Stoney language

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Stoney
Nakoda, Nakota, Isga
Native to Canada
Ethnicity Nakota: Stoney
Native speakers
3,200 (2011 census)[1]
Siouan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sto
Glottolog ston1242[2]
Stoney lang.png
The location of Stoney / Nakoda

Stoney—also called Nakota, Nakoda, Isga, and formerly Alberta Assiniboine—is a member of the Dakota subgroup of the Mississippi Valley grouping of the Siouan languages.[3] The Dakotan languages comprise a dialect continuum consisting of Santee-Sisseton (Dakota), Yankton-Yanktonai (Dakota), Teton (Lakota), Assiniboine, and Stoney.[4] Stoney is the most linguistically divergent of the Dakotan dialects[5] and has been described as “on the verge of becoming a separate language”.[6] The Stoneys are the only Siouan people that live entirely in Canada,[7] and the Stoney language is spoken on five reserves in Alberta.[8][9] No official language survey has been undertaken for every reserve where Stoney is spoken, but the language may be spoken by as many as a few thousand people, primarily at the Morley Reserve.[10]

Relationship to Assiniboine[edit]

Stoney’s closest linguistic relative is Assiniboine.[11] The two have often been confused with each other because of their close historical and linguistic relationship, but they are not mutually intelligible.[12] Stoney either developed from Assiniboine, or both Stoney and Assiniboine developed from a common ancestor language.[13][14]

Phonology[edit]

Very little linguistic documentation and descriptive research has been done on Stoney. However, Stoney varieties demonstrate broad phonological similarity with some important divergences.

For example, the following phonemes are reportedly found in Morley Stoney, spoken on the Morley Reserve:

Morley Stoney consonants[15]
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Stops p, b t, d k, g
Affricates t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ
Fricatives s, z ʃ, ʒ ħ, ɦ h
Nasals m n
Glides w j
Morley Stoney vowels[16]
Front Central Back
High i, ĩ u, ũ
Mid e o
Low a, ã

For comparison, these phonemes reportedly characterize the Stoney spoken at the Alexis Reserve, which maintains the common Siouan three-way contrast[17] between plain, aspirated, and ejective stops:

Alexis Stoney consonants[18]
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Stops b, p, p' d, t, t' g, k, k' ʔ
Affricates d͡ʒ, t͡ʃ, t͡ʃ'
Fricatives s, z ʃ, ʒ x, ɣ h
Nasals m n
Glides w j

Notice that Alexis Stoney, for example, has innovated contrastive vowel length, which is not found in other Dakotan dialects.[19] Alexis Stoney also has long and nasal mid vowels:[20]

Alexis Stoney vowels[21]
Front Central Back
High i, ī, ĩ u, ū, ũ
Mid e, ē, ẽ o, ō, õ
Low a, ā, ã

Word Set (includes numbers)[edit]

  • One — Wazhi
  • Two — Nûm
  • Three — Yamnî
  • Four — Ktusa
  • Five — Zaptâ
  • Man — Wîca
  • Woman — Wîyâ
  • Sun — Wa
  • Moon — Hâwi
  • Water — Mini

Phonetic differences from other Dakotan languages[edit]

The following table shows some of the main phonetic differences between Stoney, Assiniboine), and the three dialects (Lakota, Yankton-Yanktonai and Santee-Sisseton) of Sioux.[22][23]

Sioux Assiniboine Stoney
Lakota Western Dakota Eastern Dakota gloss
Yanktonai Yankton Sisseton Santee
Lakȟóta Dakȟóta Dakhóta Nakhóta Nakhóda self-designation
lowáŋ dowáŋ dowáŋ nowáŋ to sing
assertion
čísčila čísčina čístina čúsina čúsin small
hokšíla hokšína hokšína hokšída hokšína hokšín boy
gnayáŋ gnayáŋ knayáŋ hnayáŋ knayáŋ hna to deceive
glépa gdépa kdépa hdépa knépa hnéba to vomit
kigná kigná kikná kihná kikná gihná to soothe
slayá sdayá sdayá snayá snayá to grease
wičháša wičháša wičhášta wičhášta wičhá man
kibléza kibdéza kibdéza kimnéza gimnéza to sober up
yatkáŋ yatkáŋ yatkáŋ yatkáŋ yatkáŋ to drink
žé žé that

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stoney at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Stoney". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Parks, Douglas R.; Rankin, Robert L. (2001). "Siouan languages". In DeMaille, Raymond J.; Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13: Plains. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 94–114. 
  4. ^ Parks, D. R.; DeMallie, R. J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: a Classification". Anthropological Linguistics 34 (1-4): 233–255. 
  5. ^ Taylor, Alan R. (1981). "Variation in Canadian Assiniboine". Siouan and Caddoan Linguistics Newsletter. 
  6. ^ Parks, D. R.; DeMallie, R. J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: a Classification". Anthropological Linguistics 34 (1-4): 233–255. 
  7. ^ Parks, D. R.; DeMallie, R. J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: a Classification". Anthropological Linguistics 34 (1-4): 233–255. 
  8. ^ Andersen, Raoul R. (1968). An inquiry into the political and economic structures of the Alexis band of Wood Stoney Indians, 1880-1964. Columbia: University of Missouri PhD dissertation. 
  9. ^ Taylor, Alan R. (1981). "Variation in Canadian Assiniboine". Siouan and Caddoan Linguistics Newsletter. 
  10. ^ Cook, Eung-Do; Owens, Camille C. (1991). "Conservative and innovative features in Alexis Stoney". Papers from the American Indian languages conferences held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, July and August 1991.: 135–146. 
  11. ^ DeMallie, Raymond; Miller, David Reed (2001). "Assiniboine". In DeMaille, Raymond J.; Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13: Plains. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 572–595. 
  12. ^ Parks, Douglas R.; Rankin, Robert L. (2001). "Siouan languages". In DeMaille, Raymond J.; Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13: Plains. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 94–114. 
  13. ^ Cook, Eung-Do; Owens, Camille C. (1991). "Conservative and innovative features in Alexis Stoney". Papers from the American Indian languages conferences held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, July and August 1991.: 135–146. 
  14. ^ Erdman, Corrie Lee Rhyasen (1997). Stress in Stoney. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  15. ^ Bellam, Ernest Jay (1975). Studies in Stoney phonology and morphology. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  16. ^ Bellam, Ernest Jay (1975). Studies in Stoney phonology and morphology. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  17. ^ Parks, Douglas R.; Rankin, Robert L. (2001). "Siouan languages". In DeMaille, Raymond J.; Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13: Plains. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 94–114. 
  18. ^ Erdman, Corrie Lee Rhyasen (1997). Stress in Stoney. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  19. ^ Cook, Eung-Do; Owens, Camille C. (1991). "Conservative and innovative features in Alexis Stoney". Papers from the American Indian languages conferences held at the University of California, Santa Cruz, July and August 1991: 135–146. 
  20. ^ Erdman, Corrie Lee Rhyasen (1997). Stress in Stoney. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  21. ^ Erdman, Corrie Lee Rhyasen (1997). Stress in Stoney. Calgary: University of Calgary MA thesis. 
  22. ^ Ullrich, Jan (2008). New Lakota Dictionary (Incorporating the Dakota Dialects of Yankton-Yanktonai and Santee-Sisseton). Lakota Language Consortium. p. 4. ISBN 0-9761082-9-1.  To be precise, Ullrich states that Stoney "is completely unintelligible to Lakota and Dakota speakers", while Assiniboine is not comprehensible to them, "unless they have been exposed to it extensively" (p. 2).
  23. ^ Parks, D. R.; DeMallie, R. J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: a Classification". Anthropological Linguistics 34 (1-4): 233–255. 

External links[edit]