by the luftwaffe. This is listed in the Aberdeenshire Civil Defence register, the craters can be seen in 1941 and 1946 aerial photos.
Whilst soldiers were training there, the moor were off limits to locals. However, on Sundays, the locals could use the moor. During this time, locals collected birds eggs to use as food was rationed, and there was a plentiful supply of rabbits. On Sunday 30 November 1941, three local boys found an unexploded anti-tank grenade in a rabbit burrow that the army had been demonstrating to the home guard. One of the boys (Alex Ross), then threw it away where it exploded causing him to lose sight in one eye.
On 31 March 1941, the British steamer Melrose Abbey ran aground. On 2 April 1941 she was hit by a drifting sea mine blowing a large hole in her side, and settled on the Ythan river bed. During this time, a machine gun was posted at Forvie Sands to offer some protection for the vessel whilst plans were made to move her as she was a target for passing aircraft. The ship was refloated on 26 July 1941 and towed to Aberdeen for repairs. She was later sunk by U-356 on 27 December 1942 north-east of the Azores. Several websites confirm this sinking, but this disagrees with the information in the reference below, which states that "As for Melrose Abbey, she was released from the Royal Navy in May 1945 and returned to her former owners, the Associated Humber Lines." The second reference may help to resolve this mix-up of ship names.
Beside the pill box of Forvie, two mobile naval 4" guns were places and controlled by 942nd Defence battery.
On 26 January 1942, the SS Lesrix, which was carrying machinery, ran aground off Hackley head during a blizzard. Locals in the community aided in the rescue of some of the crew, although ten crew members were lost. A bronze medal for gallantry was given by the King to one local for his part.
During patrols on the beach and cliffs of Forvie, a dinghy was found and this sparked a search for a spy that had been landed by submarine. This spy was caught in the moray area. It was rumoured that Tillery house near Udny had fascist sympathizers, where spies and airmen were told this was a "safe house" during the war. Since there were also Norwegian army personnel in the area who patrolled the beaches, the coast guard and home guard were issued with passes to identify themselves to the Norwegian soldiers.
In 1948, the Forvie area was earmarked to be a bombing and artillery range for the Royal Air Force and Army, as a site further north than the existing area at Lunan Bay near Arbroath. Forvie was to be used for air to ground and dive bombing practice. This involved a gunnery range out at sea and a rifle range on the moor. This proposal was cancelled in 1950; records exist in the National Archives on the proposal.
- "Special Protection Area designation". Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- SNH. "Sands of Forvie and Ythan Estuary SSSI". Retrieved 2007-05-05.
- BBC News
- Scottish Natural Heritage. "Forvie Nature Reserve". Retrieved 2007-05-06.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Forvie National Nature Reserve.|
- Abandoned Communities ... Forvie, and other places in NE Scotland deserted as a result of shifting sand
- Sea Trout Angling on the Ythan Fishery, Newburgh.
- Webcam overlooking the Ythan and Forvie Sands
- SS Melrose Abbey, freighter and WWII rescue ship
- Discussion on several ships named "Melrose Abbey"
- for Forvie National Nature Reserve