Special Forces Brigade (Georgia)

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სპეციალური დანიშნულების ბრიგადა
SOF Emblem Black Gold 1.png
Official special forces emblem of army, Georgia
Active 1991–present
Country  Georgia
Branch Georgia. Main Military flag.svg Georgian Armed Forces
Type special forces
Role unconventional warfare, counter terrorism, asymmetric warfare, direct action, special reconnaissance, psychological warfare[1]
Size brigade (one SOF battalion + naval squadron, one Ranger battalion, one support/logistics battalion) ~ 1,500
Part of Ministry of Defence
Garrison/HQ Tbilisi
Nickname(s) "the vicious" or "relentless" - (special operations group)[2]
Beret Grey Asparagus

1991: Georgian Civil War*
1992: War in Abkhazia

2001: War on Terror (ongoing)
2003 Rose Revolution
2003–2008: Iraq War
2004: Adjara Crisis
2004: South Ossetia clashes
2006: Kodori Crisis
2007: Bokhundjara incident
2008: South Ossetia War

2012: Lopota Gorge hostage crisis

2014: ISAF Afghanistan (Rangers)
Since 2014: War in Donbass (disputed)
Lt.Col Dimitri Kiknadze[3][4]
Gocha Karkarashvili
Zaza Gogava

The Special Forces Brigade (Georgian: სპეციალური დანიშნულების ბრიგადა) is the elite Georgian Armed Forces component. It has been established to conduct special operations, covert operations, special reconnaissance, counter intelligence, counter terrorism, counter insurgency, amphibious and asymmetric warfare in and outside Georgia. One of the operational centers is located in Tbilisi, Georgia.[5]

Georgian special forces are subordinated under the MOD Special Operations Main Division to a brigade-level command structure. Each formation is split into several sub-divisions which are allocated on different Georgian regions, cities and strategically important areas. Most instructor units are composed of veterans of past conflicts including the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the internal conflicts in Georgia. Officers and instructors served as in former Soviet Army or NATO special services.


The very first of such formations was founded during the War in Abkhazia in 1992 but many already disbanded after several years of service, falling victim to political intrigues and serious accusations of supposed terrorist acts against the Georgian government.[6] Especially internal forces were involved. Since then various special formations occurred under mixed supervision, Russian designed units always enjoying more popularity among the Georgian leadership. A lot of efforts was put into the establishment of a sustainable system of development of special military units, which was achieved in 1999. Under the guidance of Turkish instructors a program called SOF Train and Equip Program had started.[7] Since 2001, Georgia has intensified the training of its elite forces in cooperation with American, French, British, Israeli and other countries' special services.[8][9] Georgian commandos participated in the Iraq War from 2003 until the complete withdrawal of the Georgian contingent in 2008 due to an escalation of hostilities in South Ossetia.[10][11] According to independent accounts, a number of Georgian operatives were also deployed prior in Afghanistan to aid the United States special operations forces in hunting down the Taliban leaders.[citation needed] Georgian officials have stated that a group of servicemen were deployed in Afghanistan for medical purposes.[citation needed]

Early 1990s[edit]

Numerous tactical units appeared during the early 1990s. Apart of state security group ALFA, those included a Russian trained special battalion called "Orbi" which was considered more or less a military counterpart and an elite unit named "White Eagles". Their members were trained primarily by Russian officers from Spetsnaz and equipped with heavy military hardware. Both units saw dramatic action in the coastal town of Gagra when it got struck by a surprise attack from Abkhaz forces aided by their North Caucasian allies. Since Georgia had withdrawn most of its troops and heavy equipment following Russian demanded peace talks, there were only a single infantry battalion with a few gun batteries and these two units supported by a number of local militia left to defend Gagra. The first assault wave was defeated with the support of artillery but after the second assault the infantry battalion Shavnabada was forced to withdraw and the two special units were cornered in the center of the town. The attackers gathered several hundred men. Key positions were a police station and the nearby train station. When the Abkhaz and their allies moved in for the final phase of their attack, the Georgians had only a small portion of the White Eagles to delay a breakthrough while most troops fell back to regroup in the surrounding forests. The remaining Georgians put up a stubborn fight and repelled several attacks for some time but got eventually surrounded and subsequently eliminated. Most of the supporting militia were captured. Among the dead were 12 members of the White Eagle unit including its commander Gocha Karkarashvili who chose to stay. The Georgian task force regrouped and hesitated for a counterattack when they were suddenly confronted by a large number of Abkhaz and North Caucasian combatants. It turned out that another group was advancing simultaneously to the main assault body through the surrounding forests while an unidentified force was approaching from the sea with two Russian landing craft. Both sides were surprised by the encounter and exchanged fire. The Georgians were heavily outnumbered and had to retreat, losing another 30 men including a few of the surviving members of the White Eagles. This marked the final engagement in the Gagra campaign. The remaining special forces were called off to fight Georgian paramilitary groups which were attacking government forces and weren't deployed anymore into Abkhazia.[12]

Pankisi Gorge[edit]

In 2003 Georgia carried out a special operation in the infamous Pankisi Gorge known for its supposed hosting of militant groups and criminals elements. The aim was to surround and force the surrender of armed Chechen diversant formations which crossed the border. Clashes and arrests all over the area occurred when Russian President Vladimir Putin demanded that the Georgian government handle the situation as it presented a direct threat. Mainly police, but also military special forces were involved.[13]

Georgian special forces have been accused multiple times to have carried out numerous assassinations and acts of sabotage in North Caucasus(Russia) and within the autonomous republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.[14][15][16] Russia also accused Georgia of using its special forces to train and equip Chechen militants in the Pankisi Gorge who then would pass the Georgian-Russian border to commit terroristic acts in the Russian Federation.[17] The situation in the Gorge is yet still disputed as Georgia itself states to have the Gorge cleared of militant activities contradicting the claims of Russian authorities.

South Ossetia 2008[edit]

In the evening of August 7, 2008 small special units backed by artillery support infiltrated South Ossetia to clear villages and key positions around Tskhinvali. From Georgian side the capital itself was considered abandoned. The initial assault turned out to be prerequisite for a full scale combined assault which followed in the morning of August 8. Georgian units quickly claimed more than 11 villages in South Ossetia before the regular army moved in. The same day a small specialist squad was rumored to have headed to the Roki Tunnel in order to destroy or damage it before the Russians could send reinforcements. According to Georgian sources that team was repulsed by a considerable force of Russian spetsnaz deployed at the tunnel and couldn't set off charges. The Russian side claimed that detonation charges and other devices were found inside the tunnel and defused probably just before the Georgians were about to trigger them. According to that statement Georgian commandos had already secured the tunnel and withdrew after setting charges. Engagements were mostly between Russian motorized units and small sabotage teams and Ossetian resistance cells in Tskhinvaili. Sergeant Kakhaber Tavgorashvili fell victim to Ossetian sniper fire at Shanghai street in Tskhinvali, a total of 55 members received mostly light degree injuries during firefights, ambushes, bombardaments and air strikes.[18][19] The overall poorly organized military operation crippled any efforts of the SF to establish a stable frontline which was mainly counting on them to delay any possible counterattacks. These units acted autonomously and were neither supported nor resupplied in any way so that most engagements resulted in the isolated Georgian units being repulsed from their objectives. When Russian reinforcements grew to battalion sized forces one area after another was abandoned without fight as it became apparent that those positions wouldn't be reinforced. A series of attacks delayed the Russian advance on a number of occasions. By arriving at Tskhinvali the lead Russian mechanized convoy of the 58th army got ambushed and dispersed losing numerous vehicles and men both killed and wounded by heavy small arms fire and Shoulder-fired missiles from a special forces unit subsequently supported with elements of police and infantry. The acting army commander general Anatoly Khrulyov got wounded in his command vehicle by shrapnel and evaded capture only due to the efforts of major Denis Vetchinov.[20][21] The team members received several awards for that battle.

Lopota Valley[edit]

In 2012 one member of the special forces died during a controversial engagement with 20 armed militants crossing the Georgian-Dagestani border. Security forces were reinforced by military after a group of armed men took locals as hostages and demanded ransom. UAV records revealed at least 20 heavily armed individuals with Muslim appearance which was confirmed afterwards. The hostage rescue operation itself was conducted primarily by police while the military was tasked with sealing off the valley. The local residents were released when a trapped border guard officer offered himself as hostage instead insisting he had a much higher value for them. The armed group was offered negotiations but refused the unprofitable conditions and threatened to take the negotiator. It was at that moment when commandos of Georgia's counter-terror unit suddenly appeared and killed one of the militants. During the firefight 10 more were killed but also one security officer. In midst of the shootout an army special forces corpsman tried to evacuate a wounded officer but got attacked and both men died on the spot.[citation needed]

Involvement in the Ukraine conflict[edit]

In May 2015 Georgian special forces were claimed by Ukrainian officials and also have been accused by Russia and the Donetsk People's Republic to have apprehended Russian nationals fighting with the separatists because they were suspected to be members of Russian special services and military intelligence.[22][23][24] Georgian nationals mostly retired servicemen and police have been confirmed to be fighting with the Ukrainian Army and security services. Georgian instructors are also involved in training Ukraine's special forces.[25] In October 2015 both countries discussed further cooperation that would allow Ukrainian special forces personnel to be trained in Georgia, particularly the Mountain Warfare School.[26]

Participation in International Peacekeeping Missions[edit]

Kosovo Force[edit]

The first ever involvement of Georgian special forces in peacekeeping operations was during the KFOR mission from 1999 on. A platoon consisting of 34 members of the newly formed unit was stationed in Mamuša as part of the Turkish contingent and was equipped with Turkish gear and armament. They were distinguishable by their shoulder patches and berets. Their primary task was to provide security to the town and protect ethnic minorities from reprisal and violence. Later the contingent was reinforced by an infantry company under German command.[27][28]

Operation Iraqi Freedom[edit]

Georgia's first official involvement in Iraq was the deployment of a 70 men strong detachment of special forces and medical personnel in August 2003.[29] The special forces were stationed in Baiji, Iraq and served as QRF. Their task was to respond to distress calls such as unexpected insurgent attacks on Coalition forces and other peacekeeping elements. Equipment and ammunition was provided by the U.S. They would also assist in intercepting weapon smuggling over the Iranian border and provide security to officials.[30][31] The contingent would abandon its mission in 2008 due to the outbreak of hostilities in Georgia.

Operation Active Endeavour[edit]

Georgian forces including naval special operations have been participating in Operation Active Endeavour as part of the maritime counter terror force. However further details are unknown.[32]


Towards the end of the ISAF mission from March to October 2014 the brigade's Mountain-Reconnaissance Battalion was deployed in Afghanistan, mainly stationed at the Kandahar Air Base amidst the withdrawal process.[33] The unit's mission was to provide security and carry out patrols and combat operations. Piror to deployment the battalion's soldiers participated and prepared in extensive mission rehearsal exercises with U.S troops in Hohenfels Germany.[34][35]


As of 2012 the special operations forces are divided into two main sections: the acting formations and their sub units merged into one combined force and the Special Operations Training Center which contains all training and educational arms of the branch.[36]

Special Operations Forces[edit]

The branch is split into six main arms consisting of:[1][37]

  • Staff / Administrative Division
    • -G1 -G2 -G3 -G4 -G5 -G6 -G7
      • Operational Headquarters
  • Special Operations Group PNG.png Special-Purpose Battalion / 1st Special Operations Group
    • HQ administrative staff / Comm & Control, logistics, supply, medical units.
      • Alpha Company (82 men): HQ & Comm. (10) Combat teams A, B, C, D, E, F (12 men each)
      • Bravo Company (82 men): HQ & Comm. (10) Combat teams A, B, C, D, E, F (12 men each)
      • Charlie Company (82 men): HQ & Comm. (10) Combat teams A, B, C, D, E, F (12 men each)
    • Naval Special Operations Group PNG.png Naval Special Warfare Detachment
  • Mountain Recon Battalion PNG.png Mountain-Reconnaissance Battalion / Ranger Battalion / Special Mountain Battalion
  • Support Battalion PNG.png Support-Maintenance Battalion
  • Special Forces School PNG.png Special Operations Training Center

From the overall 1,500 personnel of the special forces brigade, around 720 can be regarded as combat operatives, during conflict deployable in no more than a total of 60 teams with 12 members each. Depending on circumstances the composition can be stretched to a maximum of 100 teams of 7 men each in accordance to available manpower. The Special Purpose Battalion or 1st Special Operations Group is the primary air-land-sea deployable special operations force of the GAF and is made of up to 280 members. It consists of a main HQ, control-communications & counterintelligence, medical, logistics and supply unit as well additional staff and intelligence units for each company. The group has a total of three companies which are equally split in 6 combat teams capable of carrying out operations hundreds of kilometers behind enemy lines. The communication units are responsible for rapid deployment of communication assets, electronic warfare as well as counter EW and the processing and providing of intel. They are independently capable of self-maintenance and repair and have access to a variety of latest electronic military equipment. All combat teams have equal permission conditions for personnel, such as being able to march over enervating long distances, skydiving, diving, skiing as well as experience and a high skillset in special & unconventional warfare. However the most combat ready teams are considered to be the "A" teams of each company, despite constant rotation. It is because A teams consist solely of highly experienced veteran members who are expected to fully autonomously operate behind enemy lines, also when cut off completely. There is always at least one team from each company in full combat readiness, while the rest conduct training, exercises and education classes.[38] In a constant cycle numerous types of firing drills are being exercised through day and night by one group while another group is training on explosives, a third one in hand-to hand fighting, a fourth in weapons specialisation and so forth.[39] In an interview the current MOD Levan Izoria has stated that the SOF will be reduced in numbers to maintain top standarts as new reforms will have the armed forces reduce in strength as desired quality levels have been reached.

The Naval Special Warfare Detachment or Naval Special Purpose Detachment is the secondary component of the primary special operations forces. It deploys combat swimmers and divers with corresponding equipment such as inflatable boats and speed boats. Combat teams and equipment can be deployed from land, sea and air by helicopter. Modelled after its Israeli counterpart, the unit is specialized on coastal reconnaissance, saboutage, deep strike missions as well as counter terrorism and anti-piracy.[citation needed]

The largest unit of the brigade is the Mountain-Reonnaissance Battalion also identified as Ranger Battalion and Special Mountain Battalion. It has become part of the special forces relatively soon after its establishments. The battalion deploys combat / reconnaissance units but is mainly focused on training and preparing military as well as civilian individuals for eventual service in higher tier units. About 310 men are on active duty while there is a constant rotational flow of recruits trying to pass the admission course which takes about half of the official unit composition space. As the designation already implies, the battalion is specialised on combat and reconnaissance in alpine and mountainous terrain mainly while also qualified to perform surgical operations in all other known areas. The Rangers are potential candidates for the special operations units as they undergo similar admission and survival courses, which also include basic diver training and paratrooper qualification.[citation needed]

Former special forces units[edit]

  • Special Operations Unit "White Eagles". Was trained and formed by members of Soviet spetsnaz. Took part in the War in Abkhazia, most notably Battle of Gagra. Got disbanded few years later.
  • Alpha Group(Georgian). An analogue to the Soviet/Russian counterpart. Active from 1991 to 1995
  • Commando battalion, now 11th Telavi Light Infantry Battalion. Was tasked with protecting the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in its possible radius of action. Trained and funded by the U.S.[40] The protection of strategic objects such as pipelines is no more task of the Defense Ministry but MIA Strategic Objects Special Defense Forces.
  • Iverioni Recon/Assault Battalion. Efforts of joint MOD and MIA cooperation. As a result, a battalion named "Iverioni" was established which was to be responsible for surveillance, counter intelligence and first strike operations. The task force got eventually disbanded between 2009 and 2012.

Special Operations Training Center[edit]

The training center consists of following arms:

  • Staff

-S1 -S2 -S3 -S4 -S5 -S6 -S7

  • Command
  • Special Operations School
  • Rangers Preparation School
  • Snipers Preparation School
  • Paratroopers Preparation School
  • Evaluation Development Section
  • Logistical Support & Transport Company

Functions and missions of the training center include the development of an institutional base and organizational sphere of military training, coordination and control of the process of education and training within the center, the training and retraining of military personnel according to higher international standards, development update and introduction of educational programs in the process of education, participation in the combined training of the Georgian Armed Forces, contribution to the armed forces buildup and conducting special operations in interaction with other structural units of the Special Operations Forces.[41]

Current commander of the training center is Major Zurab Khuroshvili[42]

Selection and courses[edit]

Soldiers of the Mountain-Reconnaissance Battalion (aka Ranger Battalion) cross a road during combat simulation
A Mountain-Recon trooper during MRE for Afghanistan deployment

The four main education and training schools are the Special Forces School, Rangers School, Snipers School and Airborne School, which have different admission criteria and difficulty levels. To become special forces members, servicemen have to successfully complete every single school. The qualification and training itself is monitored by NATO instructors of leading special forces units. In addition US and Georgian special forces regularly conduct joint training exercises.[43][44][45][46] The overall admission criteria include physical, psychological health and durability. The applicants passing rate for special operations forces never exceeds 10% and is considerbaly lower for most of the time. Details about training are classified.[47][48] The education program includes mountaineer training and combat on the highest altitude available in Europe. Within the framework of the 'Partnership for Peace Program' created by NATO and Georgia, foreign nations special forces are being trained by Georgian instructors for combat in high altitudes under varying climatic conditions.

Rangers School[edit]

The Ranger Course can be but not necessarily has to be of interest for servicemen who want to join the special forces. In oder to receive just the Ranger badge without being members of the special forces it is sufficient to successfully pass the Ranger Course and simply continue regular service.[49] In general passing the Rangers School is considered a prerequisite for having a successful military career. For those who want to become active member of the SF every single course must be successfully completed. Most potential candidates are required to not only be active servicemen in the armed forces, but preferably prove leadership skills. The attendants ranks can vary from corporal to lieutenant. Initial physical admission requirements are lower compared to specialization courses as latter are not divided into two separate ones with an entrance and afterwards preparation course although the difficulty level is still high. One of the purposes of the Ranger School is to teach soldiers and officers to make relevant decisions, manage their troops and boost their morale under extreme physical and psychological pressure. The physical requirements for a successful entrance application include: being able to perform 49 push-ups, 59 presses, running 8,000 meters in 40 minutes or less, 6 pull-ups, a forced march with equipment at a distance of 25 km in 4 hr 30 min or less and parallel dips and jumps into water from 10 meters. Subsequently, theoretical sessions test the candidates' general intelligence, common army / combat awareness and skillset in land navigation. To pass at least 60% of the questions must be answered correctly. In addition, a medical commission report and a recommendation letter of the applicants acting unit commander are required.

The Rangers School is located near the village Manavi and is the analogue of the United States Ranger School.[50] The six-month course for civilians is similar to commando-type training, which is also conducted in armies of NATO member countries Turkey and Great Britain. Throughout the course, future Rangers will be trained in leading combat operations in different weather and on different terrain such as forests / jungles, mountains and populated areas. In tense exercises the servicemen will also adopt advanced leadership capabilities and will be instructed on how to respond best as possible accordingly to a crisis or arbitrary scenarios.[51]

Applicants who pass these initial tests will be granted access to the admission and preparation course, which lasts about 67 days dealing with following subjects:

  • Marksmanship
  • Mountain Training
  • Airmobile Training
  • Military Topography
  • Tactical Training
  • Medical Training
  • Communication
  • Engineering Training
  • Combat on Urban Terrain

During the preparation for the actual training program, the candidates will acquire the minimum of required skills and experience to pass the specialization course. Initial admission criteria are restricted to ages 19–30 inclusive, Georgian citizenship, a height above 170 cm, a secondary or higher education and a positive report from the medical commission provided by the School itself. Physical requirements are: being able to perform 50 push-ups, 50 presses, running a distance of 3,200 meters in 16:00 minutes or less and 8 pull-ups. The theoretical test on general skills must be passed with a rating of at least 60%. Afterwards the applicants will be interviewed in order to provide general information about their persona. During the subsequent preparation course which' duration is 9 weeks, following subjects will be engaged:[52]

  • Marksmanship
  • Common Army Tactics
  • Military Topography
  • Medical Preparation
  • Communication
  • General Subjects
  • Physical Training

The final and actual training course starts after passing every single preparation stage. The applicants will receive all necessary theoretical and practical training in order to be able to conduct operations under similar conditions as the Special Forces School. Final admission criteria are the successful completion of the BIT/BCT (Basic Combat Training) and Rangers preparation courses. The admission tests are the same as those of the initial preparation course except the passing score for theoretical tests must be at least 70%. The theoretical tests include: Tactical Training, Marksmanship, Engineering Training, Topography, Communication and General Skills. After passing these successfully, the applicants will be admitted to the training course, which' duration is 28 weeks.[citation needed]

The general subjects of the course are:

  • Training on Water
  • Marksmanship
  • Mountain Training
  • Airmobile Training
  • Survival
  • Military Topography
  • Tactical Training
  • Medical Training
  • Communication
  • Engineering Training
  • Physical Training

Airborne School[edit]

The airborne training is divided into Paratroopers Basic Training Course and Parachute Rigger Training Course. During the basic course, the students will be trained to carry out parachute jumps under the supervision of instructors with ram-air parachutes in light meteorological conditions, from average altitude, medium speed and with load and weapons. Criteria as of age is unrestricted. Any serviceman who has the satisfactory medical report will be admitted to the course which will take three weeks. Subjects will be the history of parachute development, material parts, theoretical parts of parachute jumping, rules of movement and airdrome, aircraft tour, parachute jumping elements on land, special cases during jumping, packing the parachute and practical jumps.

During the so-called Rigger course, the paratroopers will learn how to use, pack, maintain and repair the TTS, T-10B and T-10R parachutes. The course can be attended by personnel who have already passed the basic training course and carried out at least five jumps. The course program also includes two forced jumps.

Servicemen who passed both courses and can prove an overall record of 35 jumps, can apply for Land Instructor-Parachutist Training Course in which they will learn the methods of conducting theoretical parachute and land preparations, organizing parachute jumps and making records, also

paratroopers instructor duties. The course duration is seven days and includes 3 days of practical jumps. The program includes six jumps, the first, the second, the third and the fourth with load and weapons.[53][54]

Special Forces School[edit]

The main purpose of the Special Forces School is for applicants to acquire and master necessary skillsets and insight to conduct special operations under extremely tense physical and psychological pressure in provided close to real combat scenarios so that realistic and prompt evaluations of situations and relevant and important decision making is schooled and refined.

Admission criteria are strictly restricted to ages 21 to 31 inclusive, attested experience in leadership is preferred. The applicants must have passed every single Ranger course. Admission requirements for the initial application are split into physical tests which include 60 push-ups, 66 presses, running a distance of 3,200 meters in 14:24 minutes or less and 10 pull-ups, an Intelligence test and combined tests in army awareness in which 80% of the answers must be correct and finally a recommendation and citation letter of the candidates acting unit commander.

Active servicemen who can prove a satisfactory medical report and successfully passed the entrance examinations as well as all other requirements will be admitted to the course.

The course's duration is 31 weeks in which following subjects will be engaged:[55]

  • Marksmanship
  • Mountain Training
  • Airmobile Training
  • Military Topography
  • Tactical Training
  • Medical Training
  • Communication
  • Engineering Training
  • Command Training
  • Physical Training
  • Hand-to-Hand Fighting
  • Preparation of Specialists
    • Preparation of medics
    • Preparation of weapon specialists
    • Preparation of engineering and demolitions specialists

Additional courses are:

  • Pistol Marksmanship Special Course
  • Naval Special Course
  • Bodyguard Course
  • Antiterrorist Course.

The course is generally considered to be the harshest and toughest of all, with the highest requirements and the greatest applicants failing rate. Only up to 10% or less of the remaining few candidates are annually accepted to become member of Georgia's special operations force.

Snipers School[edit]

The SOF sniper school trains special forces personnel as well regular army members from age 18 to 40 in modern sniper warfare in accordance to higher international standards.

The special forces sniper course requires special forces personnel to have a marksmanship level expert or I class to be accepted to the course. Other criteria are a Common Army Awareness Test, a Memory Test, the Shooting from Sniper Rifles, psychological tests and a physical test which equals that of Special Forces School with the exactly same requirements. Special forces personnel passing these tests will undergo a 12-week-long course engaging following subjects:[56]

  • Marksmanship
  • Sniper Tactics
  • Sniper Tracking
  • Survival
  • Special Reconnaissance

During the course, theoretical evaluations must amount 70% of correct answers.

After completion of all necessary courses until Sniper Course in a time period of 24 to 27 months or longer depending on if started as civilian or servicemen, the candidate may be granted title of Special Operations Employee or Member. Service in the special unit grants access to the special operations groups and further education for special naval warfare or intelligence and logistics. Unit members will be taught in foreign languages and sent abroad to train together with partner nations.[57]

Comparable units[edit]


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